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PETE 310

Lecture # 15
Properties of Black Oils
Definitions
(pages 224-240)
Phase Diagram of a
Black Oil Reservoir
Temperature
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
Initial Reservoir
Conditions
CP
Path of Production
Separator Conditions
25%
50% 75%
Properties of Black Oils Needed for
Reservoir Engineering Calculations:

Formation Volume Factor of oil Bo

Total Formation Volume Factor of oil Bt

Solution Gas oil Ratio Rs

Coefficient of Isothermal Compressibility Co


Properties of Black Oils Needed for
Reservoir Engineering Calculations:

Coefficient of isobaric thermal expansion |
o

Oil Viscosity
o

Interfacial Tension

Learning Goals
Understand the behavior of those PVT
properties (Bo,Rs,) vs P and type of
fluid (now)
Evaluate PVT properties from (later)
Field data
Laboratory studies
Correlations
Definitions
Specific gravity of a liquid



API gravity

) , (
) , (
1 1
1 1
T P
T P
w
o
o

=
135
5 . 141

=
o
o
API
Definitions
Formation Volume Factor of Oil

Gas out of
Solution
Reservoir (P,T)
Surface (Ps,Ts)
Definitions
Volume of Oil + Dissolved gas
Bo = at Reservoir Pressure & Temp.
Volume of Oil entering Stock
tank at Tsc, Psc
Units = Reservoir barrels (bbl) /Stock tank barrels (STB)
General Shape of Bo
Bo
Reservoir Pressure
Pb
Reservoir T = constant
Solution Gas Oil Ratio (Rs)
How much gas is dissolved in the oil
volume per volume basis
Rs depends upon pressure
Units [= ] SCF gas /STB oil
General Shape of Solution Gas
Oil Ratio (Rs)
Rs
Reservoir Pressure
Pb
Reservoir T = constant
Total Formation Volume Factor Bt
Hg
Oil
B
ob
Hg
Gas
Oil B
o
B
g
(R
sb
-R
s
)
P
b
Definition of Bt
Also called Two-phase formation
volume factor
( )
s sb g o t
R R B B B + =
Units

bbl/STB + bbl/SCF * (SCF/STB)

General Shape of Bt
B
o
,

B
t

Reservoir Pressure
Pb
Reservoir T = constant
Bt=Bo
Bt
Bo


S
e
p
a
r
a
t
o
r

g
a
s

gas gas
Decreasing Pressure
S
e
p
a
r
a
t
o
r

g
a
s

S
e
p
a
r
a
t
o
r

g
a
s

gas
Standard
Conditions
S
e
p
a
r
a
t
o
r

g
a
s

S
e
p
a
r
a
t
o
r

g
a
s

oil

oil

oil

oil

oil

STB

STB
STB STB
Standard
Conditions
B
g
=
R
v
=
B
o
=
R
s
=
P
2

P
1
P
4
P
3
Reservoir

Definition of Oil & Gas PVT Properties
The Coefficient of Isothermal
Compressibility of Oil
Provides Instantaneous change of
volume with P at constant T
( )
A
T
A A o
P
V
V
T P C
(

c
c
=
1
,
Also with molar volume
and specific volume
(Use in Steam Injection Processes)
Coefficient of Thermal
Expansion
Thermal Expansion
S
p
e
c
i
f
i
c

V
o
l
u
m
e
Temperature
AV
AT
P
Oil Viscosity
Viscosity is a measure of the resistance
to flow exerted by a fluid
This is called dynamic viscosity and has
units of
centipoise = g mass / 100 sec cm
Kinematic viscosity is viscosity / density,
units are in
centistokes = centipoise /g/cc
Needs of Crude Oil Viscosity
Calculation of two-phase flow
Gas-lift and pipeline design
Calculate oil recovery either from
natural depletion or from recovery
techniques such as waterflooding
and gas-injection processes
Variation of Oil Viscosity
O
i
l

V
i
s
c
o
s
i
t
y


T = constant
P
b

Single Phase Flow

Two Phase Flow
Gas Out of
Solution