Truth Tables for Negation, Conjunction, and Disjunction

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Truth Tables for Negation, Conjunction, and Disjunction

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Math 121

Truth Tables

A truth table is used to determine when a compound statement is true or false. They are used to break a complicated compound statement into simple, easier to understand parts.

P Case 1 ~P

T

F

F

T

Case 2

As you can see P is a true statement then its negation ~P or not P is false. If P is false, then ~P is true.

When a compound statement involves two simple statements P and Q, there are four possible cases for the combined truth values of P and Q.

P Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Case 4 T T F Q T F T

Suppose I tell the class, You can retake the last exam and you can turn in this lab late. Let P be You can retake the last exam and Q be You can turn in this lab late. Which truth values for P and Q make it so that I kept my promise, P Q to the class?

P: You can retake the last exam. Q: You can turn this lab in late.

There are four possibilities. 1. P true and Q true, then P Q is true. 2. P true and Q false, then P Q is false. 3. P false and Q true, then P Q is false. 4. P false and Q false, then P Q is false.

P

Case 1 T

Q

T

PQ

T F F

Case 2

Case 3 Case 4

T

F

F

T

3.2 Question 1

What is the truth value of the statement, WVU is in Arizona and Morgantown is in West Virginia? 1. True 2. False

Suppose I tell the class that for this unit you will receive full credit if You do the homework quiz or you do the lab. Let P be the statement You do the homework quiz, and let Q be the statement You do the lab. For which truth values of P and Q would I say that you did what I said, which is PVQ to receive full credit for this unit?

P: You do the homework quiz. Q: You do the lab.

There are four possibilities: 1. P true and Q true, then P V Q is true. 2. P true and Q false, then P V Q is true. 3. P false and Q true, then P V Q is true. 4. P false and Q false, then P V Q is false.

PVQ

T T T

P

Case 1 T

Q

T

Case 2

Case 3 Case 4

T

F

F

T

3.2 Question 2

What is the truth value of the statement, WVU is in Arizona or Morgantown is in West Virginia? 1. True 2. False

You can remember the truth tables for ~(not),

~(not) - Truth value is always the opposite (and)-Always false, except when both are true

Lets look at making truth tables for a statement involving only ONE or V of simple statements P and Q and possibly negated simple statements ~P and ~Q. For example, lets make a truth table for the statement ~PVQ

P T T F F Q T F T F ~P F F T T

Opposite of Column 1

V

T F T T

Final Answer column

Q

T F T F

Same as Column 2

Another Example: P ~Q

P T T F F Q T F T F P T T F F

Same as Column 1

F T F F

Final Answer column

~Q

F T F T

Opposite of Column 2

3.2 Question 3

What is the answer column in the truth table of the statement ~P ~Q ? 1. T 2. T 3. F F F F F T F F F T

~P ~Q

P T T F F Q T F T F ~P F F T T

Opposite of Column 1

F F F T

Final Answer column

~Q

F T F T

Opposite of Column 2

Now suppose we want to make a truth table for a more complicated statement, (PV~Q) V (~PQ) We set the truth table up as before. Our final answer will go under the most dominant connective not in parentheses (the one in the middle)

T T T T F

T

F F

F

T F

T

F

T

F

T

F

T

T

F

T

F

T

F

T

F

Same as Column 1

T

OR

T

Opposite of Column 2

T

Final Answer

T

Opposite of Column 1

F

AND

F

Same as Column 2

Now lets make a truth table for (P V ~Q) (~P Q) Each of the statements in parentheses ( P V ~Q) and (~P Q) are just like the statements we did previously, so we fill in their truth tables as we just did.

T T T T F

T

F F

F

T F

T

F

T

F

T

F

F

F

F

T

F

T

F

T

F

Same as Column 1

T

OR

T

Opposite of Column 2

F

Final Answer

T

Opposite of Column 1

F

AND

F

Same as Column 2

So far all the compound statements we have considered have contained only two simple statements (P and Q), with only four true-false possibilities. P Case 1 Case 2 T T Q T F

Case 3

Case 4

F

F

T

F

When a compound statement consists of three simple statements (P, Q, and R), there are now eight possible true-false combinations.

Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Case 4 Case 5 Case 6 Case 7 Case 8

P T T T T F F F F Q T T F F T T F F R T F T F T F T F

Let,s construct a truth table for the statement (P V Q) ~R using the same techniques as before.

T T T T F F F F T T F F T T F F T F T F T F T F T T T T F F F F T T T T T T F F T T F F T T F F F T F T F T F F F T F T F T F T

Practice

Determine the Truth Value for the statement IF:

P is true, Q is false, and R is true

(~ P V ~ Q) (~R V ~ P)

Practice

Translate into symbols. Then construct a truth table and indicate under what conditions the compound statement is TRUE. Tanisha owns a convertible and Joan does not own a Volvo.

Practice

Construct a Truth Table for the following compound statement: R V(P ~ Q)

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