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Section 3.

2: Truth Tables for Negation, Conjunction, and Disjunction


Math 121

Truth Tables
A truth table is used to determine when a compound statement is true or false. They are used to break a complicated compound statement into simple, easier to understand parts.

Truth Table for Negation


P Case 1 ~P

T
F

F
T

Case 2

As you can see P is a true statement then its negation ~P or not P is false. If P is false, then ~P is true.

Four Possible Cases


When a compound statement involves two simple statements P and Q, there are four possible cases for the combined truth values of P and Q.
P Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Case 4 T T F Q T F T

When is a Conjunction True?


Suppose I tell the class, You can retake the last exam and you can turn in this lab late. Let P be You can retake the last exam and Q be You can turn in this lab late. Which truth values for P and Q make it so that I kept my promise, P Q to the class?

When is a Conjunction True? contd.


P: You can retake the last exam. Q: You can turn this lab in late.
There are four possibilities. 1. P true and Q true, then P Q is true. 2. P true and Q false, then P Q is false. 3. P false and Q true, then P Q is false. 4. P false and Q false, then P Q is false.

Truth Table for Conjunction

P
Case 1 T

Q
T

PQ
T F F

Case 2
Case 3 Case 4

T
F

F
T

3.2 Question 1
What is the truth value of the statement, WVU is in Arizona and Morgantown is in West Virginia? 1. True 2. False

When is Disjunction True?


Suppose I tell the class that for this unit you will receive full credit if You do the homework quiz or you do the lab. Let P be the statement You do the homework quiz, and let Q be the statement You do the lab. For which truth values of P and Q would I say that you did what I said, which is PVQ to receive full credit for this unit?

When is Disjunction True? contd.


P: You do the homework quiz. Q: You do the lab.
There are four possibilities: 1. P true and Q true, then P V Q is true. 2. P true and Q false, then P V Q is true. 3. P false and Q true, then P V Q is true. 4. P false and Q false, then P V Q is false.

Truth Table for Disjunction


PVQ
T T T

P
Case 1 T

Q
T

Case 2
Case 3 Case 4

T
F

F
T

3.2 Question 2
What is the truth value of the statement, WVU is in Arizona or Morgantown is in West Virginia? 1. True 2. False

Truth Table Summary


You can remember the truth tables for ~(not),

(and), and, V(or) by remembering the following:


~(not) - Truth value is always the opposite (and)-Always false, except when both are true

V(or) - Always true, except when both are false

Making a Truth Table Example


Lets look at making truth tables for a statement involving only ONE or V of simple statements P and Q and possibly negated simple statements ~P and ~Q. For example, lets make a truth table for the statement ~PVQ

Truth Table for ~PVQ


P T T F F Q T F T F ~P F F T T
Opposite of Column 1

V
T F T T
Final Answer column

Q
T F T F
Same as Column 2

Another Example: P ~Q
P T T F F Q T F T F P T T F F
Same as Column 1

F T F F
Final Answer column

~Q
F T F T
Opposite of Column 2

3.2 Question 3
What is the answer column in the truth table of the statement ~P ~Q ? 1. T 2. T 3. F F F F F T F F F T

~P ~Q
P T T F F Q T F T F ~P F F T T
Opposite of Column 1

F F F T
Final Answer column

~Q
F T F T
Opposite of Column 2

More Complicated Truth Tables


Now suppose we want to make a truth table for a more complicated statement, (PV~Q) V (~PQ) We set the truth table up as before. Our final answer will go under the most dominant connective not in parentheses (the one in the middle)

More Complicated Truth Tables P Q (P ~Q) (~P Q)


T T T T F

T
F F

F
T F

T
F

T
F

T
F

T
T

F
T

F
T

F
T

F
Same as Column 1

T
OR

T
Opposite of Column 2

T
Final Answer

T
Opposite of Column 1

F
AND

F
Same as Column 2

More Complicated Truth Tables


Now lets make a truth table for (P V ~Q) (~P Q) Each of the statements in parentheses ( P V ~Q) and (~P Q) are just like the statements we did previously, so we fill in their truth tables as we just did.

More Complicated Truth Tables P Q (P ~Q) (~P Q)


T T T T F

T
F F

F
T F

T
F

T
F

T
F

F
F

F
T

F
T

F
T

F
Same as Column 1

T
OR

T
Opposite of Column 2

F
Final Answer

T
Opposite of Column 1

F
AND

F
Same as Column 2

Constructing Truth Tables with Three Simple Statements


So far all the compound statements we have considered have contained only two simple statements (P and Q), with only four true-false possibilities. P Case 1 Case 2 T T Q T F

Case 3
Case 4

F
F

T
F

Constructing Truth Tables with Three Simple Statements contd.


When a compound statement consists of three simple statements (P, Q, and R), there are now eight possible true-false combinations.

Constructing Truth Tables with Three Simple Statements contd.


Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Case 4 Case 5 Case 6 Case 7 Case 8
P T T T T F F F F Q T T F F T T F F R T F T F T F T F

A Three Statement Example

Let,s construct a truth table for the statement (P V Q) ~R using the same techniques as before.

A Three Statement Example P Q R (P Q) ~R


T T T T F F F F T T F F T T F F T F T F T F T F T T T T F F F F T T T T T T F F T T F F T T F F F T F T F T F F F T F T F T F T

Practice
Determine the Truth Value for the statement IF:
P is true, Q is false, and R is true

(~ P V ~ Q) (~R V ~ P)

Practice
Translate into symbols. Then construct a truth table and indicate under what conditions the compound statement is TRUE. Tanisha owns a convertible and Joan does not own a Volvo.

Practice
Construct a Truth Table for the following compound statement: R V(P ~ Q)