You are on page 1of 30

# Section 3.

## 2: Truth Tables for Negation, Conjunction, and Disjunction

Math 121

Truth Tables
A truth table is used to determine when a compound statement is true or false. They are used to break a complicated compound statement into simple, easier to understand parts.

## Truth Table for Negation

P Case 1 ~P

T
F

F
T

Case 2

As you can see P is a true statement then its negation ~P or not P is false. If P is false, then ~P is true.

## Four Possible Cases

When a compound statement involves two simple statements P and Q, there are four possible cases for the combined truth values of P and Q.
P Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Case 4 T T F Q T F T

## When is a Conjunction True?

Suppose I tell the class, You can retake the last exam and you can turn in this lab late. Let P be You can retake the last exam and Q be You can turn in this lab late. Which truth values for P and Q make it so that I kept my promise, P Q to the class?

## When is a Conjunction True? contd.

P: You can retake the last exam. Q: You can turn this lab in late.
There are four possibilities. 1. P true and Q true, then P Q is true. 2. P true and Q false, then P Q is false. 3. P false and Q true, then P Q is false. 4. P false and Q false, then P Q is false.

## Truth Table for Conjunction

P
Case 1 T

Q
T

PQ
T F F

Case 2
Case 3 Case 4

T
F

F
T

3.2 Question 1
What is the truth value of the statement, WVU is in Arizona and Morgantown is in West Virginia? 1. True 2. False

## When is Disjunction True?

Suppose I tell the class that for this unit you will receive full credit if You do the homework quiz or you do the lab. Let P be the statement You do the homework quiz, and let Q be the statement You do the lab. For which truth values of P and Q would I say that you did what I said, which is PVQ to receive full credit for this unit?

## When is Disjunction True? contd.

P: You do the homework quiz. Q: You do the lab.
There are four possibilities: 1. P true and Q true, then P V Q is true. 2. P true and Q false, then P V Q is true. 3. P false and Q true, then P V Q is true. 4. P false and Q false, then P V Q is false.

## Truth Table for Disjunction

PVQ
T T T

P
Case 1 T

Q
T

Case 2
Case 3 Case 4

T
F

F
T

3.2 Question 2
What is the truth value of the statement, WVU is in Arizona or Morgantown is in West Virginia? 1. True 2. False

## Truth Table Summary

You can remember the truth tables for ~(not),

## (and), and, V(or) by remembering the following:

~(not) - Truth value is always the opposite (and)-Always false, except when both are true

## Making a Truth Table Example

Lets look at making truth tables for a statement involving only ONE or V of simple statements P and Q and possibly negated simple statements ~P and ~Q. For example, lets make a truth table for the statement ~PVQ

## Truth Table for ~PVQ

P T T F F Q T F T F ~P F F T T
Opposite of Column 1

V
T F T T

Q
T F T F
Same as Column 2

Another Example: P ~Q
P T T F F Q T F T F P T T F F
Same as Column 1

F T F F

~Q
F T F T
Opposite of Column 2

3.2 Question 3
What is the answer column in the truth table of the statement ~P ~Q ? 1. T 2. T 3. F F F F F T F F F T

~P ~Q
P T T F F Q T F T F ~P F F T T
Opposite of Column 1

F F F T

~Q
F T F T
Opposite of Column 2

## More Complicated Truth Tables

Now suppose we want to make a truth table for a more complicated statement, (PV~Q) V (~PQ) We set the truth table up as before. Our final answer will go under the most dominant connective not in parentheses (the one in the middle)

## More Complicated Truth Tables P Q (P ~Q) (~P Q)

T T T T F

T
F F

F
T F

T
F

T
F

T
F

T
T

F
T

F
T

F
T

F
Same as Column 1

T
OR

T
Opposite of Column 2

T

T
Opposite of Column 1

F
AND

F
Same as Column 2

## More Complicated Truth Tables

Now lets make a truth table for (P V ~Q) (~P Q) Each of the statements in parentheses ( P V ~Q) and (~P Q) are just like the statements we did previously, so we fill in their truth tables as we just did.

## More Complicated Truth Tables P Q (P ~Q) (~P Q)

T T T T F

T
F F

F
T F

T
F

T
F

T
F

F
F

F
T

F
T

F
T

F
Same as Column 1

T
OR

T
Opposite of Column 2

F

T
Opposite of Column 1

F
AND

F
Same as Column 2

## Constructing Truth Tables with Three Simple Statements

So far all the compound statements we have considered have contained only two simple statements (P and Q), with only four true-false possibilities. P Case 1 Case 2 T T Q T F

Case 3
Case 4

F
F

T
F

## Constructing Truth Tables with Three Simple Statements contd.

When a compound statement consists of three simple statements (P, Q, and R), there are now eight possible true-false combinations.

## Constructing Truth Tables with Three Simple Statements contd.

Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Case 4 Case 5 Case 6 Case 7 Case 8
P T T T T F F F F Q T T F F T T F F R T F T F T F T F

## A Three Statement Example

Let,s construct a truth table for the statement (P V Q) ~R using the same techniques as before.

## A Three Statement Example P Q R (P Q) ~R

T T T T F F F F T T F F T T F F T F T F T F T F T T T T F F F F T T T T T T F F T T F F T T F F F T F T F T F F F T F T F T F T

Practice
Determine the Truth Value for the statement IF:
P is true, Q is false, and R is true

(~ P V ~ Q) (~R V ~ P)

Practice
Translate into symbols. Then construct a truth table and indicate under what conditions the compound statement is TRUE. Tanisha owns a convertible and Joan does not own a Volvo.

Practice
Construct a Truth Table for the following compound statement: R V(P ~ Q)