Practical Considerations For Air Monitoring With Emphasis On Direct Reading Real Time Monitors

Occupational Hygiene Association of Ontario Spring Symposium By: Jamie Prince B.Sc, OHST, ROHT General Motors of Canada Limited

OUTLINE
• What Can Be Measured • Sampling Strategies • Types of Sampling Equipment • Examples of Real Time Monitors • Advantages/Disadvantages of Real Time
Air Monitoring • Real Time Air Monitoring Examples • Conclusions

PHYSICAL/CHEMICAL STATES
• solids: dust, fibres, fume, smoke • liquids: mist, aerosols • gases: vapours
remember: gas

solid

liquid

Size of the particulate formed are less than 1 micron in diameter. • Smoke. • Fumes. its made up of carbon or soot particles. .1 to 25 microns. Particles 5 microns and larger don’t usually remain airborne to present an inhalation hazard.airborne solid particles ranging in size from 0. Can vary in size.material from a volatized solid condenses in cool air.from incomplete combustion of carbon containing materials.7 TYPES OF CONTAMINANTS • Dusts.

atmosphere. • Vapours.liquid droplets or solid particles.are “formless fluids” that expand to fill the space or enclosure in which they are confined. • Mists. .liquid droplets suspended in the • Gases.7 TYPES OF CONTAMINANTS • Aerosols. fine enough to remain dispersed in air for a prolonged period.are the volatile form of substances that are usually in the liquid or solid state at room temperature and pressure.

talc) • fibrous or non-fibrous • polar/non polar .PHYSICAL/CHEMICAL STATES • size: respirable (less than 10 μm) fibres (length & diameter) • chemical charge (CrIII or CrVI) • solubility (Ni) • crystal structure (silica.

) often have thousands of components • sometimes “marker” substances measured (like CO) – if a “marker” is used. etc. VOC’s). but usually no TWAEV . the TWAEV for the marker substance is not applicable! • can be sampled as a group (e.g.MIXTURES • decomposition products (smoke.

MIXTURES • Measuring each of the thousands of constituents in decomposition products would be a chemist’s nightmare • almost all of the constituents will be well below individual TWAEV’s • even summing the TWAEV’s seldom exceeds summed TWAEV criteria • Combinations: – Vapour condensing on particles – vapour absorbed by liquid aerosols – liquid evaporating from aerosol/particulate .

SO YOU WANT TO SAMPLE? Then answer the 5 W’s and 3 H’s: • Why? • What? • Who? • When? • Where? • How? • How many? • How long? .

SAMPLING STRATEGIES WHY? • Reactive Sampling. New Process. Source Identification Employee Concerns: What’s causing the complaints/symptoms • Compliance Sampling. DSR • Proactive Sampling • Engineering Control Verification .

ALTERNATIVES TO SAMPLING • Eliminate the source • Add engineering controls • Use odour and irritation thresholds • Hazard mapping. use employee experiences • Computer modelling .

work practices • Exposure: IH measurements • Uptake: symptoms. diagnosis . blood/urine samples • Target: clinical tests. enclosure • Path: ventilation evaluation.EXPOSURE CONTINUUM source > path > exposure > uptake > target Try to move as far to the left of the continuum as possible (prevention!) • Source: substitution.

direct reading real time. long term (TWAEV). STEV). grab (series) • Method: “quick and dirty” (colourimetric). statistically representative. sequential. staged (simulated). area.SAMPLING STRATEGIES WHAT? • Type: bulk. personal • Time: short term (CEV. random (unbiased). cumulative exposures . official (NIOSH etc) • Conditions: worst case. regular work shift. • Number: “one shot”.

temp. cross drafts • shift. activity levels • individual work practices. traffic. production schedules.WHO WHEN WHERE? What workplace variables cause exposures to go up or down? • weather (season. humidity. man cooling fans . wind) • doors & windows. rates • ventilation in other areas of plant • housekeeping.

SAMPLING CONDITIONS • make sure important variables are addressed in strategy • keep records of conditions during sampling • start & finish times • production levels • ventilation (doors. local & general) • workers’ opinion if sampling period is representative of better than average. normal. worse than normal conditions . windows.

dositubes) • Passive Absorption Badges: Organic • Pumps: Vapours. (charcoal. particulates. formaldehyde. aerosols and fibers – sorbent tubes. silica gel. – Liquid samplers (impingers) for vapours. specialized) for gases and vapours.HOW? TYPES OF SAMPLING EQUIPMENT • Colourimetric (Draeger tubes. aerosols . other gases and vapours – filter cassettes (with or without cyclones or impacters) for particulates.

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Dust Trak – Fibers: FAM (Fibrous Aerosol Monitor) asbestos – FID and PID (data-logging) for organic compounds – Inorganic gases and vapours. H2S – Paper Tape for isocyanates – Lead Niton X-ray fluorescence – Indoor Air Quality multi-function monitors • Gases/Vapours . CO. mercury.• Particulates TYPES OF REAL TIME AIR MONITORS – Total particulates/aerosols (data-logging): DataRam. CO2.

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HOW MANY? How Many Samples Do You Need To Take? • Compliance sampling needs a large number of representative samples over a long period of time – use traditional sampling methods • Worst case sampling may require only a few samples over a short period – direct reading or real time may be required • Type of hazard may determine how many and for how long – peak exposures. short term acute hazards. length of peaks. does it come and go .

HOW LONG? • Lowest detectable quantity • Don’t overload sample media • Short sample period for acute hazards • Chronic hazard may need full shift • Peaks need data-logging. real time direct reading or short term sequential samples • IDLH for confined space needs immediate answer • Leak detection needs direct reading .

continued refusal to work. loss of production Inability to Determine STEL and Ceiling Values. short term maintenance jobs 90% of all long term samples were less than 10% of any EEG. chance of • exposing employees to hazardous levels Inability to answer employee concerns. however employees continued to complain. especially of irritation Ineffective use of Hygienist’s time • • • . ie.DISADVANTAGES OF LONG TERM SAMPLING • Analysis and Feedback time too long.

can see exposure on meter Ability to determine time vs concentration with data-logging instruments Ability to determine STEL and Ceiling Values Quick determination of how changes to process or engineering controls affect employee exposures More efficient use of hygienist’s time . ease of mind Employee trust.ADVANTAGES OF REAL TIME • Instant feedback of exposure levels to • • • • • hygienist and employees.

silica. asbestos Accuracy . TOHC’s . Water Vapour Method may not be accepted by Government Difficult or unable to Calibrate Assuming dust monitor detects all particle sizes equally well Cannot usually be used for compliance sampling. CO. lead.DISADVANTAGES OF REAL TIME AIR MONITORS • Specificity of monitor • Interpretation of results. employee • • • • • • misunderstanding Interferences. isocyanates.

REAL TIME INSTRUMENTS • CENTURY SYSTEMS OVA TOHC • RIKIN 411 CO2 MONITOR • DRAEGER CO DATALOGGER • MINIRAM. TP • DATARAM TP DATALOGGER • REUTER STOKES WIBGET • GMD AUTOSTEP (CAP) ISOCYANATES • TOXIRAE PID TOHC’S • SOLOMAT IAQ MONITOR .

SEALER REMOVAL SOLVENT INSTRUMENT.35-40 ppm peaks TWA 100 ppm 2--50-60 ppm peaks TWA 100 ppm 3--35-40 ppm peaks TWA 100 ppm 4--20-30 ppm peaks TWA 100 ppm 5---85-100 ppm peaks TWA 400 ppm .CENTURY SYSTEMS OVA • Sealer removal from car in open area • which solvent had lowest exposure levels • FP and VP not useful – – – – – • Solvent 4 or 5 recommended • Solvent 4 chosen because of higher FP solvent solvent solvent solvent solvent 1.

DRAEGER CO DATALOGGER • CO buildup suspected for new driving and parking procedures on flat top conveyor – – • Determined that new procedures did increase CO levels data-logged in various areas ventilation on and off CO levels data-logged while different procedures were used for idling cars while parked CO to hazardous levels in one area. • Immediate ventilation system changes reduced maximum CO levels to non hazardous levels .FLAT TOP CO INSTRUMENT.

A 128 . south of Col. A1 128 Area sample between centre and south lines north of Col.10 Care Line CO Levels (02/28/97) 9 8 7 6 ppm CO 5 4 3 2 1 0 10 :3 0 10 :3 4 10 :3 8 10 :4 2 10 :4 6 10 :5 0 10 :5 4 10 :5 8 11 :0 2 11 :0 6 11 :1 0 11 :1 4 11 :1 8 11 :2 2 11 :2 6 11 :3 0 11 :3 4 11 :3 8 11 :4 2 11 :4 6 11 :5 0 11 :5 4 11 :5 8 12 :0 2 12 :0 6 12 :1 0 12 :1 4 12 :1 8 12 :2 2 12 :2 6 12 :3 0 Area sample between north and centre lines. A 126 Area sample between north and centre lines south od Col. A1 126 Area sample between centre and south lines north of Col.

and blow back Lower air pressure decreased exposures .COAST CLUTCH BLOWOFF INSTRUMENT-DATARAM AEROSOL MONITOR • Using compressed air to blow off and clean • • Transmission parts. – Total particulates data-logged while blowing off parts in general work area – TP’s data-logged with part held in ventilated box Determined box increased exposures since exhaust in box too low. Does ventilated box and lower air pressure reduce exposures.

6 0.4 0.TP (mg/m3) 0.8 0.2 0.7 0.5 0.3 0.9 0 Parts Blow-off Investigation 9: 10 :0 0 9: 10 :2 0 9: 10 :4 0 9: 11 :0 0 9: 11 :2 0 9: 11 :4 0 9: 12 :0 0 9: 12 :2 0 9: 12 :4 0 9: 13 :0 0 9: 13 :2 0 9: 13 :4 0 9: 14 :0 0 9: 14 :2 0 9: 14 :4 0 9: 15 :0 0 9: 15 :2 0 9: 15 :4 0 9: 16 :0 0 9: 16 :2 0 9: 16 :4 0 9: 17 :0 0 9: 17 :2 0 .1 0.

disabled rheostats • Rec’d not to lean over applied prime .BLACK PRIME INSTRUMENT-CENTURY SYSTEMS OVA • Black prime with MEK applied to window openings on ventilated ramp. employees complain of irritation and odours • How did casablanca fan speed and application method affect exposures – MEK levels taken in BZ and general area with fans on high 3X higher than fans on low – MEK peak levels taken In BZ while leaning over applied prime 4X higher than when furthest part of window was primed first • Set fans to low speed.

PAINT SPRAYING INSTRUMENT. but employees continued to complain of irritation and odours – sampled BZ while spraying across from each other. found peaks below 10 ppm • Recommended that paint sprayers in all booths stagger their paint spraying .CENTURY SYSTEMS OVA • Employees paint spraying rear of vehicle • Long term test showed paint solvent exposures <5 ppm. found peaks of 200 ppm TOHC from overspray – sampled BZ while staggering their spraying.

METAL WORKING FLUIDS INSTRUMENT.MINIRAM AEROSOL MONITOR • Employees working on machining line complaining of irritation. all equipment ventilated – Miniram used to survey BZ and general work area – Levels in area rose slowly as machining progressed – followed plume of mist back to one faulty filter – after filter repaired. levels remained low • Recommended preventative maintenance on filters of ventilation equipment .

METAL WORKING FLUIDS INSTRUMENT(S). – Results plotted on an Excel Spreadsheet.DATARAM AEROSOL MONITOR & TSI DUSTRAC • Total Particulate Levels Required to Determine Need For Engineering Controls – Total Particulate Mapping of Component Manufacturing Plants on a 6mX 6m Grid. – Contour Chart Overlaid on Plant Layout. Chart of Exposure Levels (Contour) Printed on Overhead. – Areas of Higher Exposure Targeted for Improvement – Engineering Controls installed – Plant is Remapped to Determine Improvement .

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can the problem be solved • • another way? Ensure your sampling strategy is right.Conclusions • Is sampling necessary. Real time air monitoring benefits include: – ability to determine patterns of exposure – ability to quickly evaluate engineering or process control changes – reasonably determine potential of exposure to cause adverse health effects – dollar savings from reduction of lab analysis and hygienist’s time being used more effectively .