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SUBMITTED BY :-
1.ABHINAV PANDEY 2.ABHISHEY KUMAR 3.ANUPAM AGRAWAL 4.AWASH AGARWAL
SHAMBHUNATH INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY JHALWA , ALLAHABAD 2010-2011
1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 About project 1.2 Feature 1.2 Components used 2. COMPONENTS USED 2.1 Transformer 2.2 Comparator 2.3 Transistor 2.4 Variable Resistance 2.5 Resistance 2.6 Capacitance 2.7 Zener diode 2.8 Diode 2.9 Relay 2.10 Switches 2.11 Fuse 3. WORKING 3.1 Working of circuit diagram 3.2 Application
one for each of three phases are used.ABOUT PROJECT THIS IS A VERY UNIQUE PROJECT. ARE DESIGNING AN AUTOMATIC PHASE CHANGER Automation plays a predominant role in the modern scientific world . comparator. transistor & relay. Automatic phase changer finds application in small offices. residences where single phase equipments are used during phase failure. The circuit is built around a transformer. . this unit automatically take the available phase lines and distribute to the non-available phase lines. Three identical sets of the circuit.
• CAN SELECT TO SUIT YOUR REQUIREMENT. • AUTOMATICALLY CHANGES FROM LOW VOLTAGE LINE TO PROPER VOLTAGE LINE.IT’S FEATURE • INSTANT AUTOMATIC PHASE CHANGE WHEN ANY PHASE FAILS. • CAN GET ELECTRIC SUPPLY IN ALL THREE PHASE LINES. . • AVOIDS PHYSICAL OPERATION AND SUFFERING. • NEED NOT MONITOR FOR SWITCH BACK. • QUALITY COMPONENTS ARE USED TO PROVIDE 100% EFFICIENCY.
TRANSFORMER 2. COMPARATOR 3. ZENER DIODE 8. RESISTANCE 6. SWITCH 11. TRANSISTOR 4. CAPACITANCE 7. DIODE 9.COMPONENTS USED 1. VARIABLE RESISTANCE 5. RELAY 10. FUSE .
THE PHYSICAL BASIS OF A TRANSFORMER IS MUTUAL INDUCTION BETWEEN TWO CIRCUITS LINKED BY A COMMON MAGNETIC FLUX.A TRANSFORMER IS A STATIC PIECE OF APPARATUS BY MEANS OF WHICH ELECTRIC POWER IN ONE CIRCUIT IS TRANSFORMED INTO ELECTRIC POWER OF THE SAME FREQUENCY IN ANOTHER CIRCUIT.COMPONENTS DETAILS TRANSFORMER DEFINITION:. .
The 741 operational amplifier can be also used as a comparator. .COMPARATOR The comparator is a circuit which is used to compare two quantities and provide an output that indicated the relationship between these two quantities.
• The LM741C is identical to the LM741/LM741A except that the LM741C has their performance guaranteed over a 0°C to +70°C temperature range.Description • The LM741 series are general purpose operational amplifiers which feature improved performance over industry standards like the LM709. • The amplifiers offer many features which make their application nearly foolproof: overload protection on the input and output. as well as freedom from oscillations. plug-in replacements for the 709C. They are direct. MC1439 and 748 in most applications. . no latch-up when the common mode range is exceeded. instead of -55°C to +125°C. LM201.
The junctions are formed by sandwiching either P type or N type semiconductor layers between a pair of opposite types as shown in figure :- . A transistor can be of two types :.TRANSISTOR Transistor is a single crystal of silicon (si) or germanium (ge). A transistor consists of two p-n junction .NPN & PNP .
Vceo= -45V. Vcbo = -50V. Pins: 3 Oper. Ic = -100mA.In our circuit we are using PNP transistor ( BC-557) of which description are given below Description: Transistor. Low noise. Vebo = -5V.: 0 to 150 Features :1 ) low current ( max . temp. Pc = 500mW. . Switching and AF amplifier. 65V) Applications :Generally purpose switching & amplifications . High voltage. 100 mA) 2 ) low voltage ( max .
in a joystick.VARIABLE RESISTANCE A potentiometer (colloquially known as a "pot") is a three-terminal resistor with a sliding contact that forms an adjustable voltage divider. Potentiometers are commonly used to control electrical devices such as volume controls on audio equipment. . Potentiometers operated by a mechanism can be used as position transducers. If only two terminals are used (one side and the wiper). it acts as a variable resistor or rheostat. for example.
It can be defined as voltage per unit current through a conductor.RESISTANCE Resistor is an electronic device that offers obstruction to the flow of electric current. The circuit symbol of a resistor is: . R=V/I The unit of resistance is ohm denoted by W . Resistance(R)= Voltage (V) / Current (I) i.e.
HOW TO IDENTIFY THE RESISTANCE VALUE FROM COLOR BANDS Hold the resistor as shown below: .
capacitance is the ability of a body to hold an electrical charge. A common form of energy storage device is a parallel-plate capacitor. In a parallel plate capacitor. .CAPACITANCE In electromagnetism and electronics. Capacitance is also a measure of the amount of electrical energy stored (or separated) for a given electric potential. and V gives the voltage between the plates. If the charges on the plates are +Q and −Q. 1 farad is 1 coulomb per volt. then the capacitance is given by The SI unit of capacitance is the farad. capacitance is directly proportional to the surface area of the conductor plates and inversely proportional to the separation distance between the plates.
though a resistance R of suitable value. The zener diode is joined in reverse bias to d. One of the most important applications of zener diode is the design of constant voltage power supply.c. which can operate continuously without being damaged in the region of reverse breakdown voltage. .ZENER DIODE A zener diode is a specially designed junction diode.
If the positive terminal of battery is connected to the ptype material (cathode) and the negative terminal to the N-type material (anode).DIODE The simplest semiconductor device is made of a sandwitch of P-type semiconducting material. This called forward current or forward biased. with contacts provided to connect the P-type and n-type layers to an external circuit. a large current will flow. . This is a junction diode.
RELAY Relay is a common. It uses an electromagnet made from an iron rod wound with hundreds of fine copper wire. Current flowing through the coil of the relay creates a magnetic field which attracts a lever and changes the switch contacts. simple application of electromagnetism. . The coil current can be on or off so relays have two switch positions and most have double throw (changeover) switch contacts as shown in the diagram. A relay is an electrically operated switch.
or 'open'. a switch is an electrical component that can break an electrical circuit. meaning the contacts are separated and nonconducting. such as a light switch. such as a computer keyboard button. interrupting the current or diverting it from one conductor to another.SWITCH In electronics. A switch that is operated by another electrical circuit is called a relay. For example. A switch may be directly manipulated by a human as a control signal to a system. or to control power flow in a circuit. Each set of contacts can be in one of two states: either 'closed' meaning the contacts are touching and electricity can flow between them. .The most familiar form of switch is a manually operated electromechanical device with one or more sets of electrical contacts. a thermostat is a temperature-operated switch used to control a heating process.
. overload or device failure is often the reason for excessive current. which interrupts the circuit in which it is connected. A fuse interrupts excessive current (blows) so that further damage by overheating or fire is prevented. Short circuit.FUSE In electronics and electrical engineering a fuse (from the Latin "fusus" meaning to melt) is a type of sacrificial overcurrent protection device. Its essential component is a metal wire or strip that melts when too much current flows.
CRICUIT DIAGRAM OF AUTOMATIC PHASE CHANGER .
ONE EACH FOR THREE PHASES. ARE USED. TRANSISTOR AND RELAY. THREE IDENTICAL SETS OF THIS CIRCUIT. VR1 IS USED TO SET THE REFERENCE VOLTAGE ACCORDING TO THE REQUIREMENT. WHICH IS RECTIFIED BY DIODE D1 AND FILTERED BY CAPACITOR C1 TO PRODUCE THE OPERATING VOLTAGE FOR THE OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER (IC1). THE MAINS POWER SUPPLY PHASE R IS STEPPED DOWN BY TRANSFORMER X1 TO DELIVER 12V.WORKING OF THE CIRCUIT THE CIRCUIT IS BUILT AROUND A TRANSFORMER. THE VOLTAGE AT INVERTING PIN 2 OF OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER IC1 IS TAKEN FROM THE VOLTAGE DIVIDER CIRCUIT OF RESISTOR R1 AND PRESET RESISTOR VR1. 300 MA. . COMPARATOR. LET US NOW CONSIDER THE WORKING OF THE CIRCUIT CONNECTING RED CABLE (CALL IT ‘R’ PHASE).
As a result. transistor T1 conducts and relay RL1 energises and load L1 is disconnected from phase ‘R’ and connected to phase ‘Y’ through relay RL2.. assembly and installation of the circuit. . Use relay contacts of proper rating and fuses should be able to take-on the load when transferred from other phases. Till the supply voltage available in phase R is in the range of 200V-230V. Similarly. While wiring. the auto phase-change of the remaining two phases.The reference voltage at non-inverting pin 3 is fixed to 5.1V through zener diode ZD1. phase ‘Y’ and phase ‘B. As a result.e.1V. and its output pin 6 also remains high. relay RL1 remains de-energised and phase ‘R’ supplies power to load L1 via normally closed (N/C) contact of relay RL1. Switch S1 is mains power ‘on’/’off’ switch. As soon as phase-R voltage goes below 200V. the voltage at inverting pin 2 of IC1 goes below reference voltage of 5. more than reference voltage of 5. viz.’ can be explained. the voltage at inverting pin 2 of IC1 remains high. and its output goes low. transistor T1 does not conduct. i.1V.
INSTITUTIONS . FACTORIES OPERATING WITH 1 PHASE MACHINERIES 4. COMMERCIAL OFFICES 3. HOSPITALS/BANKS 5. RESIDENTAL 2.APPLICATIONS 1.