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Strategic Human Resource Management 1-B

Human Resource Planning Factors affecting HRP Training and Development


Job Analysis
Job analysis -The procedure for determining the duties
a. b. c. d.


and skill requirements of a job. The kind of person to be hired for it. Steps involved in JA methods Collecting and recording job information. Checking the job information for accuracy. Writing job descriptions based on the information. Using the information to determine ,abilities and knowledge required for the job. Updating the information from time to time. JA data serve as the foundation for most of the HRM practices.
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Job Analysis Methods

Popular job analysis methods Observation - analyst watches employees

directly/indirectly. ( films , CC TV ) on the job. Individual Interview - selected candidates are extensively interviewed and the results of a number of these interviews are combined into a single job analysis. Group Interview Structured Questionnaire Diary Method Technical Conference Method


Uses of Job Analysis Information


Job Description

Job description -A list of a jobs duties, responsibilities,

reporting relationships, working conditions, and supervisory responsibilitiesone product of job analysis.
Job specification: A statement of the minimum acceptable

qualification that an employee must possess to perform a given job successfully.


Job Descriptions
Job description - A written statement of what the worker actually does, how it is done, and working conditions. Sections of a typical job description Job identification Job summary Responsibilities and duties Authority of potential candidate

Standards of performance
Working conditions Job specifications
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Job Design
Job design - decides the fit between individual skills and the demands of the job. Aligns task demands and individual capabilities. Has great influence on the productivity and level of satisfaction. Jobs have to be designed To fit new techniques or organization structures. To provide opportunities, challenges and avenues for creativity. To give authority , responsibility and discretion. To improve relationship between employer and employees.


HR Planning

Planning - A decision making process. Provides basis for

economical and effective action in the future. Effective planning . Helps integrated action. Reduces the number of unforeseeable crisis. Promotes use of more efficient methods. Provides basis for managerial function of control. Assures focus on organizational objective.


Balancing supply and demand

HRP What and HOW ??
HRP - getting the right number of qualified people into the

right jobs at the right time. HRP - Deciding the number and type of HR required for each job, unit and the total company for a particular future date in order to carry out organizational activities HRP How - HRP is a process of comparing HR supply with HR demand.


Factors that determine HR Plans



HRP -Objectives
To Recruit and retain HR of required quantity and quality Foresee employee turnover-- make arrangements to

minimize it -to fill up consequent vacancies Meet needs of the expansion, diversification programmes. Assess surplus or shortage of HR and take necessary measures to make best use of HR Estimate cost of HR training Foresee the impact of technology On work - On existing employees - On future HR requirements
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HRP -Objectives
To improve: Standards/ Quality , Skill , Knowledge,

Ability To minimize imbalance caused due to non-availability of HR of Right kind Right number In right time Right place



HR planning process



Factors affecting HRP

External Govt Policies Level of Economic Development. Business Environment Level of Technology Natural factors International Factors Internal Strategies & HR Policy of the firm Formal & Informal groups Job analysis Time Horizons Type & Quality of info Production & Operation policy Trade Unions
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The Planning Process

Analyze environment (forecasts, benchmarks, contingencies, competitor analysis, scenarios) Set objectives Determine requirements Develop action plans Assess resources

Implement plans Feedback Feedback


Monitor outcomes

Planning Options during surplus

Dont replace employees who leave Offer incentives for early retirement Transfer or reassign excess employees Use slack-time for employee training or equipment maintenance. Reduce work hours. Freeze hiring Lay off employees



Planning Options during shortage

Recruit new full time employees Offer incentives for postponing retirement Rehire retired employees part/ Full time Attempt to reduce turnover Work present staff overtime Subcontract work to another firm Hire temporary employees Reengineer to reduce needs Outsource an entire function Use/ improve technology to increase Productivity.



HR Forecasting Techniques
Important forecasting methods : Managerial judgment Based on experience


Eg: Experts value variables and use these values in prediction equations or Experts integrate the results of mathematical methods with less quantifiable information into a final subjective forecast. Most organizations use combination of Judgmental and Mathematical methods.
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HR forecasting techniques
ii. Statistical Technique A. Ratio-trend analysis Ratios are calculated from the past data. These ratios are used for the estimation of the future HR requirements. B. Econometric models Built for HRP - by analyzing the past statistical data and by bringing the relationship among variables C. Work study techniques : Total production and activities in terms of clear units are estimated in a year. Human hours required to produce each unit is calculated. Then the required number of employees is calculated.
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HR Forecasting

Delphie Technique Is a decision making tool. Estimates received from managers. HR experts summarize and report back to experts. Analyzed again and decided.

New Venture Analysis - new ventures complicate

employment planning. Compare HR needs in line with other similar companies. Eg. A steel plant going into coal mines determine from other coal mines



HR Forecasting
Key Predictive factors - To locate key indicators with

which total manpower correlates highly. HR department must examine - Eg; sales volume, units produced, clients served. These factors yield a good co-relation between number of employees and changes in business factors.



Recruitment & Selection

Recruitment Precedes the selection. Finding, developing the sources of prospective employees . Attracting them to apply for jobs in an organization . Positive activity - attracts & coaxes people to apply. Selection Process of finding out the most suitable candidate. Negative activity as it rejects more candidates



Orientation & placement

Orientation - Providing new employees with basic information about the employer, work rules, culture, policies. Orientation or induction is introducing new employees to an organization to their specific jobs and departments in some cases to their community. Socialization -The final step in the staffing process. Orienting new employees to: The firm. The work units, The firms policies and procedures, organizational culture.
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1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
6. 7.

What are the functions and objectives of HRM? What is Strategic HRM? What do you understand by (a) Job Analysis (b) Job Design Job description? Explain factors affecting HRP. Why is recruitment important? What are the sources of recruitment? Why is selection called a negative activity? What are the tools used for selection? Due date Next class 1st session



Training and Development

Kuan Chung Tzu 7th century BC Chinese

If you wish to plan for a year sow seeds If you wish to plan for 10 years plant trees If you wish to plan for a lifetime develop human beings (HR)



Training and Development

(T&D) Training Improving the knowledge, skills and

attitudes of employees for the short-term, particular to a specific job or task e.g. Employee orientation, Skills & technical training, Coaching Training - teaching lower-level employees how to perform their present jobs. Developing - teaching managers and professional employees broad skills needed for their present and future jobs. Preparing for future responsibilities. Increasing the capacity to perform well at a current job



Training Needs
Training Need - the gap which exists between the

required and the actual standards of performance.

Need Assessment - Identification of any special problem of

the job and analysis of any particular skill needed to meet the problem.



Training Needs

Assessment of needs Organizational / departmental requirements & weakness Identifying specific problems-employee/ job specification Management requests / observation Interviews / group Conference Questionnaire survey - Test or examination Check lists - Performance appraisal



Training methods
On- the- job Methods Job Rotation Coaching Job Instruction Step-by-step training Committee assignments Expanded Responsibilities Job Rotation or crosstraining

Off-the-job Methods Vestibule training Role Playing Lecture methods Conference / discussion Programmed instruction


Training Programme Evaluation (TPE)


2. 3. 4. 5.

Process of TP Evaluation- Any attempt to obtain information on the effects of training performance and to assess the value of training in the light of that information. 5 levels at which TPE can take place Reactions -Immediate assessment of reaction to TP. Knowing trainees expectation in advance and collecting his/her views regarding attainment of expectation Learning Job Behaviour Organization Ultimate Value
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5 levels at which TPE can take place

4. Organization --Use of training, learning and change in

job behaviour of department / organization Increased productivity, quality , morale ,Sales turnover 5. Ultimate Value - the measurement of the ultimate result of the TP to A. company goals -Survival, Growth, profitability
B. Individual goals - Personality development C. Social goals maximizing social benefit



Methods of TPE
Observation & measurement of job behaviour, attitudes

before and after TP. Cost benefit analysis- Measurement of absenteeism, turnover, wastage, accident, breakage and maintenance of machinery. Seeking opinion of trainees colleagues and subordinates on job performance.





Training - conclusion
Training is designed to provide practice in recognizing

and solving the types of problems Focusing not only on What happened in other projects but

Why ?.



Final Thought T&D

Training is not a cure for everything- - Problems can be

due to Poor quality of raw material Faulty equipments, Defective design Poor organizational climate /culture Unhygienic / unpleasant environment All these cannot be created / included in vestibule or any method of training.

The conventional definition of management is getting work done through people, but real management is developing people through work.
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