How to: Some Basic Principles for Leveling

Lecture Overview
• Equipment • Introduction to Leveling • Observation, Field Notes, and
Computation

• Errors and their effects

Equipment

Equipment
• • • • • •
Level Instrument Tripod Staff/Pole Change plate (German: Frog/Frosch) Pole staff bubble (bull eye) Marker

Equipment: Level Instrument • Automated Levels    Easy to use (not power!) Needs experience Robust even in hostile environment • Digital Levels    Push-button technique No reading errors. special staff Readings are stored and analyzed digitally .

Automated Levels (Compensator) Bull Eye Pendulum Tribrach Courtesy: Deumlich. Vermessungskunde .

Digital Levels • Uses Barcode staffs • Internal storage of data     Download to the computer Automated height computation + adjustment No feeling for quality anymore You frequently need power plugs .

Equipment • • • • • • Level Instrument Tripod Staff/Pole Change plate (German: Frog/Frosch) Pole staff bubble (bull eye) Marker .

this is high” .Equipment: Tripod • Wooden design or aluminum  From “easy to sit” to “ops.

Equipment • • • • • • Level Instrument Tripod Staff/Pole Change plate (German: Frog/Frosch) Pole staff bubble (bull eye) Marker .

Equipment: Staff/Pole • Wood. aluminum • INVAR type for high precision leveling Conventional (“E”-type) Barcode for Digital Levels .

Equipment • • • • • • Level Instrument Tripod Staff/Pole Change plate (German: Frog/Frosch) Pole staff bubble (bull eye) Marker .

at fences Sharp stones or nails • Beware of dark colors It’s not the IndonesianGerman Dictionary.Equipment: Change Plate • For long survey lines • Allows change of instruments    Best is a metal change plate Screws e. It’s the nail! .g.

Equipment • • • • • • Level Instrument Tripod Staff/Pole Change plate (German: Frog/Frosch) Pole staff bubble (bull eye) Marker .

Equipment: Bubble • Keep the pole upright  Any tilt will disturb your readings .

Equipment • • • • • • Level Instrument Tripod Staff/Pole Change plate (German: Frog/Frosch) Pole staff bubble (bull eye) Marker .

settled buildings.Survey Markers • Gives you a fixed point     Should be of good quality Should be long-term Preferable in bedrock. or bridges Do not use fences or walls .

Introduction to Leveling .

g.Some Basic Definitions • Level surface (e. the geoid)    A water surface with no motion Gravity gradient is the normal to the level surface The Instrument’s Bubble is in the normal (!) At the instruments axis. the horizontal surface is tangent to the level surface Over short distances (<100 m) the horizontal surface and the level surface will coincide For long leveling lines the effects of the gravity field must be considered • Horizontal surface    .

Basic Principle of Leveling • Measures height differences between points   Along a line Several points from one occupation Leveling rods Line of sight Back sight Fore sight fs bs Dh = bs .fs Gravity Gradient .

Definitions • Back sight (BS)  The first reading from a new instrument stand point (i. give the height to a benchmark) Any sighting that is not a back sight or fore sight • Fore sight (FS)  • Intermediate sight (IS)  . take the height to the instrument) The last reading from the current instrument station (i.e.e.

[dm] & [cm] • Estimate the [mm] 1422 • Check yourself for frequent used numbers (2/3) or (7/8) .Reading a Staff • Read the [m].

Basic Rules for Leveling • Always start and finish a leveling run on a Benchmark (BM or TGBM) and close the loops • Keep fore sight and back sight distances as equal as possible • Keep lines of sight short (normally < 50m) • Never read below 0.5m on a staff (refraction) • Use stable. well defined change points • Beware of shadowing effects and crossing waters .

and Computation .Observation. Field Notes.

How to: A sample loop New Benchmark NB2 S2 New Benchmark NB1 Tidal Hut TH S1 .

How To: Field Notes New Benchmark NB2 S2 Back 1327 2365 2347 Inter Fore 3982 0986 3724 1101 Point TH NB1 NB2 NB1 TH New Benchmark NB1 3753 Tidal Hut TH S1 .

Instrument Instrument Check Back Fore SD .Date. Observer.

Compute levels Back 1327 2365 2347 3753 +1 Inter Fore 3982 0986 3724 1101 9793 dh ´7345 1379 ´8624 2652 H 100 000 Comment 97 345 98 724 TH BM1 BM2 BM1 ? 97 348 100 000 0 TH 9792 0 IST SOLL -0001 0000 0001 (SOLL – IST) .

known benchmarks = height difference) Misclosure = DHSOLL – DHIST • Point errors at double observed points .Loop misclosure • Misclosure Error  The difference of the measured height difference (DHmeas) to the known height (closed loops = 0.

s in km #(middle of the line) .Achievable Accuracy • Instrument dependent  Roughly from the instrument  NI002 = 0.2mm/km (doubled line)  NI025 = 2.5mm/km (doubled line) • Survey line length dependent   ms = m1km s. s in km mH = (m1km/2) s.

the loop (or part of • Misclosures can also result from errors in published BM levels and from BM instability .An acceptable misclose? • Small misclosures in closed level loops are expected because of the accumulation of random errors and can be adjusted it) must be repeated • If the misclosure is large.

Testing the misclose • The amount of misclosure acceptable using a specific instrument and survey line length standard is adopted*… • For our example. a second order leveling misclosure  2.5s mm • where s is the length of the line in km *Dependent on your contry’s rules and the instrument used .

4 km • Acceptable error is 2.5(0.4) = ±1.5/2* (0.6 mm • The misclosure of +1 mm is within the limit • Mean error for NB1 = 2.Our example • The misclosure is +1 mm • The length of the loop is 0.4) .

but only a few addressed) .Errors and their effects (many.

or computation errors Fore.g. booking.Errors in leveling. • • • • • • • Collimation. e. Parallax Change point / staff instability Instrument or Benchmark instability Refraction Uncalibrated staff or levels Reading.and backsight distances different .

Systematic and Random Errors • Earth curvature • Refraction • Collimation errors .

fh-oow.de/institute/ima/personen/weber/VK_12/VL_VK1/geo_niv_6.03 50 0.2 100 0.8 1000 80 .Effect of Earth Curvature Horizontal Level (r +Dh)2 = r2 + s2 => Dh  s2/(2r) Distance (s) in m Effect (Dh) in mm www.htm 10 0.008 20 0.

htm .Refraction Mean Gradient: 0.fh-oow.2 °C / m www.de/institute/ima/personen/weber/VK_12/VL_VK1/geo_niv_6.

Collimation error • Occurs when the line of sight (as defined by the lens axis and cross-hairs) is not horizontal • Leads to an incorrect staff reading error horizontal line .

Instrument test: Nähbauer ´ Stand point 1 ´ ´ Stand point 2 ´ a′2 = a2+2e a′1 = a1+e b′2 = b2+e b′1 = b1+2e Δh = a2−b2 Δh = a1−b1 Δh′2 = a′2−b′2 = a2+e−b2 = Δh+e Δh′1 = a′1−b′1 = a1−b1−e = Δh−e Δh =Δh′2−e With Δh′1+e = Δh′2−e Δh′2−Δh′1 e= 2 .

Summary .

The instrument and level must be stable settled-up 3.Procedure of leveling 1. You must not use the parallax screw between the backsight and foresight readings . The instrument must be check before use! (see lecture) 2. but opposite for the next readings 5. The instrument must be set up in the middle between two staffs • • Prevents curvature effects If impossible. The bubble tube must be leveled before the reading • • Beware of sun exposure (will wander) Ensure the instruments pendulum is in-limit 4. use the same distances.

A change plate should be used 9. especially if INVAR 11. Leveling must be done in two opposite directions but the same line (beware of gravity gradients) 10. Be careful when crossing rivers (large water surfaces) • • Use “same-time” (mutual) observations Repeat it during different times of the day . Readings must be taken 30-50 cm above the ground • • Surface refractions Beware also of temperature gradients (inside/outside buildings) !!!! 7.Procedure of Leveling 6. Staff should be calibrated. Staff should be set up vertically 8.

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