. also known as the metal substrate.• The bulk metal. has a structure that depends on the composition and processing history of the metal.

.• Above this bulk metal is a layer that usually has been plastically deformed and work-hardened to a greater extent during the manufacturing process.

• Unless the metal is processed and kept in an inert (oxygen-free) environment. an oxide layer forms over the work-hardened layer. . or is a noble metal such as gold or platinum.

which is exposed to the environment. followed by a layer of Fe304 and then a layer of Fe2O3. with a thick. Soon after. however. it develops a Cu2O layer. . shiny surface when freshly scratched or machined. which is then covered with a layer of CuO.Example a. c. Aluminum has a dense. d. b. Iron has an oxide structure with FeO adjacent to the bulk metal. porous hydrated aluminum-oxide layer over it. Stainless steels are "stainless" because they develop a protective layer of chromium oxide. amorphous (without crystalline structure) layer of Al2O3. Copper has a bright. This gives copper its somewhat dull color.

.• Under normal environmenta l conditions. surface oxide layers are generally covered with adsorbed layers of gas and moisture.

cleaningcompound residues. . dust. lubricant residues.• Finally. the outermost surface of the metal may be covered with contaminants such as dirt. and pollutants from the environment. grease.

but their mechanical and metallurgical properties and characteristics as well. .• Surface integrity describes not only the topological (geometric) features of surfaces and their physical and chemical properties.

caused by a easting or metalworking process. (b) the method by which the surface is produced.Surface Defects • These defects are usually caused by a combination of factors. such as (a) defects in the original material. and (c) lack of proper control of process parameters .

5. nonmetallic elements or compounds in the metal. Heat-affected zone is the portion of a metal which is subjected to thermal cycling without melting. . Inclusions are small. cracks that require a magnification of 10X or higher to be seen by the naked eye are called microcracks 2. 3. Cracks are external or internal separations with sharp outlines. Folds are the same as seams. 4. Craters are shallow depressions.General Definitions of the Major Surface Defects 1.

and molten and recast.6. alloy depletion. as in electrical-discharge machining. . Metallurgical transformation involves microstructural changes caused by temperature cycling. 8. Laps are the same as seams. 7. decarburization. recrystallization. These changes may consist of phase transformations. resolidified. Intergranular attack is the weakening of grain boundaries through liquid-metal embrittlement and corrosion. or redeposited material.

Seams are surface defects which result from overlapping of the material during processing. Plastic deformation is a severe surface deformation caused by high stresses due to friction. Splatter is when small resolidified molten metal particles are deposited on a surface. usually the result of chemical or physical attack. such as during welding. 10. worn tools. . tool and die geometry.9. 13. Pits are shallow surface depressions. Residual stresses (tension or compression) 12. and processing method. 11.

or inclusions 2. and its distance on the surface along which it is measured. cracks. . Roughness is ex pressed in terms of its height. holes. 3. Roughness is defined as closely spaced. its width. such as scratches. tears. Flaws. seams. Roughness may be superimposed on waviness.SURFACE TEXTURE 1. depressions. or directionality. or defects. Lay. is the direction of the predominant surface pattern and is usually visible to the naked eye. irregular deviations on a scale smaller than that of waviness. are random irregularities.

4. much like waves on the surface of water. Waviness is a recurrent deviation from a flat surface. . It is measured and described in terms of the space between adjacent crests of the waves (waviness width) and height between the crests and valleys of the waves (waviness height).

or the workpiece.• Waviness can be caused by (a) deflections of tools. . (c) uneven lubrication. (d) vibration. (b) forces or temperature sufficient to cause warping. dies. or (e) any periodic mechanical or thermal variations in the system during manufacturing operations.

Standard Lay Symbols .

Standard Terminology to describe surface finish .

Root-mean-square average.SURFACE ROUGHNESS Surface roughness is generally described using two methods: 1. Arithmetic mean value and 2. .



• It indicates how much material has to be removed in order to obtain a smooth surface by polishing or other means.• Additionally. as a measure of roughness. defined as the height from the deepest trough to the highest peak. . we may also use the maximum roughness height (Rt).

Measuring Surface Roughness • The most commonly used instruments feature a diamond stylus which travels along a straight line over the surface .

003 in.) is typical for most applications. The rule of thumb is that the cutoff must be large enough to include 10 to 15roughness irregularities as well as all surface waviness. to 1 in.08 mm to 25 mm (0.03 in.8 mm (0.).• The distance that the stylus travels is called the cutoff. • 0. . it generally ranges from 0.

• Because of the finite radius of the diamond stylus tip. the path of the stylus is less rough than the actual surface .

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