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O V E R V I E W

P l u m b i n g
Definition
the art and technique of installing pipes, fixtures, and other apparatuses in buildings for bringing in the supply of liquids, substances and/or ingredients and removing them

water, liquid and other carriedwastes hazardous to health, sanitation, life


and property

pipes and fixtures after installation


i.e., the plumbing system
- NPC 217.6

H i s t o r y
Plumbing Practice in the Philippines
In 1902, the Plumbing Trade was duly recognized by the government in the City of Manila. Master Plumber John F. Haas became the first Chief of the Division of Plumbing Construction and Inspection. A Plumbing Code based on the Plumbing Code of the United States was incorporated into the Building Code for the City of Manila.
In 1935, the National Master Plumbers Association of the Philippines (NAMPAP) was formally organized

Manila City Ordinance 2411, the Plumbing Code of the City of Manila was enacted and placed under the Department of Public Services, Manila.

H i s t o r y
In 1954, the Third Congress approved House Bill No. 962 which in June 18, 1955, became R.A. 1378 Plumbing Law of the Philippines upon ratification of President Ramon Magsaysay. On January 28, 1959, the National Plumbing Code of the Philippines prepared by NAMPAP was promulgated and approved by Malacaang. Before Martial Law in 1972, Republic Act No. 6541 otherwise known as the Building Code of the Philippines was passed with the National Plumbing Code of 1959 as referral code in full text.

The Professional Regulation Commission (PRC) adopted the Revised Plumbing Code of 1999 which President Joseph Estrada approved December 21, 1999 pursuant to Section 4 of R.A. 1378 known as the Plumbing Law.

P r i n c i p l e s
22 Basic Principles of the Plumbing Code
All premises intended for human use or habitation shall be provided with a supply of pure and wholesome water, neither connected to unsafe water supply nor subject to backflow or back- siphonage. Plumbing fixtures, devices and appurtenances shall be supplied with water in sufficient volume and pressure adequate to function satisfactorily and without undue noise. Plumbing shall be designed and adjusted to use the minimum quantity of water consistent with proper performance and cleaning.

Devices for heating and storing water shall be so designed and installed as to prevent dangers from explosion through overheating.

1 2 3 4

P r i n c i p l e s
Every building abutting on a street, alley or easement with a public sewer shall connect its plumbing fixtures to the sewer system. Each family dwelling unit shall have at least one water closet, one kitchen type sink, a lavatory and a bathtub or shower to meet the basic requirements of sanitation and personal hygiene. Plumbing fixtures shall be made of smooth non-absorbent material, free from concealed fouling surfaces and shall be located in ventilated enclosures. The drainage system shall be designed, constructed and maintained to safeguard against fouling, deposit of solids, clogging and with adequate cleanouts so arranged that the pipes may be readily cleaned.

5 6 7 8

P r i n c i p l e s
All piping shall be of durable NAMPAP-APPROVED materials, free from defective workmanship, designed and constructed by Registered Master Plumbers to ensure satisfactory service. Each fixture directly connected to the drainage system shall be equipped with a water-sealed trap. The drainage pipes piping system shall be designed to provide adequate circulation of air free from siphonage, aspiration or forcing of trap seals under ordinary use. Vent terminals shall extend to the outer air and installed to prevent clogging and the return of foul air to the building. Plumbing systems shall be subjected to such tests to effectively disclose all leaks and defects in the workmanship.

9 10 11 12 13

P r i n c i p l e s
Substance which will clog the pipes, produce explosive mixtures, destroy the pipes or their joints or interfere unduly with the sewage-disposal process shall not be allowed to enter the building drainage system. Proper protection shall be provided to prevent contamination of food, water, sterile goods and similar materials by backflow of sewage. When necessary, the fixture, device or appliance shall be connected indirectly with the building drainage system. No water closet shall be located in a room or compartment which is not properly lighted and ventilated.

If there is no sewer system in the area, suitable provision shall be made for the disposal of building sewage by some accepted method of sewage treatment and disposal, such as a septic tank.

14 15 16 17

P r i n c i p l e s
Where a plumbing drainage system may be subject to backflow of sewage, suitable provision shall be made to prevent its overflow in the building. Plumbing systems shall be maintained in serviceable condition by Registered Master Plumbers. All plumbing fixtures shall be installed properly spaced, to be accessible for their intended use. Plumbing shall be installed with due regard to the preservation of the strength of structural members and the prevention of damage to walls and other surfaces through fixture usage. Sewage or other waste from plumbing system which may be deleterious to surface or sub-surface waters shall not be discharged into the ground or into any waterway, unless first rendered innocuous through subjection to some acceptable form of treatment.

18 19 20 21 22

C o m p o n e n t s
WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM PLUMBING FIXTURES SANITARY DRAINAGE SYSTEM STORM DRAINAGE SYSTEM

FUEL GAS PIPING SYSTEM

Nature of Water

The Water Cycle:


3 Major Phases:
Evaporation Condensation Precipitation

The Plumbing Cycle

Components & Flow in Water Systems:


S U P P L Y
Water Mains, Storage Tanks

DISTRIBUTION
Pressure, Piping Networks

U S E
Plumbing Fixtures

S O U R C E
Lakes, Rivers, Reservoirs Treated water returned to the original source

COLLECTION
Gravity, Piping Networks

TREATMENT
Sewage Plants, Natural Purification

DISPOSAL
Sanitary and Storm Sewers

The Plumbing Cycle


Water Functions Diagram:

SUPPLY

DISTRIBUTION U S E COLLECTION DISPOSAL

Flow of water (& water carried wastes) should always be only in one direction (from supply to disposal) The two sides should always be carefully separated from each other

WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

Sources of Water
For Domestic Use:
SOURCE COLLECTION
Collected from roofs of buildings and special water sheds and stored in cisterns or ponds; Cistern water for drinking should be boiled, chlorinated or otherwise sterilized

ADVANTAGES
Water is soft & pure and is suitable for the hot water supply system

DISADVANTAGES
Only a source during the wet season; Storage becomes a breeding place for mosquitoes; Roofs may not be clean

Rain Water

Sources of Water
For Domestic Use:
SOURCE COLLECTION
Obtained from ponds, lakes and rivers

ADVANTAGES
Easy to acquire; Usually in large quantities; Used for irrigation, industrial purposes and, when treated, for community water supply

DISADVANTAGES
Contains a large amounts of bacteria, organic, & inorganic substances; Purification & treatment is necessary

Natural Surface Water

Sources of Water
For Domestic Use:
SOURCE COLLECTION
Obtained from underground by means of mechanical & manual equipment; From springs and wells and is the principal source of water for domestic use in most rural areas

ADVANTAGES
Usually has an abundant supply; requires less treatment because of natural filtering

DISADVANTAGES
May have organic matter & chemical elements; treatment is suggested; Character of ground water, its hardness, depends upon the nature and condition of the soil and rock through which it passes or percolates

Ground Water

Water Treatment
Treatment & Purification:
OBJECTIONALBLE ELEMENT Calcium, Magnesium Sulfur REASONS FOR TREATMENT
Produces hardness Bad taste & odor, highly corrosive to plumbing, stains clothing, etc. Bad taste, highly corrosive Stains clothing & plumbing fixtures, interferes with water softeners, iron bacteria clogs pipes Unhealthy; may cause poliomyelitis Highly corrosive, picks up lead, stains clothing Bad taste & odor

Salt
Iron

Pathogenic germs
Acid Algae

Water Treatment
Treatment & Purification:
OBJECTIONALBLE ELEMENT Carbon Dioxide, Hydrogen Sulfide Suspended Material
Aeration Coagulation & Settling Process Chemicals & Sand filtration Addition of water softeners Iron Filters Chlorination Disinfection Marble or Limestone Filtration

METHOD OF TREATMENT

Bacteria
Calcium & Magnesium Iron Sulfur Pathogenic Germs Acid

Quality of Water
Water Quality Problems & Their Correction:
PROBLEMS
1. Acidity

CAUSE
Entrance of oxygen and carbon dioxide

EFFECTS
Corrosion of non-ferrous pipes Rusting & clogging of steel pipes

CORRECTION
Raising alkaline content by the introduction of a neutralizer (sodium silicate) Boiling Use of an ion exchanger (zeolite process) Filtration

2. Hardness

Presence of Clogging of magnesium and pipes Impaired calcium salts laundry and cooking Silt or mud in surface or in ground Discoloration Bad taste

3. Turbidity

Quality of Water
Water Quality Problems & Their Correction:
PROBLEMS
4. Color

CAUSE
Presence of Iron and manganese

EFFECTS

CORRECTION

Discoloration of Oxidizing fixtures filter and laundry

5. Pollution

Contamination by organic matter or sewage

Disease

Chlorination

Purification of Water

praying the water into the atmosphere through jets or passing it over rough surfaces to remove entrained noxious gases such as carbon dioxide or hydrogen sulfide ddition of coagulants, such as ferrous sulfate and lime, to the water which cause the larger suspended particles to form a gelatinous mass which precipitates readily. The precipitate is gathered in large dumps and disposed of. ater is passed through layers of sand and gravel in concrete basins in order to remove the finer suspended particles. ater is injected with hypo-chlorite or chlorine gas to kill the harmful bacteria.

4 Steps of Water Purification for Community Use:


AERATION COAGULATION & PRECIPITATION FILTRATION CHLORINATION

W W

Wells & Pumps


Types of Wells (General):
Shallow Wells Deep Wells

Individual Well Springs:


(Types According to Method of Construction)

Dug Well
Most common type Usually dug manually Around 15 m deep a.k.a. shallow well

Wells & Pumps


Bored Well
Similar to dug well, but constructed using an auger Seldom driven below 15 meters

Jetted Well
Use of extreme water pressure so as not to affect existing foundations in the vicinity Used only where ground is relatively soft

Wells & Pumps


Driven Well
Dug with driven point attached to the pipes

Drilled Well
Used for drilling oil Can reach up to 1000 m

Wells & Pumps


Locating a Well:
2 Most Common Sources of Contamination: Septic Tank leach fields Livestock feedlots Location must not be less than 100 ft. away from such pollution sources Locate on higher ground The deeper the well, the better! (allows natural filtration)

Wells & Pumps


Methods of Well Screening:

Wells & Pumps


2 Basic Types of Pumps
Piston Pumps
Water is sucked into a sealed vacuum by use of a piston Single Action (water is drawn in with only 1 motion) or;

Double Action (water is drawn in with either stroke)

Duplex or Twin Piston Pump

Wells & Pumps


Centrifugal Pumps
Water is drawn into the pump & discharged with a centrifugal force

Wells & Pumps


Types of Pumps
Shallow Well Pumps
Shallow well reciprocating pump Shallow well jet pump Rotary pump

Deep Well Pumps


Deep well reciprocating pump Deep well jet or ejector pump; a.k.a. Venturi Submersible pump Multi-stage turbine pump

Water Tanks & Cisterns


Gravity Supply Tanks (Overhead Water Tanks):
Used in Overhead Feed System
Main Components:
Supply Pipe Inlet Overflow Pipe Drip Pan Gate Valves

Water Tanks & Cisterns


Pneumatic Water Tanks:
Used in the Air Pressure System Used with a pump

Water Tanks & Cisterns


Types of Hot Water Tanks:
Range Boiler
Small hot water tank (30-60 cm In diameter; not more than 180cm In length) Made of galvanized steel sheet, copper or stainless steel

Storage Boiler
Large hot water tank (60-130 cm In diameter; not more than 5 m In length) Made of heavy duty material sheets applied with rust proof paint From standard metal gauge, working pressure limit is 85 psi.

Controls & Valves


Function of Valves:
Control of the water system
Start or shut down a system Regulate pressure Check backflow Control the direction of water

Rules Regarding Location of Valves:

Locate & distribute valves in such a manner that they can isolate a certain section of the network in case of system breakdown (before each branch) Locate valves where they are not too visible while remaining accessible to users

Controls & Valves

Types of Valves:
Gate Valve
a.k.a. Full-way Valve

Used mainly to completely close or completely open the water line (does not control flow of water) Best suited to the main supply and pump lines wherein operation is infrequent

2 Types:
The Wedge Shape or Tapered Disc

The Double Disc Valve

Controls & Valves


Globe Valve
Controls the flow of water with a movable spindle Can reduce water pressure Only one side of the valve is an inlet

3 Types:
The Plug Type Disc Valve

The Conventional Disc Valve

The Composition Disc Valve

Controls & Valves


Check Valve
Main function is to prevent reversal of flow (backflow) in the line

4 Types:
The Swing Check Valve

The Lift Check Valve

Vertical Check Valve

Horizontal Check Valve

Controls & Valves


Angle Valve
Operates in the same manner as globe valve (disc & seat design) Used to make a 90 turn in a line Reduces number of joints

Foot Valve

Located at the lower end of the pumps Used mainly to prevent loss of priming of the pumps a.k.a. Retention Valve

Controls & Valves


Safety Valve
Used on water systems, heating systems, compressed air lines & other pipe lines with excessive pressure

Controls & Valves Types of Faucets/Bibbs:


Compression Cock Key Cock
Operates by the compression of a soft packing upon a metal sheet Operates with a round tapering plug ground to fit a metal sheet. Hose bibbhas grooves fit for a hose Constructed with a ball connected to the handle

Ball Faucet

Water Distribution System


Defects in Water Distribution Systems: Water Hammer
a knocking in the pipes caused when faucets in the lower levels are shut off abruptly or automatically the force exerted by the decelerating water causes the pipes to shake and rattle
WATER HAMMER BACK SIPHONAGE

Back Siphonage
the flowing back of used, contaminated or polluted water from a plumbing fixture or vessel into a water supply pipe due to a negative pressure in such pipe

Back Flow the flow of water or other liquids, ,mixtures, or


substances into the distributing pipes of a potable supply of water to a tank, plumbing fixture, or other device and the flood level rim of the receptacle.

Water Distribution System Classification of Public Water Distribution:


Direct Pressure Distribution
Water is obtained through a large intake installed on the lake basin & extended into deep water Components: Water basin Receiving well Filtration plant
DIRECT PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION

Water Distribution System Classification of Public Water Distribution:


Indirect Pressure Distribution
Water is taken form a drilled well or underground water Involves individual special mechanical equipment
DIRECT PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION INDIRECT PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION

Cold Water Distribution System


Parts of the Cold Water Distribution System (Potable & Tap): Service Pipe
pipe from the street water main or other source of water supply to the building served
SERVICE PIPE WATER METER

Water Meter
device used to measure in liters or gallons the amount of water that passes through the water service

HORIZONTAL SUPPLY MAIN

Horizontal Supply Main


the principal water distribution pipe running from the water meter from which the various branches and risers to the fixtures are taken.

Cold Water Distribution System


Parts of the Cold Water Distribution System (Potable & Tap): Riser
a water supply pipe extending vertically to one full story or more to convey water into pipe branches or plumbing fixtures
SERVICE PIPE WATER METER HORIZONTAL SUPPLY MAIN

Fixture Branch
the water supply pipe between the fixture supply pipe and the waterdistributing pipe

RISER
FIXTURE BRANCH CONTROLS & VALVES STORAGE TANKS

Controls & Valves


used for control, isolation and repair of the water distribution system

Storage Tanks

Types of the Cold Water Distribution Systems (within buildings):

Cold Water Distribution System

Upfeed System Direct Upfeed


Water is provided by the city water companies using normal pressure from public water main

UPFEED SYSTEM

Cold Water Distribution System


Air Pressure System (Pneumatic)
When pressure supplied by city water supply is not strong enough Compressed air is used to raise and push water into the system
UPFEED SYSTEM

Cold Water Distribution System


Downfeed (Overheadfeed) or Gravity System
UPFEED SYSTEM DOWNFEED OR GRAVITY SYSTEM

Water is pumped into a large tank on top of the building and is distributed to the fixtures by means of gravity.

Cold Water Distribution System


ADVANTAGES
Upfeed System
1. Eliminates extra cost of pumps & tanks. 1. Pressure from water main is inadequate to supply tall buildings. 2. Water supply is affected during peak load hour.

DISADVANTAGES

Air Pressure System


1. With compact pumping unit. 2. Sanitary due to air tight water chamber. 3. economic (smaller pipe diameter) 4. less initial construction & maintenance cost 5. Oxygen in the compressed air serves as purifying agent. 6. Adaptable air pressure. 7. Air pressure serves zones of about 10 stores intervals. 1. Water supply is affected by loss of pressure inside the tank in case of power interruption.

Cold Water Distribution System

ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES
Overheadfeeed System

1. Water is not affected by peak load hour. 2. Not affected by power interruptions. 3. Time needed to replace broken parts does not affect water supply.

1. 2. 3. 4.

Water is subject to contamination. High maintenance cost. Occupies valuable space. Requires stronger foundation and other structure to carry additional load of tank and water.

Types of the Hot Water Distribution Systems (within buildings):


Upfeed and Gravity Return System
With a continuing network of pipes to provide constant circulation of water Hot water rises on its own & does not need any pump for circulation Hot water is immediately

Hot Water Distribution System

drawn form the fixture any time Provided economical circulating


return of unused hot water Eliminate waste of water Larger pipe is installed at the top of the riser & the diminishing sizes passes through the lower floors of the building

Types of the Hot Water Distribution Systems (within buildings):


Downfeed and Gravity Return System
Hot water rises on to the highest point of the plumbing system and travels to the fixtures via gravity (closed pipe system) overhead feed & gravity return system Water distribution is dependent on the expansion of hot water & gravity. Larger pipe is installed at the bottom of the riser & the diminishing sizes passes through the upper

Hot Water Distribution System

Hot Water Distribution System


Types of Hot Water Distribution Systems (within buildings):
Pump Circuit System
For a more efficient circulation of hot water to the upper floor levels of multi-storey buildings

Water Tanks & Cisterns


Hot Water Consumption
KIND OF BUILDING
Office Buildings School Buildings Apartment Buildings Hotels Factories Residential

GALLONS PER PERSONS PER HOUR


4 to 5 2 to 3 8 8 to 10 4 to 6 10

Working Load of Hot Water Systems


KIND OF BUILDING
School, Office & Industrial types Apartments & Residences Hotels & Restaurants

AVERAGE WORKING LOAD


25% 35% 50%

Hot Water Distribution System 2 Types of Water Heating Systems:


Hot Water Space Heating System
Water is confined within a system at low temperature

Hot Water Supply System


Not a closed system which operate on much higher temperature

Protection of Hot Water Tank:


System Relief Valve
Used for Hot Water Space Heating System

Temperature & Pressure Relief


Used for Hot Water Supply System

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

Water & Water Supply for Fire Fighting Supplying Water for Fire Protection Systems:
The Elevated Water Tank The Underground Water Reservoir

Types of Fire Protection Systems:


Dry Standpipe System
No longer being utilized in new buildings How it works: a standpipe is connected to the exterior of the building

The standpipe is a pipe installed in buildings not as part of the water supply or waste disposal system but primarily for use as water conveyance in case of fire

CONNECT T FIRE HOSE

Water & Water Supply for Fire Fighting


Wet Standpipe System
How it works: a piping network (line is directly connected to the main water line) connects to all levels of a building (at least 1 standpipe on each level)

Wet Standpipe System with Siamese Connection


How it works: a piping network (line is directly connected to the main water line) connects to all levels of a building (at least 1 standpipe on each level); additionally, a Siamese connection is located outside the building for additional water supply (connects to fire truck hose)

Water & Water Supply for Fire Fighting

Sprinkler System

Smoke Detectors & Sprinkler Heads


Spacing of Sprinkler Heads:

Spacing of Sprinkler Heads


KIND OF BUILDING
Light Hazard Occupancy Extra hazard Occupancy

COVERAGE OF ONE SPRINKLER HEAD


20 square meters 10 square meters

Special Installation Requirements


At least one fire department connection on each frontage A master alarm system valve control for all water supplies other than fire department connections Special fire walls between protected areas Sloping water proof floors with drains or scupper to carry away waste water

Smoke Detectors & Sprinkler Heads

PLUMBING FIXTURES

Plumbing Fixtures
Definition:
Receptacles which are used to provide, receive and discharge water, liquid and water-carried wastes into a drainage system with which they are connected to

Classifications:
Soil
Water Closets Urinals Slop Sinks

Scullery
Kitchen Sinks Laundry Tubs Bar Sinks

Bathing
Lavatories Bathtubs Shower Baths Bidets Jacuzzis Foot/Sitz Tub Shower Receptors Floor drains Shower Compartments

Soil Fixtures Setting: Types:


WATER CLOSETS

Water closet center to side wall: minimum of 0.375 m Water closet center to WC center: minimum of 0.75 m

According to Type of Flushing


Flush Tank water closets Direct Flush Valve (DFV) water closets
-Flushing action can be obtained directly from a flush valve connected into the bowl

According to Flush Tank Types


Integral Flush Tank Close Coupled Flush Tank Low Flush Tank High Flush Tank

Soil Fixtures
According to Mounting
Floor Mounted Wall Hung

According to Flushing Action


Wash Down
-

Wash down

Flushes through a simple wash down action Discharges waste into a trapway located at the front of the bowl Has a bulge on the front Has a small amount of standing water Cost less but is least efficient and noisiest

Soil Fixtures
Reverse Trap
Flushes through a siphon action created in the trapway

Siphon Jet
Has a larger trapway making it less likely to clog Quieter flushing action Retains a large amount of standing water

Soil Fixtures
Siphon Vortex
Less noisy and very efficient Flushing action is started by a whirlpool motion followed by a complete flush down Retains a large amount of standing water

Direct Flush Valve

flushing action is obtained directly from a flush valve connected into the bowl

Soil Fixtures

Soil Fixtures

Soil Fixtures
Minimum Requirements for Water Closets
OCCUPANCY
Dwelling or Apartment Elementary Schools

MIN. WC
1 1 2 1 family

KIND & NO. OF USERS


for 1-20 persons For 21-50 persons per additional 50 persons

Assembly Places (Theaters and Auditoriums- for public use)

1 2 3 3 4 8 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 3 4 5 1

per 1-100 males per 101-200 males per 201-400 males per 1-50 females per 51-100 females per 101-200 females per additional 500 males over 400 per additional 300 females over 400 per 10 males per 8 females per additional 25 males, 20 females per 1 - 10 persons for 11 - 25 persons for 26 - 50 persons for 51 - 75 persons for 76 - 100 persons per additional 30 persons in excess of 100

Dormitories

Industrial

Soil Fixtures
URINALS

Types:
Wall Hung Pedestal Through Stall

Soil Fixtures Setting:


Urinal center to side wall: minimum of 0.30 m Urinal center to urinal center: minimum of 0.60 m

Flushing:
Flushing trough urinals shall be done through automatic flushing tanks. (NPC 408.1) Flushometer valves shall be self-closing type discharging a predetermined quantity of water. No manually controlled flushometer valve shall be used to flush group urinals. (NPC 408.2)

Soil Fixtures
Minimum Requirements for Urinals
OCCUPANCY
Schools: Elementary Secondary Office or Public Building

MIN. #
1 1 1 2 3 4 1 1 2 3 4 1 1 1 0

KIND & NO. OF USERS


per 75 males per 35 males per 1-100 males per 101-200 males per 201-400 males per 401-600 males For each additional 300 males per 1-100 males per 101-200 males per 201-400 males per 401-600 males For each additional 500 males Per 25 males per 50 males in excess of 150 0

Assembly Places ( Theaters and auditoriums)for public use)

Dormitories Industrial and Commercial

Scullery Fixtures Materials:


KITCHEN SINKS

Cast Iron Enamel Formed Steel Coated with Porcelain Enamel Stainless Steel

Configurations:
Single, Double or Triple Well Shallow or Deep Well

LAUNDRY TUBS

Materials:
Cement or Cement with Tiles Porcelain

Scullery Fixtures
SLOP SINKS
Where janitors clean & leave their mops

BAR SINKS

LAVATORIES

Types:
Pedestal Pullman or Counter (self-rimming, flush, undercounter) Wall Hung Through

Bathing Fixtures
BATHTUBS WHIRLPOOL BATHS
with removable panel of sufficient dimension to access pump circulation pump shall be located above the crown weir of the trap pump and circulation piping shall be self draining Metal enclosure containing shower head, valves and faucets

SHOWER BATHS

Bathing Fixtures
BIDETS

Setting:
Bidet center to side wall: minimum of 0.375 m Bidet center to bidet center: minimum of 0.75 m Luxury type bathtubs

JACUZZIS

Bathing Fixtures
FLOOR DRAINS
With approved-type hinged strainer plate having the sum of the areas of the small holes of the waterway equal to the cross-sectional area of the tailpiece Provided with integrally cast water stop outside flange around the body at mid depth and with an inside caulk outlet to provide a watertight joint in the floor

SHOWER RECEPTORS
Receptor floor shall drain not less than 2% slope or more than 4% slope.
Thresholds shall accommodate a minimum 559 mm wide door.

For wheelchair use, dam or curb may be eliminated.

Bathing Fixtures
SHOWER COMPARTMENTS
Shall have a minimum interior area of 0.6 sqm and shall be capable of encompassing a 762 mm diameter circle. This area shall be maintained from a point above the shower drain to a height of 1.78 m with no protrusions other than the fixture valve, shower head and safety grab rails.

Drains for gang shower rooms shall be spaced not more than 4.9 m apart.

SANITARY DRAINAGE SYSTEM

Sanitary Piping Layout


General Rules in designing the Sanitary system:
The pipes should take the shortest possible route to the house sewer or the terminating point of the Sanitary system Control components such as clean-outs, traps, and vents, should be located strategically so as to ensure efficiency

2 Subsystems of the Sanitary System:


Waste Collection System Ventilation System

Waste Pipe Vent Pipe

Essential Parts of the Sanitary Drainage System

conveys only wastewater or liquid waste free of fecal matter.

used for ensuring the circulation of air in a plumbing system and for relieving the negative pressure exerted on trap seals.

Trap
a fitting or device designed and constructed to provide, when properly vented, a liquid seal which prevents the backflow of foul air or methane gas without materially affecting the flow of sewage or wastewater through it.

Stack
the vertical main of a system of soil, waste or vent pipings extending through one or more stories and extended thru the roof.

Branch
any part of the piping system other than a main, riser or stack.

Essential Parts of the Sanitary Drainage System


House/Building Drain
part of the lowest horizontal piping of a plumbing system which receives the discharges from the soil, waste and other drainage pipes inside of a building and conveys it to the house sewer outside of the building.

House/Building Sewer
extends from the house drain at a point 0.60 meters from the outside face of the foundation wall of a building to the junction with the street sewer or to any point of discharge, and conveying the drainage of one building site.

Principles of Waste & Soil (EXCRETA) Pipes Roughing-in

CHANGES IN DIRECTION OF SANITARY DRAINAGE LINE

Horizontal to Horizontal change in direction


use 45 wye branches combination wye 1/8 bend branches, or other approved fittings of equivalent sweep

Vertical to Horizontal change in direction


45 wye branches or other approved fittings of equivalent sweep

Principles of Waste & Soil (EXCRETA) Pipes Roughing-in

Horizontal to vertical change in direction


use 45 or 60 wye branches, combination wye -1/8 bend branches, sanitary tee or sanitary tapped tee branches, or other approved fittings of equivalent sweeps. No fitting having more than one inlet at the same level shall be used (i.e., sanitary cross) Double sanitary tees may be used when the barrel of the fitting is at least two pipe (2) sizes larger than the largest inlet, (pipe sizes recognized for this purpose are 51, 64, 76, 89, 102, 114, 127, & 152 mm dia.)

Sanitary Drainage Lines


UNIT OF MEASUREMENT OF SIZES OF SANITARY DRAINAGE LINES
The size of waste pipes or soil pipes depend on the amount of waste it carries. A lavatory discharges 0.47 liters/sec or 28.3 liters/min (7.5 gallons per min or 1 cu ft per min), which is equivalent to the Fixture Unit (F.U.) The F.U. rating of plumbing fixtures is based on the size of required trap. For a continuous flow into a drainage system, such as from sump pump or ejector, air conditioning equipment or similar devices, two (2) fixture units shall be allowed for every 0.063 L/s of flow.

Sanitary Drainage Lines


Maximum Trap Loading
ITEM NO.
1 2 3 4 5

PIPE SIZE
32 mm 38 mm 51 mm 76 mm 102 mm

FIXTURE UNIT
1 3 4 6 8

Notes:
1.Capacity over 3.15 L/s shall be determined by the Administrative Authority. 2.For a continuous flow into a drainage system, such as from sump pump or ejector, air-conditioning equipment or similar devices, two (2) fixture units shall be allowed for every 0.063 L/s of flow. 3.1 gpm = 0.063 L/s

Exception: On self-service laundries.

Discharge Capacity
ITEM NO.
1
2 3 4

LITERS/SEC (GPM)
Up to 0.47 L/s (Up to 7.5 gpm)
0.50 to 0.95 (8 to 15 gpm) 1 to 1.89 (16 to 30 gpm) 1.95 to 3.15 (31 to 50 gpm)

FIXTURE UNIT
1
2 4 6

Sanitary Drainage Lines


MINIMUM SLOPE OF SANITARY DRAINAGE LINES
Minimum slope or pitch of horizontal drainage pipe 2% or 20mm/m ( per foot). Exception: Where it is impracticable due to depth of street sewer, adverse structural features and irregular building plans, pipes 102 mm dia or larger may have a slope of not less than 1% or 10mm/m, approved by the Administrative Authority

Traps & Interceptors Types of Permissible Traps:


The Common P-Trap
Used for lavatories, kitchen sinks, laundry tubs, & urinals Materials commonly used for the P-trap: nickel, chrome plated brass, Galvanized malleable copper, & PVC.

The Deep Seal P-Trap

Water seal is about twice the size of The common P-trap

Traps & Interceptors

The Stand Trap

Used for fixtures such as slop sinks That are usually built low in the ground, leaving very little space for a foundation & a trap Serves as a water seal & structural support for the fixture

The Running Trap


Used within the line of house drain

Traps & Interceptors Types of Permissible Traps:


The Drum Trap
Has a large diameter (around 0.16 m) Used for fixtures that discharge large amount of water (bathtubs, shower or floor drains)

Traps & Interceptors Types of Prohibited Traps:


Traps with movable parts or concealed interior partitions

No fixtures shall be double-trapped

The S-Trap
Predecessor of P-traps Used when not all traps had to connect to ventilation systems

Traps & Interceptors REQUIREMENTS:


Traps REQUIRED
Each plumbing fixture, excepting those with integral traps, shall be separately trapped with an approved-type waterseal trap. Not more than one trap shall be permitted on a trap arm
(portion of a fixture drain between a trap and the vent)

One trap, centrally located, may serve three single compartment sinks or laundry tubs or lavatories, adjacent to each other and in the same room, where their waste outlets are not more than 0.75 m apart.

Traps & Interceptors SIZE OF TRAPS:


The trap shall be the same size as the trap arm to which it is connected. Each fixture trap shall have a trap seal of water of not less than 51 mm and not more than 102 mm (except where a deeper seal is found necessary by the Administrative Authority for special conditions.

Traps & Interceptors


Minimum sizes of traps for common plumbing fixtures
ITEM NO.
1 2 3 Bathtubs Bidets Floor Drains

FIXTURE

TRAP & TRAP ARM SIZE


38 mm 38 mm 51 mm

DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNITS


2 2 2

4
5 6 7 8 9

Shower, single stall


Sink (residential) Urinal, wall mounted, integral trap Wash Basin (single) Water Closet (private installation) Water Closet (public installation)

51 mm
38 mm 51 mm 32 mm 76 mm 76 mm

2
2 3 1 4 6

Traps & Interceptors INSTALLATION OF TRAPS:


The vertical distance between a fixture outlet tailpiece and the trap weir shall not exceed 0.60 m in length.

Horizontal Distance of Trap Arms


TRAP ARM DIAMETER
32 mm

DISTANCE TO VENT
0.76 m

Note:

38 mm
51 mm 76 mm 102 mm & larger

1.07 m
1.52 m 1.83 m 3.05 m

In no case shall the trap distance be less than 2 times the diameter of the trap arm.

The developed length of the trap arm (measured from the top of closet ring to inner edge of vent ) of a water closet or similar fixture shall not exceed 1.8 m. For trap arm 76 mm dia or larger, a cleanout is required for a change of direction of greater than 22 .

Traps & Interceptors


INDUSTRIAL INTERCEPTORS (CLARIFIERS) & SEPARATORS:
Interceptors (a device designed and installed to separate and
retain deleterious, hazardous or undesirable matters from normal wastes and permits normal sewage or liquid wastes to discharge into the disposal terminal by gravity) shall have a water seal of

not less than 152 mm deep. Each interceptor shall be properly vented. Slaughterhouses, packing establishments, and any establishment which discharges wastewater with considerable amount of grease, hairs, feathers , etc. shall drain through a screening device and thence into a grease interceptor. Auto wash racks and/or floor or slabs used for cleaning machinery or machine parts shall be adequately protected against storm or surface water and shall drain into an interceptor which will separate oil and grease before the effluent reaches the public stream.

Clean-outs
REQUIREMENTS:
Clean-outs REQUIRED
at the upper terminal of every horizontal sewer or waste line at each run of piping more than 15 meters (50 feet) in total developed length

at every 15 m (50 ft) of total developed length or a fraction thereof additional clean-out shall be provided on a horizontal line with an aggregate offset angle exceeding 135 inside the building near the connection between the building drain and the building sewer or installed outside the building at the lower end of the building drain and extended to grade.

Clean-outs

Clean-outs NOT REQUIRED


on a horizontal drain less than 1.5 m in length unless such line is serving sinks or urinals.
on short horizontal drainage pipe installed at a slope of 72 deg or less from the vertical line (or at an angle of 1/5 bend)

Clean-outs
SIZE OF CLEAN-OUTS:
Size of clean-out shall be in conformity with the size of pipe served

Clean-Out Size
SIZE OF PIPE
38 mm 51 mm 64 mm 76 mm 102 mm & larger

SIZE OF CLEANOUT
38 mm 38 mm 64 mm 64 mm 89 mm

THREADS PER 25.4MM


11-1/2 11-1/2 8 8 8

Clean-outs
INSTALLATION OF CLEAN-OUTS:
Each clean-out shall be installed so it opens with the direction of flow or at right angles to the direction of flow except in the case of a wye branch. Each 90 clean-out extension shall be constructed from a wye fitting or an approved fitting of equivalent sweep.

Each clean-out 51 mm or less shall have a front clearance of not less than 305 mm; those 51 mm or more shall have a front clearance of 450 mm. Clean-outs in underfloor piping shall be extended to or above finish floor or shall be extended outside the building when there is less than 450 mm vertical clearance or 750 horizontal clearance to the means of access. No underfloor clean-out for residential occupancies shall be located more than 6.1 m from an access door, trap door or crawl hole.

Vents & Venting System VENTILATION


Portion of the drainage pipe installation intended to maintain a balanced atmospheric pressure inside the system

Vent Pipe- a pipe or opening used for ensuring the


circulation of air in a plumbing system and for relieving the negative pressure exerted on trap seals.

Vents & Venting System

Main Types:
Main Soil & Waste Vent

VENTS

the backbone of the entire sanitary system Connected to the Main Soil & Waste Stack The portion where waste does not travel through Continues to the roof; the portion penetrating the roof is called the Vent Stack Through Roof (VSTR)

Vents & Venting System


Main Vent
the principal artery of the venting system to which vent branches are connected. a.k.a. Collecting Vent Line serves as support to the Main Soil & Waste Vent

Vents & Venting System


Individual Vent or Back Vent

a pipe installed to vent a fixture trap, that connects with the vent system above the fixture served or terminates in the open air.

Vents & Venting System

Other Types:
Unit, Common or Dual Vent

an arrangement of venting so installed that one vent pipe sill serve two (2) traps.

Vents & Venting System


Relief Vent

a vertical vent line that provides additional circulation of air between the drainage and vent systems or to act as an auxiliary vent on a specially designed system such as a yoke vent connection between the soil and vent stacks.

Vents & Venting System


Yoke or By-pass Vent

a pipe connecting upward from a soil or waste stack below the floor and below horizontal connection to an adjacent vent stack at a point above the floor and higher than the highest spill level of fixtures for preventing pressure changes in the stacks.

Vents & Venting System


Circuit Vent

a group vent pipe which starts in front of the extreme (highest) fixture connection on a horizontal branch and connects to the vent stack. a.k.a. Loop Vent Serves a battery of fixtures

Vents & Venting System


Looped Vent

a vertical vent connection on a horizontal soil or waste pipe branch at a point downstream of the last fixture connection and turning to a horizontal line above the highest overflow level of the highest fixture connected there Used in spaces without partitions

Vents & Venting System


Wet Vent
that portion of a vent pipe through which wastewater also flows through.

Vents & Venting System


Local Vent
a pipe or shaft to convey foul air from a plumbing fixture or a room to the outer air.

Dry Vent
a vent that does not carry liquid or water-borne wastes.

Vents & Venting System


Stack Vent
the extension of a soil or waste stack above the highest horizontal drain connected to the stack.

Vent Stack
the vertical vent pipe installed primarily for providing circulation of air to and from any part of the soil, waste of the drainage system. The uppermost end above the roof is called Vent Stack Through Roof (VSTR).

Vents & Venting System REQUIREMENTS:


Vents REQUIRED
Each trap shall be protected against siphonage and backpressure through venting.

Vents NOT REQUIRED


on a primary settling tank interceptor which discharges through a horizontal indirect waste pipe into a secondary interceptor. The secondary interceptor shall be properly tapped and vented. Traps serving sinks in an island bar counter. Such sink shall discharge by means of an approved indirect waste pipe into a floor sink or other approved type receptor.

Vents & Venting System SIZE OF VENTS:


The sizes of vent piping shall be determined from its length and the total number of fixture units connected thereto. The diameter of an individual vent shall not be less than 32 mm (1-1/4) nor less in size than one-half (1/2) the diameter of the drain to which it is connected.

Installation of Vents
GRADES & CONNECTIONS
All horizontal or branch vents shall be free from drops or sags & shall be graded and connected to drip back by gravity to the drainage pipe it serves. Each vent shall rise vertically 152 mm above the highest level rim of the fixtures served before offsetting horizontally. All vent pipes shall extend undiminished in size above the roof or shall be reconnected to the soil or waste stack vent at a point below the roof. The vent stack through roof (VSTR) shall be increased one (1) pipe size above the connection between the stack vent and the horizontal vent. Two (2) fixtures having same level inlet openings, may be served by a common vertical vent pipe connected to an approved double branch fitting.

Installation of Vents
VENT TERMINATION
VSTR shall terminate vertically not less than 150 mm above the roof nor less than 300 mm from any vertical surface nearby. Each vent opening shall terminate: Not less than 3.00 m from any openable window; Not less than 0.90 m above any openable window; Not less than 0.90 m away from any lot line, alley and street boundary lines. Vertical vent pipes shall extend 3.00 m distant from any part of the roof that is used for human activities and shall extend not less than 2.10 m above such roof.

Installation of Vents
VENT STACK & RELIEF VENTS
Each soil or waste stack extending ten (10) or more storeys above the building drain shall be served by a parallel vent stack which shall extend undiminished in size from its upper terminal at the roof and connect to the soil or waste stack at ground level and at every fifth floor levels with a yoke vent at a point below the horizontal soil or waste branch connection to the stack and at the nearby vent stack above the same floor to provide a relief vent. The size of yoke vent shall be not less in diameter than either the soil stack or the vent stack, whichever is smaller.

The yoke vent connection at the vent stack shall be placed 1.0 m above the floor level and, by means of a wye branch at the soil stack, shall be placed below the fixture branch serving that floor.

Vents & Venting System


SANITARY SYSTEM PROBLEMS:
Trap Seal Loss
- Direct effect of the Minus & Plus Pressure inside the system due to inadequate ventilation of traps - Attributed to the following conditions: Siphonage Back Pressure Evaporation Capillary Action Wind Effects

Retardation of flow
Due to the effect of atmospheric pressure and/or gravity

Deterioration of the Materials

INDIRECT WASTE PIPING, WET-VENTED SYSTEMS & SPECIAL WASTES

Indirect Waste Pipe


is a pipe that does not connect directly with the drainage system but conveys liquid wastes by discharging into a plumbing fixture, interceptor or receptacle directly connected to the drainage system.

House Drain Appliances


HOUSE DRAIN APPLIANCES:

GREASE TRAPS:
For establishments like restaurants, cafes, lunch counters, cafeterias, bars and clubs, hotel, hospital, sanitarium, factory or school kitchens. A grease trap is not required for individual dwelling units. No grease trap shall be installed for a facility that has an approved rate of flow of more than 3.4 liters per second (54.26 gpm) nor less than 1.3 L/s (20.74 gpm).

Each grease trap shall have an approved water seal of not less than 51 mm in depth or the diameter of its outlet, whichever is greater.
No food waste disposal unit shall discharge into a grease interceptor or grease trap.

House Drain Appliances

GREASE TRAPS:
Used for fixtures where grease may be introduced into the drainage or sewer system in quantities that can effect line stoppage or hinder sewage treatment or private sewage disposal.

2 Main Types
Earth Cooled Grease Trap Mechanical Grease Trap

House Drain Appliances


Operating Principles (separation of grease from water): grease suspended in waste floats to the surface

Earth cooled Grease Trap

Mechanical Grease Trap

Traps & Interceptors

Grease Trap Capacity


TOTAL # OF FIXTURES CONNECTED
1

REQUIRED RATE OF FLOW


76 L/ min.

GREASE RETENTION CAPACITY


18 Kg

2
3 4

95 L/ min.
132 L/ min. 189 L/ min.

23 Kg
32 Kg 45 Kg

House Drain Appliances


HOUSE TRAPS:
Placed in the house drain immediately inside the foundation wall of the building

Drain Tiles:
Used to prevent groundwater from seeping through the basement walls & foundation Hollow tiles are placed around the perimeter of the foundation where water is collected; drain tiles are connected to the house Drain or sump pit

House Drain Appliances


Garage Traps:
a.k.a. garage catch basin

Operating Principles: trap is filled with water & located at the Lowest point of the garage so it can collect all wastes.

House Drain Appliances


Back Flow Valves:
Used in house drain to prevent the unlikely occurrence of back flows Similar to check valves

House Drain Appliances


The Sewage Ejectors:
Pumps the wastes up form the sump pit to the sewers (which are usually higher than basement levels)

Private Sewage Disposal Systems


DISPOSAL PHASE- the final stage of the plumbing process; where used water and water-carried wastes are brought to various disposal outlets

Definition:

SEPTIC TANKS

A watertight covered receptacle designed and constructed to receive the discharge of sewage from a building sewer, separate solids from the liquid, digest organic matter and store digested solids through a period of detention, and allow the clarified liquids to discharge for final disposal

SLUDGE- solid organic matter that are denser than water


and settle at the bottom of the septic tank

SCUM- lighter organic material that rise to the surface of


the water

EFFLUENT- liquid content of sewage

Private Sewage Disposal Systems

Bacteria in septic tank to encourage decomposition:


Aerobic bacteria- relies on oxygen to survive Anaerobic bacteria- can survive in places without
oxygen

Private Sewage Disposal Systems

Private Sewage Disposal Systems SINGLE CHAMBER SEPTIC TANK:

Private Sewage Disposal Systems


DESIGN CRITERIA:

PLANS:
should show all dimensions, reinforcing, structural calculations, and such other pertinent data as needed.

QUALITY OF DESIGN:
shall be such as to produce a clarified effluent of acceptable standards and shall provide adequate space for sludge and scum accumulations.

MATERIALS:
constructed of durable materials, not subject to excessive corrosion or decay, shall be watertight. Material: cement (usually) or pre-fabricated cast iron

Private Sewage Disposal Systems


COMPARTMENTS:
have a minimum of 2 compartments: First compartment: not less than 2/3 capacity of the total capacity of tank; not less than 2 cum liquid capacity; shall be at least 0.9 m width and 1.5 m long; Liquid depth not less than 0.6 m nor more than 1.8 m. Secondary compartment: maximum capacity of 1/3 total capacity of tank; minimum of 1 cum liquid capacity In septic tanks having over 6 cum capacity, the secondary compartment should be not less than 1.5 m in length. maintain a slope of 1:10 at the bottom of the digestion chamber to collect the sludge and make it easily accessible from the manhole

MANHOLES:
with at least two (2) manholes, 508 mm in min dimension; one over inlet, other over outlet. Wherever first compartment exceeds 3.7 m in length, an additional manhole required over the baffle wall.

Private Sewage Disposal Systems


SIZES OF PIPE INLET & OUTLET & THEIR VERTICAL LEGS:
Inlet and Outlet pipes diameter size not less than the sewer pipe Vertical legs of inlet and outlet pipes diameter size not less than the sewer pipe nor less than 104.6 mm.

LENGTH AND LOCATION OF INLET & OUTLET:


Shall extend 101.6 mm above and at least 304.8 mm below the water surface Invert of the inlet pipe shall be at a level not less than 50.8 mm above the invert of the outlet pipe.

VENT DIAMETER:
equal to the cross sectional area of the house sewer.

Private Sewage Disposal Systems


AIR SPACE:
Side walls shall extend 228.6 mm above liquid depth. Cover of septic tank shall be at least 50.8 mm above the back vent openings.

PARTITION (between compartments):


An inverted fitting equivalent in size to the tank inlet, but in no case less than 104.6 mm in diameter, shall be installed in the inlet compartment side of the baffle with the bottom of the fitting placed midway in the depth of the liquid. Wooden baffles are prohibited.

STRUCTURE:
Shall be capable of supporting an earth load of not less than 14.4 kPa

Private Sewage Disposal Systems


CAPACITY:
The capacity of septic tanks is determined by the number of bedrooms or apartment units in dwelling occupancies; by the estimated waste/sewage design flow rate for various building occupancies; or by the number of fixture units of all plumbing fixtures; whichever is greater.

The capacity of any one septic tank and its drainage system shall also be limited by the soil structure classification in its drainage field.

LOCATION:
Should not be located underneath the house At least 15 meters from the water distribution system

SEWERS
CLASSIFICATION OF SEWERS:
Combination Public Sewers
Oldest variety Carries both storm & sanitary wastes

Storm Sewers
Carries only rainwater collected from the storm drain or from the streets
Terminates at natural drainage areas (i.e. lakes, rivers, and water reservoirs) Require manholes to serve as cleanouts and to make sewers accessible for inspection and repair built at depth of about 2 to 3 meters; diameter ranging from 0.6 to 1.2 meters

SEWERS
Sanitary Sewers
Carries regular sanitary wastes only Terminates in a modern sewage disposal plant for treatment Built at a depth of 3 meters

2 TYPES OF SANITARY SEWERS:


Tributary Sewers
Termination points of individual units or structures Usually round shaped, with diameters between 0.60 to 1.2 meters Made of vitrified clay or cement pipes; often installed by the curb line, before the street

SEWERS
Intercepting Sewers
a.k.a. collecting sewers Termination points of tributary sewers Placed much lower in the ground, from 4 to 30 meters in depth Varies in shape but have a diameter or effective opening ranging from 0.60 to 3 meters

Sloped at an angle of 1:50 or 2% Lifting stations are placed at certain intervals and pumps or sewage ejectors are used to lift the waste; sewers terminate at the disposal plant

SEWERS
REQUIREMENTS:
Sewers REQUIRED
Drainage pipes of all buildings shall be connected to the public sewer. When not available, they shall be connected to an approved private sewage disposal system.

Public sewer may be considered as not being available if it is more than 61 meters from any proposed building or exterior drainage facility.
Exception: Single family dwellings with an existing private sewage disposal system may not be connected to a new public sewer when no hazard, nuisance or unsanitary condition is evident and when there is no sufficient grade or fall existing to permit proper drainage flow by gravity to the public sewer.

SEWERS
DAMAGE TO PUBLIC SEWER OR PRIVATE SEWAGE DISPOSAL SYSTEM
It is unlawful to discharge any ashes, cinders, solids, rags, flammable, poisonous, explosive liquids or gases, oils, grease, and other things whatsoever which would cause damage to the public sewer or private disposal system. No rain, surface or subsurface waters shall discharge into any excreta drainage system. No cesspool and septic tank effluents, seepage pit or under drain system shall be connected to the excreta building sewer leading to a public sewer main. No commercial food waste grinder shall be connected to a private or public sewage disposal system.

SEWERS
SIZE OF SEWER:
The minimum size of any building sewer shall be determined on the basis of the total number of fixture units drained by such sewer. No building sewer shall be smaller than 150 mm diameter nor less in size than the building drain.

SEWERS
INSTALLATION OF SEWER:
Building sewers shall be run in practical alignment at a uniform slope of not less than 2% or 21 mm/m toward the point of disposal. Exception: When impractical due to depth of street sewer, structural features or to adverse arrangement of building, to obtain a slope of 2%, sewers 102 mm and 152 mm in dia may have a slope of not less than 1% (10.5 mm/m) and those 203 mm dia and larger may have a slope of not less than 0.5% (5.3 mm/m)

SEWERS

No building sewer shall be installed less than 0.6 meter from the outer face of any building foundation, nor less than 0.3 meter below the finish surface of the ground. Location of building sewer in relation to other services is shown below. 0.60 m from any building or structure 15.2 m from water supply wells 15.2 m from streams 0.30 m from domestic supply pipes 0.30 m from public water main

SEWERS
Building sewer or drainage pipe of clay or materials which are not approved for use within a building shall not be laid in the same trench as water pipes unless (NPC 1208.1); the bottom of the water pipe is 0.3 meter above the top of the sewer or drainage pipe (NPC 1208.1.1), the water pipe is placed on a solid shelf excavated at one side of the common trench with a minimum horizontal distance of at least 0.3 m from the sewer or drain pipe (NPC 1208.1.2). Water pipes crossing sewer or drainage pipe of clay or materials which are not approved for use within a building shall be laid a minimum of 0.3 m clear above the sewer or drain pipe. Water pipe joint shall be installed not less than 3 meters away from sewer line in both directions.

Private Sewage Disposal Systems


DESIGN CRITERIA:

DISPOSAL FIELDS

AREA:
dependent on the required septic tank capacity or estimated sewage flow rate, whichever is greater, and; the type of soil found in the excavation.

DISTANCE FROM WATER TABLE:


No excavation for leach bed shall extend within 1.5 m of the water table.

WITH SEEPAGE PIT:


Filter material in the trenches shall terminate 1.5 m from pit excavation and the pipe extending from such points to the seepage pit shall be watertight.

Private Sewage Disposal Systems


DESIGN CRITERIA:

SEEPAGE PITS

CAPACITY:
based on the quantity of liquid waste and on the character and porosity of the surrounding soil.

MINIMUM EFFECTIVE ABSORPTION AREA:


calculated as the excavated side wall area below the inlet.

MULTIPLE SEEPAGE PITS:


served through a distribution box or shall be connected in series by means of a watertight connection. The outlet shall have a vented leg fitting extending 304.8 mm below the inlet fitting.

Private Sewage Disposal Systems SIZE OF SEEPAGE PIT:


Circular in shape with excavated diameter of not less than 2.2 m and to be lined with clay or concrete brick.

STRENGTH:
Brick lining shall have a minimum compressive strength of 17225 kPa.

Private Sewage Disposal Systems

CESSPOOLS

Private Sewage Disposal Systems


DESIGN CRITERIA:

TEMPORARY PERMITS:
Temporary expedient pending the construction of a public sewer, so long as it is established that a public sewer will be available in less than 2 years and the soil and ground water conditions are favorable; As an overflow facility when installed in conjunction with an existing cesspool; As a means of sewage disposal for limited, minor, or temporary uses.

Private Sewage Disposal Systems

COMMERCIAL / INDUSTRIAL SPECIAL LIQUID WASTE DISPOSAL


DESIGN CRITERIA:

REQUIREMENTS:
When liquid wastes containing excessive amounts of grease, garbage, flammable wastes, sand, or other ingredients which may affect the operation of a private sewage disposal system, an interceptor for such waste shall be installed.

DISPOSAL:
Waste from interceptors may be discharged to a septic tank or other primary system or into a separate disposal system.

Private Sewage Disposal Systems


GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR PRIVATE SEWAGE DISPOSAL SYSTEMS

Location of Sewage Disposal System


MIN. HORIZONTAL DISTANCE IN CLEAR REQUIRED FROM
1
2

BLDG SEWER
0.6 m
Clear**

SEPTIC TANK
1.5 m
1.5 m

DISPOSAL FIELD
2.4 m
1.5 m

SEEPAGE PIT OR CESSPOOL


2.4 m
2.4 m

Buildings or structures*
Property line Adjoining private Property

3
4 5

Water supply wells


Streams Trees

15.2 m
15.2 m -

15.2 m
15.2 m 3m

30.5 m
15.2 m -

45.7 m
30.5 m 3m

Private Sewage Disposal Systems


GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR PRIVATE SEWAGE DISPOSAL SYSTEMS Location of Sewage Disposal System
MIN. HORIZONTAL DISTANCE IN CLEAR REQUIRED FROM
6
7 8 9

BLDG SEWER
-

SEPTIC TANK
1.5 m
1.5 m

DISPOSAL FIELD
1.5 m
1.2 m 1.5 m 3m

SEEPAGE PIT OR CESSPOOL


3.7 m
1.5 m 1.5 m 3m

Seepage pits or Cesspools


Disposal field On site domestic Water service line Pressure public Water main

0.3 m 3m

1.5 m 3m

Sewage Treatment Plan (STP)


Some features of STP:
An aeration system within the tank; A submersible mixer to mix the waste; A sludge waste pump that aids in clarifying; A decanter; Blowers; A fully electronic control system, etc.

Water Recycling 2 Most Common Types of Municipal Sewage Treatment


The Activated Sludge Process
Involves a series of stations where the raw sewage must pass through First Phase- gets rid of heavy materials with the use of three different filter houses Second Phase- clarifies the effluent Third Phase- hardens the sludge and converts it to fertilizers

Produces water with 99-99.5% purity

Water Recycling
The Activated Sludge Process 1. Grit Chamber Raw sewage inlet 2. Coarse screen house 4. incinerator 3. Fine screen house 5. Activated sludge tank 8. Power House 6. Aerating basin 7. Clarifier 11. Chemical house 13. Vacuum power house outlet

9. Drier house

10. Liquid extractor house

12. warehouse

Water Recycling
The Trickling Filter Process
a.k.a Percolating or Sprinkling Filter System Requires less mechanical elements and less stages
Produces water with 95% purity Requires a large ground area for its building

STORM DRAINAGE SYSTEM

Rainwater Pipes
DOWNSPOUTS OR CONDUCTOR PIPES, GUTTERS
Rainwater piping shall not be used as soil, waste and vent pipes. Downspout and gutter sizes are based upon the maximum depth of rainfall per hour falling upon a given roof area in square meters. Normally a 102 mm/hr rainfall intensity is used around Metro Manila. Gutter sizes are also dependent on the slope of the horizontal pipe. Round, square (sized to enclose its equivalent round pipe) or rectangular
(shall have at least the same cross-sectional area as its equivalent round pipe, except that the ratio of its side dimensions shall not exceed 3 to 1) rainwater

pipes may be used for downspouts. Downspouts for high-rise buildings shall be of stronger pipe materials to resist the high hydrostatic pressure, they shall be installed within a pipe chase, and have no intermediate branch from the roof to the ground level.

Rainwater Pipes ROOF DRAINS


Roof drains shall be equipped with dome-type strainers extending 102 mm above the surface of the roof surface. With a minimum total net inlet area of 1 times the area of the outlet pipe to which it is connected. Roof deck strainers shall be approved flat-surface type, with a total net inlet area not less than 2 times the area of the outlet pipe to which the drain is connected. Roof drains passing through building interiors shall be made watertight by the use of C.I. drain with integrally-cast waterstop ring around the outside of the body and placed at mid-depth of the concrete roof slab and the installation of a clamped suitable flashing material around the drain. In all cases the outlet connections are inside-caulk or female screwed.

Storm Water System


3 Major Systems of Collecting Storm Water:
The Independent System
a.k.a. the Separate System Brings collected water directly to the water reservoirs

Storm Water System


The Combined System
Combines storm water with sanitary wastes

Storm Water System

The Natural System


Without using any roof gutters or downspouts Also when rainwater are collected in cisterns

Storm Water System


Roofing Elements to Collect Rainwater:

The Gutter
Usually located along the entire perimeter of the roof

The Downspout
Located every 8 to 10 meters & at every corner of the roof (but, to avoid clogging of pipes, it is best to locate them every 4 to 6 m)

Storm Water System


The Strainer or Roof Drain
Used to prevent clogging of pipes

The Shoe

Storm Water System


The Catch Basin
Downspouts should terminate in a catch basin (can serve more than one downspout) Delivers water to the sewers in the street via gravity

The Storm Line


Connects to each catch basin

PIPES and FITTINGS

Pipes & Fittings


Acid Resistant Cast Iron Pipe
Made of an alloy of cast iron and silicon Installed where acid wastes are being discharged Brittle

Cast Iron Soil Pipe


Most popular and generally specified material for drainage installation. Durable, conveniently installed (<25 storey) Commercial length: 600 cm Diameters: 50-150mm SPIGOT HUB

2 Types:
SV type XV type -

generally used; for building installations extra duty; for underground installations

Pipes & Fittings


4 Varieties:
Standard Pipe Single Hub Pipe

Double Hub Pipe

Hubless Pipe

Pipes & Fittings


Asbestos Pipe
Made of an asbestos fibers and portland cement Used as soil, waste, ventilation pipe & downspouts

Joints:
Grouted and firmly packed with oakum or old hemp Rope soaked in tar with pure lead or cement mortar (not less than 25mm deep well calked) Cement mortar (in place of mineral lead) for chimneys

Bituminous Fiber Sewer Pipe


cheapest Light in weight, slightly flexible and could take slight soil movement without danger of cracking or pulling out of its joints may be softened/damaged by excessive hot water or chemical flow

Pipes & Fittings


Vitrified Clay Pipe
One of the oldest materials used for sewer lines Highly resistant to most acids Brittle

Lead Pipe
Highly resistant to acid Poisonous and injurious, is therefore not recommended to convey water for human consumption

Galvanized Wrought Iron Pipe


Better then steel pipe for plumbing installation Resistant to acid waste

Pipes & Fittings


Copper Pipe
Durable and extremely corrosive resistant Easy to install Smooth interior surface

Classification:

K type- heaviest; for underground L type- lighter; in both rigid and flexible form; for
residential water supply line and radiant heating installations M type- thinnest; in rigid form; for small water supply lines and radiant heating installations

Brass Pipe
Most expensive Made of an alloy or zinc (15%) and copper (85%) Resistant to acids and has a smooth interior surface

Pipes & Fittings


Plastic or Synthetic Pipe
Developed in Germany in 1935 Most are produced from synthetic resins

2 Types:
Rigid type
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride (CPVC) Unplasticized Polyvinyl Chloride (UPVC) Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) Polypropylene (PP) Styrene Rubber Plastic (SR)

Flexible type
The Polyethylene (PE)The Polybutylene (PB)coil form; 30 m long coil form; 30 m 150 m long

Pipes & Fittings


Considerations in choosing materials:
Quality and durability.
Resistance to external and internal contact with foreign matters. Resistance to acid waste and other chemical elements that will pass into it. Cost of materials and labor.

Pipes & Fittings


Types of Fittings:
COUPLING/ SOCKET EXTENSION PIECE/ NIPPLE MALE ADAPTOR

FEMALE ADAPTOR 45 STREET ELBOW 90 STREET ELBOW

REDUCER

REDUCING ELBOW

Pipes & Fittings


UNION CROSS TEE

PLUG
REDUCING TEE DOUBLE HUB CAP

Pipes & Fittings


Other water Service Fittings & Devices:
CORPORATION STOP METER STOP CURB STOP CURB STOP BOX WATER METER

Pipes & Fittings


Sanitary Fittings

Pipes & Fittings

Working Drawings
Piping Symbols for Plumbing:
DRAIN OR WASTE ABOVE GROUND DRAIN OR WASTE BELOW GROUND VENT
SD

STORM DRAIN COLD WATER

SW

SOFT COLD WATER HOT WATER

SPRINKLER MAIN SPRINKLER BRANCH AND HEAD

Working Drawings

G A V

GAS COMPRESSED AIR VACUUM SEWER CAST IRON SEWER CLAY TILE SEWER PLASTIC

S - CI
S - CT S-P

Working Drawings
Plumbing Abbreviations:
ITEM
Cast Iron Centerline Cleanout Cold Water Copper Dishwasher Floor Drain Galvanized Iron Hose Bib

ABBR.
CI CL CO CW COP. DW FD GAL. I HB

ITEM
Hot Water Laundry Tray Lavatory Medicine Cabinet Plastic Plumbing Water Closet Water Heater Water Softener

ABBR.
HW LT LAV. MC PLAS. PLBG. WC WH WS

Working Drawings
Pipe & Fitting Symbols:

Working Drawings

Working Drawings

Working Drawings

FUEL GAS PIPING SYSTEM

LP Gas
Liquefied Petroleum Gas saturated hydrocarbons found in petroleum (i.e. butane, propane, isobutane, etc.) a.k.a. Bottled Gas for Home, Commercial and Industrial Use

Typical LP Gas service installation:


CYLINDER - where gas is stored PIGTAIL - where high pressure vapor flows through when cylinder valve is opened

REGULATOR -reduces the high pressure -of gas to the proper operating gas pressure of the appliance

LP Gas
Safety Precautions for installation of LP Gas Cylinders & Gas Appliances: Location of Cylinders
Install out of doors or in a building or section of a building having good floor and ceiling level ventilation directly to the open; (outdoors) in areas with no (combustible materials) vegetation (i.e. Grass, weeds) waste paper, garbage, etc. within 19 feet of a cylinder Locate in a place where it is accessible to LP Gas deliverymen Install on a firm, dry, level foundation (cement or cement blocks) to prevent damage to the bottom ring from soil corrosion Do not place below ground level; maintain at least a 3 ft. distance from drains, culverts, or entrances and openings leading to cellars & other depressions (where gas might accumulate)

LP Gas
Locate in a place safe from accidental damage from vehicles & tampering by children or unauthorized persons; should be protected by cylinder hoods (if located in driveways or alleys) Use in the upright position, with the valves uppermost. Do not place close to steam pipes or any other source of heat When cylinders are being connected/disconnected there should be no open flame or similar source of ignition in the vicinity Close the cylinder valves before disconnecting Replace cylinder cap when the cylinder is disconnected to protect the cylinder valve in transit and prevent the cylinder valve from being used as a handle

LP Gas
Safety Precautions for installation of LP Gas Cylinders & Gas Appliances: Pressure Regulators & Other Service Equipment
Pressure regulators, copper tube pigtails, throw-over- valves and manifolds which are connected to the cylinders should be rigidly supported The vent in the regulator should be facing downward (to prevent entry of rain) All safety valve outlets in the service equipment should be vented to the open air & not choked with dust or other foreign matter

LP Gas
Gas Piping & Shut-Off Valves
Piping should be adequately supported to the well, beyond the reach of people passing by. When pipes pass thru floors, walls or partitions, no joints should be allowed at these places to minimize danger of leaks. Piping should not be run in or through elevator shafts, air or ventilation ducts, chimneys or flues. Ends of piping should not be plugged with cork, wood, paper, etc., the correct terminal fitting should be used. Suitable gas line shut-off valve should be fitted for every appliance. Both ends of the connection to portable appliances should be securely attached by means of clips. Hose should be of a type resistant to LP gas.

LP Gas
Location of Appliance
The location of the gas appliance in the kitchen should be decided before the piping is laid out. Appliances should be set where conditions for ventilations and air circulation are met. A permanent and adequate air supply should be provided for the appliance. This source of air for combustion and ventilation should not be subject to accidental interruption or curtailment. Appliance should be installed in a way to allow ease of repair and adjustment of appliance burners and parts A water heater should be installed in a place with adequate ventilation and with a sufficient clearance between ceiling and top of heater.

LP Gas
Testing for Leaks
Before any system of gas piping is finally put into service, it should be carefully tested to ensure that it is gastight. Where any part of the system is to be enclosed or concealed, this test should precede the work of closing in. Matches, candles, or other sources of ignition should not be used to check for gas leakage. The position of a leak may be detected by using soap solution. Leaking or otherwise defective pipes or fittings should be replaced. No attempt should be made to affect temporary repair.

Inspection & Test


Water Testing:
Testing of water supply piping is conducted by closing all outlets & filling the system with water from the main to locate leaks and other potential problems

Air Pressure Testing:


Used in detecting leaks by filling the piping system with compressed air (use of soap suds in locating escaping air)

Joints & Connections


Tightness:
Perform Pressure Test on joints and connections of pipes & fittings to ensure gastight & watertight connections.

Types of Joints:
Caulked Joints
For bell-and-spigot cast iron soil pipe & other similar joints

Face to face distance engagement length

Joints & Connections


Calking:
Align pipes Packing OakumWrap an oakum or hemp around the spigot Neck; Drive the oakum into the bottom of the hub using a yarning iron; compress firmly (make a 20-25mm clearance from top of bell) Ladle Lead- Seal joint with lead (3mm above bell) Packing with Calking Iron

Joints & Connections


Threaded Joints
For iron pipe size (IPS), pipe and fittings shall be standard taper pipe threads Threads on plastic pipe shall be factory cut or molded Lubricate clean-out plugs & caps with water-soluble, non-hardening material

Considerations:
Direct Connections The manner of planning and layouting of pipes; Short and direct installations of pipelines (if possible) Measuring and Cutting Threading Operations Sizing of the Pipes

Joints & Connections


Solder & Sweat Joints
For joints in copper tubing Solders and fluxes with lead content which exceeds 0.002 are prohibited in piping systems used to convey potable water

Soldering of joints:
Clean pipe with emery cloth (or fine sand paper) Apply (non corrosive) flux or soldering paste Heat the fitting with a propane torch Apply (non corrosive) flux or soldering paste Wrap soldered joint with wet rags

Joints & Connections


Wiped Joints
Joints in lead pipe or fittings; between lead pipe or fittings & brass or copper pipe, ferrules, solder nipples or traps Joints between lead pipe & cast iron, steel or wrought iron pipe shall be made by means of a caulking ferrule or soldering nipple For soft copper, water tubing shall be expanded with a proper flaring tool

Flared Joints

Cement Mortar Joints

Prohibited on new building sewers

Joints & Connections


Asbestos Cement Sewer Pipe Joints
Shall be a sleeve coupling of the same composition as the pipe or of other approved materials, and sealed with neoprene rubber rings or joined by an approved type compression coupling

Joints & Connections

Burned Lead Joints

Shall be lapped and the assembly shall be fused together to form a uniform weld at least as thick as the lead sheets being joined

Copper Water Tube

joints shall be made by the use of approved brass fittings soldered, or by brass compression type fitting

Joints & Connections


Solvent Cement Plastic Pipe Joints
Shall comply with appropriate IAMPO installation standard

Method:
Measure the face to face distance of the fittings Cut with sharp knife/hacksaw/handsaw Clean pipe end with Methyl Ethyl Keton (MEK) or Acetone Apply solvent cement to the shoulder fitting and butt-end of pipe Insert pipe into the fitting When bending plastic pipes, pack pipe with sand then heat using flame torch or hot water, gradually applying pressure

Joints & Connections


Special Joints:
Copper Tubing To Screw Pipe Joints Slip Joints Expansion Joints
Joints shall be made by use of brass adaptor fittings Joints shall be properly sweated or soldered Used in fixture traps (exposed for Maintenance) and drains Used in soil & waste stack Joints shall be free & accessible

Joints & Connections

Unions

May be used in drainage work when accessibly located in the trap seal or Between a fixture & its trap

Plastic Pipe Connection to Other Materials

Use only approved types of fittings & adapters designed for the specific transition intended

Joints & Connections


Flanged Fixture Connections:
Fixture connections between drainage pipes & water closets, floor outlet service sinks, pedestal urinals, and earthenware trap standards shall be by means of approved brass, hard lead, ABS, PVC, or iron flanges caulked, soldered, solvent cemented or screwed to the drainage pipe Closet beds or stubs must be cut off square Wall-mounted water closet fixtures shall be securely bolted to an approved carrier fitting; Gasket material shall be graphite-impregnated asbestos, felt, or similar approved types

Joints & Connections


Prohibited Joints & Connections:
For Drainage Systems any fitting or connection
which has an enlargement, chamber or recess with a ledge, shoulder or reduction of pipe area, that offers any obstructions to flow through the drain An enlargement of 76 mm to 102 mm closet bend or stub shall be considered an obstruction

Hangers & Supports


Supporting Cast-iron Pipe:
Supports shall be placed at every joint on horizontal runs unless distance between joints is less than 4 ft. Use strap iron or special pipe hangers for this purpose

Hangers & Supports


Vertical runs of cast-iron pipe can be attached to the building structure with wire staples, vertical pipe brackets or pie straps

Friction clamps should support the weight of cast-iron pipe at each floor level

Hangers & Supports


Masonry Anchors/Fasteners:
Lag shields (made from lead) are commonly used to
attach pipe hangers or fixtures to concrete or masonry

Hangers & Supports


Caulking anchors provide a fastener which is
permanently attached to the concrete or masonry; it is internally threaded to accept machine screws and bolts

Hangers & Supports


Toggle Bolts are used
when attaching pipes to hollow masonry units; with spring-operated wings

Hangers & Supports


Plastic Anchors can be installed in smaller holes