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MODELS OF READING: INTERACTIVE-CONSTRUCTIVE & NEW LITERACY APPROACHES

TSL 591: LECTURE 3 HUDSON (CHAP 2)

SIGNPOST
INTERACTION IN THE READING PROCESS INTERACTIVE APPROACHES RUMELHART MODEL STANOVICH MODEL ANDERSON & PEARSON SCHEMA-THEORETIC VIEW PEARSON & TIERNEY R/W MODEL MATHEWSONS MODEL NEW LITERACY APPROACHES

INTERACTION IN THE READING PROCESS


Bottom-up + top-down models of reading Focus either on the reading process (cognitive processes) Or the product of readers interaction with the info & prior knowledge

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Important features:
A) Automaticity (application of lower level skills)
In other words application of lower level reading skills is done automatically

B) Interaction between text & background knowledge


Interaction of the writers intentions and the interpretations What are the two meanings of the following sentence? Flying planes can be dangerous readers

Shows that the writers intention and the readers background knowledge sometimes do not match

C) The role of social, contextual & political variables affecting meaning making

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CONSIDER (lecture 2 notes): Psycholinguistics point of view Sociolinguistics point of view Intertextualitys point of view

Problems with BU and TD


Drawbacks of Bottom-Up
The idea of linear processing Underestimated the contribution of the reader Failed to recognize that students utilize their expectations about the text based on their knowledge of language and how it works Failure to include previous experience and knowledge into processing

Problems with BU and TD


Drawback of Top-Down
When reading topics which are completely new and foreign, it is inefficient, impractical and perhaps impossible to make predictions about the reading E.g. Imagine an orang asli boy who has never left the village reading about MP3 Or a boy from Hmong tribe in Vietnam reading about Halloween

INTERACTIVE READING MODEL


An interactive reading model attempts to combine the valid insights of bottom-up and top-down models. It attempts to take into account the strong points of the bottom-up and top-down models, and tries to avoid the criticisms levelled against each, making it one of the most promising approaches to the theory of reading today. (McCormick, T. 1988)

INTERACTIVE READING MODEL


To reiterate: An interactive reading model is a reading model that recognizes the interaction of bottom-up and top-down processes simultaneously throughout the reading process.

INTERACTIVE APPROACHES
Emphasize the role of prior knowledge or preexisting knowledge in providing the reader with non-visual or implicit information in the text. Also, add the fact that the role of certain kind of information-processing skills is also important. Interactive approaches see the advent of the incorporation of bottom-up and top-down approaches to reading (Eskey, 1988; Samuels and Kamil, 1988).

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Both modes of information processing, topdown and bottom-up alike, are seen as strategies that are flexibly used in the accomplishment of the reading tasks (Carrell and Eisterhold, 1983; Carrell, 1988; Clarke, 1979; Eskey, 1988; Grabe, 1988). Hence,the interactive approaches rely on both the graphic and contextual information

Interactive Models
Based on influential articles written throughout the late 1970s and 1980s The Rumelhart Model (1977) The Kintsch and van Dijk models (1978,1988,1998) The Just and Carpenter Model (1980) The Stanovich Model (1980) The Anderson & Pearson Schema-Theoretic view(1984) The Pearson & Tierney Reading/Writing Model (1984) Perfettis Model (1985, 1988, 1991) The McClelland, Rumelhart, et. Al Model (1986) The Rayner & Pollatsek Model (1989) Mathewsons Model of Attitude Influence (1976, 1985, 1994) New Literacy Approaches

RUMELHART MODEL

David E. Rumelhart

Successful reading is both a perceptual and a cognitive process Stresses the influence of various sources namely feature extraction, orthographic knowledge, lexical knowledge, syntactic knowledge and semantic knowledge on the text processing and the readers interpretation. Incorporates a mechanism labeled as the message centre, which holds the information and then redirects them as needed. This mechanism allows the sources of knowledge to interact with each other and thereby enable higherlevel processing to influence lower-level processing.

RUMELHART MODEL
In his model:
Graphic information enters the process through a Visual Information Store (VIS) A cognitive Feature Extraction Device selects the important features of the graphic input A Pattern Synthesizer takes this information along with syntactic, semantic, orthographic, lexical and pragmatic knowledge (context) in order to produce the most probable interpretation for the graphic input. The reading process is the result of the parallel application of sensory and non-sensory sources of information

RUMELHART MODEL
Syntactical Knowledge Semantic knowledge

Grapheme Input

VIS

Feature extraction device

Pattern Synthesizer

Model of probable interpretation

Orthographic Knowledge

Lexical Knowledge

Once a Feature Extraction Device has operated on the Visual Information Store, it passes the data to a Pattern Synthesizer which receives input from Syntactical, Semantic, Lexical and Orthographic Knowledge, all operating at the same point.

Keith E. Stanovich

STANOVICH MODEL
Stanovich introduced the interactivecompensatory reading model Neither BU or TD address all areas of reading comprehension But the interactive-compensatory taps into the strengths of both BU and TD Says that readers rely on both BU and TD processes simultaneously and alternatively depending on the reading purpose, motivation, schema and knowledge of the subject

STANOVICH MODEL
Incorporates the compensatory mode to his model with the interaction between the topdown and bottom-up processing. The compensatory mode enables the reader to, at any level compensate for his or her deficiencies at any other level (Samuels and Kamil, 1988: 32). This model has enabled researchers to theorize how good and poor readers approach a text.

STANOVICH MODEL
If there is a deficiency at an early print-analysis stage (BU), higher order knowledge structures (TD) will attempt to compensate. For the poor reader, who may be both inaccurate and slow at word recognition but who has knowledge of the texttopic, TD processing may allow for this compensation E.g. A beginning reader who is weak at decoding reads this and do not know the word emerald. The jeweler put the green emerald in the ring He will still understand the meaning of the sentence because he may use context and knowledge of gems to decide what the word is

STANOVICH MODEL
States that if one of the processors (i.e, orthographic, lexical, syntactic and semantic) fails, other processors will facilitate comprehension For example in a cloze vocabulary exercises:
Beagles, Retriever, Spaniels, as well as other ____ of dogs are favorite canines for hunting enthusiast. The lexical information is absent, but students would guess the word breeds or types, since syntactic and semantic cues compensate for the absent processors

ANDERSON & PEARSON SCHEMATHEORETIC VIEW


Focus on the role of schemata, knowledge stored in memory, in text comprehension Comprehension = interaction between old & new information Schema Theory: Already known general ideas subsume & anchor new information Include: a) info about the relationships among the components, b) role of inference & c) reliance on knowledge of the content, + abstract & general schemata.
P. David Pearson

ANDERSON & PEARSON SCHEMATHEORETIC VIEW


Schemata:
Knowledge already stored in memory, function in the process of interpreting new information and allowing it to enter and become part of the knowledge store

Schema:
An abstract knowledge structure A structure that represents the relationship among its component parts

ANDERSON & PEARSON SCHEMATHEORETIC VIEW


Read this:
Queen Elizabeth participated in a long-delayed ceremony in Clydebank. Scotland yesterday. While there is still bitterness here following the protracted strike, on this occasion a crowd of shipyard workers numbering in the hundreds joined dignitaries in cheering as the HMS Pinafore slipped into the water.

What is the name of the ceremony?

ANDERSON & PEARSON SCHEMATHEORETIC VIEW Water


To bless ship Done by celebrity Ship-Christening Schema In dry dock Shipyard Bottle broken on bow Involves new ship

Done before launching

The Ship Christening Schema

PEARSON & TIERNEY R/W MODEL


Negotiation of meaning between writer & reader who both create meaning through the text as the medium. Readers as composers: the thoughtful reader is the reader who reads as if she were a writer composing a text yet for another reader who lives within her. Reader reads with the expectation that the writer has provided sufficient clues about the meaning Writer writes with the intention the reader will create meaning Consider: pragmatic theories of language that every speech acts, utterance, or attempt at comprehending an utterance is an action

PEARSON & TIERNEY R/W MODEL


Reading is an act of composing rather than recitation or regurgitation Context is important
Knowing why something was said is as crucial to interpreting the message as knowing what was said

Failing to recognize authors goal can interfere with comprehension of the main idea or point of view

PEARSON & TIERNEY R/W MODEL


Focus on the thoughtful interactive roles: reader with 4

Planner creates goal, use existing knowledge, decides how to align with the text Composer searches for coherence in gaps with inferences about the relationship within the text Editor examines his interpretations Monitor directs the other 3 roles

MATHEWSONS MODEL OF ATTITUDE INFLUENCE


A model that addresses the role that attitude and motivation play in reading Attitude intention to read reading Attitude = tri-componential construct: Cognitive component (evaluation), affective component (feeling) , & conative component (action readiness) * Conative = personality, volition, temperament All these influence the intention to read, & the intention to read affects reading behaviour. This model provides feedback on how motivation may change & how important it is to address affective issues in teaching reading.

MATHEWSONS MODEL OF ATTITUDE INFLUENCE


Attitude Towards Reading Cognitive Component Affective Component Conative Component

Intention to Read

Reading Behavior

MATHEWSONS MODEL OF ATTITUDE INFLUENCE


Attitude toward reading may be modified by a change in readers goal
Examples: Topic of no interest Examination on comprehension

Feedback during reading may affect attitude and motivation


Satisfaction with affect developed through reading Satisfaction with ideas developed through reading Feelings generated by ideas from the reading process Ideas constructed from in the information read How the reading affects values, goals and self-concept

NEW LITERACY APPROACHES


Emphasize on multiple literacies embedded in social & societal contexts Reading should not be treated as an isolated activity Reading must account for socially & culturally events & the associated literacy acts (e.g e-mailing, memo writing, note taking, blogging) The influence of culture on the reader-writer expectations Not on the reader-writer relationship BUT on the social & cultural event around written language. Hence, readers construct meaning as individuals within a culture AND Their interpretation not necessarily incorrect due to their background (culture)

GROUP DISCUSSION (20 minutes)


In groups of not more than 4, choose one of the models for discussion. KINTSCH & VAN DIJK MODELS JUST & CARPENTER MODEL PERFETTIS MODEL McCLELLAND, ET AL MODEL RAYNER & POLLATSEK MODEL

GROUP PRESENTATION ( 10 minutes)


Describe to the class the model you have chosen. Notice the similarities and differences of the focus in each model.