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GROUND IMPROVEMENT

USING SPECIAL

TECHNIQUE

STONE

COLUMNS

INTRODUCTION To Ground Improvement Techniques.

Ground

improvement techniques are

commonly used at sites where the existing

soil conditions are expected to

lead

to

a

unsatisfactory performance.

 

Soil

improvement

techniques

are

used

to

increase

the

strength

and

stiffness

of

soil

deposits.

Methods for Soil Improvement

Ground

Improvement

Methods for Soil Improvement Ground Improvement • Deep Dynamic Compaction • Drainage/Surcharge • Electro-osmosis • Compaction

Deep Dynamic Compaction Drainage/Surcharge Electro-osmosis Compaction grouting Blasting Surface Compaction

Ground

Reinforcement

Ground

Treatment

Soil Cement Lime Admixtures Fly ash Dewatering Heating/Freezing Vitrification

Stone Columns Soil Nails Deep Soil Nailing Micropiles (Mini-piles) Jet Grouting Ground Anchors Geosynthetics Fiber Reinforcement Lime Columns Vibro-Concrete Column Mechanically Stabilized Earth Biotechnical

INTRODUCTION To Stone Columns.

Stone columns is used for both cohesive soils and silty sands to increase strength and decrease compressibility.

Involves discrete inclusions that reinforce the soil. Suited for wide spread loads.

Soils having low to medium SBC these are

found

economical

construction.

and

faster

in

Cont…

Stone columns in saturated cohesive soils work as drainage system and decrease consolidation time.

Lateral expansion of

the column due to

ramming will induce excess pore pressure in clayey soils Effectively used for large area stabilization.

What are stone columns?

A ground improvement technique where vertical columns of compacted aggregates are formed through the soil to be improved.

Mechanisms For Improving Liquefiable Soil Deposits.

Due to their high density, strength and stiffness they reinforce the soil.

Closely spaced drainage boundaries inhibits development of excess pore water pressure. Installation densifies the surrounding soils. Lateral stresses are increased in surrounding soils.

DIMENSIONS

Diameters of 0.3m to 0.5m.

Granular material ranges from 75 mm to 2mm.

Pattern Triangular. Square.

Spacing

0.866S²

1.0S²

Treatment depth in India 15m to 20m

Triangular Arrangement Of Stone Column.

Triangular Arrangement Of Stone Column.

Square Arrangement Of Stone Column.

Square Arrangement Of Stone Column.

Load Carrying Capacity

Resistance due to lateral deformation by surrounding soil(Q1).

Increase

in

resistance

offered

by

surrounding soil due to surcharge(Q2).

Bearing

support

provided

by

the

intervening soil between the column(Q3). Overall safe load =Q1+Q2+Q3.

Settlement analysis

Settlement of treated ground is estimated using reduced stress method based on:

Stress concentration factor.

Replacement ratio.

A unit cell comprises of stone column and surrounding soil.

-applied stress is shared between column and surrounding soft soil.

  • - consolidation settlement of treated ground.

  • - consolidation settlement of untreated ground.

Settlement Reduction Ratio (B)

B =

settlement of treated ground

settlement of untreated ground

Field load test

For evaluation of load settlement behavior.

  • - Number of columns is 7 for a single column test.

    • - Number of columns is 12 for a three column group test.

Testing equipments

-Steel plate or precast circular concrete footing. -Footing should cover the equivalent circular effective area. -Sand blankets of size not less than 300mm.

-Ground water table to be maintained at base of footing by dewatering.

Test Procedure.

Load should be applied to footing by a kentledge to avoid impact,fluctuations or eccentricity.

Load settlement observations is taken to 1.5 times the design load.

Load increment is 1/5 th design load.

Settlements is recorded using 4 dial gauges

(L.C=0.02mm).

 

»

contd…

Applied test load to be maintained for a minimum of 12 hours.

Settlements to be observed at time intervals of

1min,2min,4min,8min,16min,30min,1hr,1.5hr, 2hr,3hr,4hr….

Load settlement and time settlement relationship to be plotted.

Single Column Test

Single Column Test

Three Column Group Test

Three Column Group Test

Loading Arrangement For a

Single Column Test.

Loading Arrangement For a Single Column Test.

cont…

Acceptable Settlement Criteria:

Test

Settlement

Single column

10mm to 12mm

Group of three column

25mm to 30mm

Failure mechanisms

Depends on the length .

Length of column >4 times the dia failure is due to bulging.

Length of column <4 times the dia failure is in general shear.

Column experiences less bulging when loaded over an area greater than its own.

When interlayering of sand (thick) and clay compaction achieved during installation

provides rigidity to effectively disperse the applied stress.

In mixed soils failure should be checked for both sandy and clayey soils.

Different Type Of Loadings Applied To Stone Columns.

Different Type Of Loadings Applied To Stone Columns.

Failure in a homogeneous soft layer.

Failure in a homogeneous soft layer.

Failure in a non homogeneous cohesive soil.

Failure in a non homogeneous cohesive soil.

Installation techniques.

Non displacement method.

Displacement method.

Vibro-replacement.

Non- displacement Method.

Direct mud Bailer and casing Rotary drill circulation method method method
Direct mud
Bailer and casing
Rotary drill
circulation
method
method
method

Bailer And Casing Method.

-Borehole is advanced using a bailer and

sides retained by a casing.

-To avoid loss of ground, water level is maintained 2m above GWT.

-Bailer dia to be less by 75mm to 100mm

than the internal dia of casing. -When the desired depth is reached well

graded crushed rock of 75mm to 2mm

is placed.

Contd ..

And aggregates 1m to1.5m.

are

filled to

a

depth

of

Compaction is achieved by a rammer of suitable weight and fall to produce a ramming energy of 20knm per blow.

Extent

of

ramming

is measured by

penetration of rammer into the backfilled

material.

Direct mud circulation

method.

Borehole walls are stabilized with bentonite mud.

Prior to putting in the stone charge a casing is lowered to the bottom of borehole bentonite mud

is completely removed and is replaced by water.

Backfilling of the hole and compaction is done same as previous method.

Rotary drill method

Boring is done using augers or buckets.

Sides of borehole is stabilized using a casing or bentonite mud.

Pouring of stone and its compaction is achieved same

as the earlier case.

VIBROFLOT.

VIBROFLOT. Suitable for granular soils Practiced in several for • vibro – compaction • stone columns

Suitable for granular soils

Practiced

in

 

several

for

vibro

compaction

stone columns

vibro-

replacement

Vibroflot :

Length = 2 3 m Diameter = 0.3 0.5 m Mass = 2 tonnes

Stone Columns

Stone Columns • 1-vibrator makes a hole in weak soil. • 2,3-hole backfilled and compacted. •

1-vibrator makes a hole in weak soil. 2,3-hole backfilled and compacted. 4-densely compacted stone column.

VIBROFLOTATION

Vibroflotation

is

a

technique

for

in

situ

densification

of thick layers

of

loose

granular

soil

deposits. It was

developed

in

Germany the 1930s

in

VIBROFLOTATION • Vibroflotation is a technique for in situ densification of thick layers of loose granular

Vibroflotation-Procedures

Vibroflotation-Procedures • Stage1 : The jet at the bottom of the Vibroflot is turned on and

Stage1: The jet at the bottom of the Vibroflot is turned on and lowered into the ground

Stage2: The water jet creates a quick condition in the soil. It allows the vibrating unit to sink into the ground

Stage 3: Granular material is poured from the top of the hole. The water from the lower jet is transferred to he jet at the top of the vibrating unit. This water carries the granular material down the hole

Stage 4: The vibrating unit is gradually raised in about 0.3-m lifts and held vibrating for about 30 seconds at each lift. This process compacts the soil to the desired unit weight.

Simple auger boring method.

Simple auger boring method. • Size: • stone aggregate 20mm to 30mm. Sand(20%-25%) Cu=2. of •

Size:

stone aggregate 20mm to 30mm.

Sand(20%-25%)

Cu=2.

of

Hammer :

Weight=125kg.

Falling

height=750mm

Conclusions:

Resistance to liquefaction and lateral load. Reduction of foundation settlements and increases load carrying capacity. Free drainage accelerates consolidation settlements thus minimizes post compaction settlements. Construction is simple and cost effective. Improves slopes of embankments and natural slopes.

Summary

Method

Stone column,vibro replacement,

sand piles

Principle

Hole jetted into soft fine grained soil and back filled with densely compacted gravel or sand

Most suitable soil conditions or type

Soft clay and alluvial deposit

Maximum effective treatment depth

20m

Material required

Gravel or crushed rock

Special equipment required

Vibro float

Properties of treated material

Increased bearing capacity and reduced settlements

Special advantages and limitations

Faster than pre compression

avoids dewatering required for removal and replacement, limited bearing capacity

References

Soil engineering in theory and practice volume-3 by Alam Singh.

Foundation analysis and design by Joseph E bowles.

Foundation design by Nainan p kurian Codes:

IS15284 design and construction for ground

improvement-(part 1) stone columns.

Thank - you