You are on page 1of 25

TRANSPORT OF OXYGEN

Diffusion of carbon dioxide in the alveoli Transport of oxygen in the form of oxyhaemoglobin Diffusion of oxygen from the capillaries into the cells

THE HUMAN BREATHING MECHANISM Structure of the human respiratory system The breathing mechanism Air pressure and the process of inhalation and exhalation

RESPIRATION

CELL RESPIRATION What is cell respiration Oxidation of glucose in the body cells

IMPORTANCE OF HEALTHY RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

Harmful substances
Effects Disease

1.1. THE HUMAN BREATHING MECHANISM


a.

b. c.

Structure of the human respiratory system The breathing mechanism Air pressure and the process of inhalation

a. Structure of the human respiratory system

Organs
Nose Trachea Bronchus Bronchiole Alveoli Intercostal muscles Rib Diaphragm

Parts, Structure and Functions of the Respiratory System (contd)


Part
Nasal Cavity

Structure

Function

Cavity lined with Moistens air moist tissues that passes and fine hairs through and traps dust particles Outer wall lined with rings of cartilage; inner wall lined with epithelium cells with cilia and mucus secreting cells Rings of cartilage prevents trachea from collapsing. Cilia and mucus traps dust and microorganisms

Trachea

Parts, Structure and Functions of the Respiratory System (contd)


Bronchi Two branches from the trachea which lead to the lungs. Direct air to the left and right lung

Bronchiole

Fine air tubes branching from bronchi

Ends in a cluster of air sacs called alveoli

Alveoli

Air sac filled Gaseous with air. exchange takes Surrounded by place here blood capillaries

Parts, Structure and Functions of the Respiratory System (contd)


Intercostal muscle (rib muscle) Contracts or Causes the relaxes causing chest to expand the ribs to move or contract upwards or downwards

Rib

Protects the lungs


Large sheet of muscle Contracts or relaxes during breathing

Diaphragm

b. Breathing and Respiration

Breathing is the mechanical process which alternately draws and expels air into and out of the lungs. Respiration is the chemical process which takes place in the cells of the body which is also known as cell respiration

c. The Breathing Mechanism


Passage of air through the respiratory system
Nose Trachea Bronchus Bronchiole

Alveolus

Comparison between inhalation and exhalation


Similarity Both involves the diaphragm and intercostal muscles

Difference

During Inhalation: Intercostal muscle contracts Ribs are raised and chest moves forward Diaphragm flattens Thoracic cavity increases Air pressure in the thoracic cavity decreases and is lower then the atmospheric pressure Air is drawn into the thoracic cavity

Inhalation

During exhalation
Intercostal muscles relaxes and moves the rib downwards and inwards Ribs are lowered and chest moves inwards Diaphragm contracts Thoracic cavity decreases Air pressure in the thoracic cavity is higher than atmospheric pressure Air is exhaled through the thoracic cavity

Exhalation

Model to show the action of the Diaphragm

Model to show the action of the Diaphragm (contd)

Y tube represents the bronchus Glass jar represents the rib cage The space in the glass jar represents the thoracic cavity Rubber balloon represents the right and the left lung Rubber sheet represents the diaphragm

1.2 TRANSPORT OF OXYGEN

Oxygen is transported from the lungs to the cells in the body through the blood. The transfer of oxygen from the lungs to the blood is done by diffusion Diffusion is the movement of gas particles from place to place E.g.: the smell of curry in the kitchen can be detected in the living room

Diffusion of oxygen from alveoli to the blood capillaries

Alveoli is surrounded by blood capillaries During inhalation, fresh air is taken into the alveoli Alveoli has more oxygen than blood capillaries Blood capillaries have more carbon dioxide than alveoli

Diffusion of oxygen from alveoli to the blood capillaries (contd)

Oxygen from the alveoli diffuses into the blood capillaries and form oxyhaemoglobin

Hemoglobin + Oxygen = oxyhaemoglobin

Carbon dioxide from the blood capillaries diffuses into the alveoli

Alveoli

Alveoli is suitable for diffusion of gases because: Large surface area Moist surface Very thin walls Large numbers in the lungs Richly supplied with blood capillaries

Transport of Oxygen to the body cells

Blood containing oxyhaemoglobin is known as oxygenated blood. Oxyhaemoglobin is transported by the blood in the red blood cells Oxygenated blood is first taken to the heart The heart pumps the oxygenated blood to the entire body cells

Transport of Oxygen to the body cells (contd)

The body cells have less oxygen and more carbon dioxide Oxygen diffuses into the body cells and carbon dioxide diffuses into the blood capillaries Oxyhaemoglobin Oxygen + Hemoglobin The blood capillaries now carries deoxygenated blood back to the lung

1.3 Cell Respiration

Energy is required to carry out life processes Energy comes from food Food is oxidised in the body to release energy This process is known as cell respiration Cell respiration takes place in the cells

Oxidation of Glucose in the Cells

Glucose + oxygen = energy + carbon dioxide + water

IMPORTANCE OF HEALTHY RESPIRATORY SYSTEM


Harmful substances Sulphur dioxide Carbon monoxide Carbon dioxide Dust Smog Source Fossil fuels Motor vehicles Motor vehicles, open burning Construction Effect Asthma, bronchitis Poisoning Global warming Tuberculosis, lung disease

Smoke + dust + Respiratory mist disease

Harmful substances in cigarette

Nicotine causes addiction Tar sticks to the walls of respiratory system and damages them Carbon Monoxide loss of oxygen carried in the blood Carcinogens causes cancer Irritants corrodes the respiratory system