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Medical terminology

(Peristilahan Dalam Bidang Kedokteran)

Siti Hildani Thaib


Dept. of Medical Biology and Andrology Faculty of Medicine Sriwijaya University

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
(Tujuan Pembelajaran)

To understand (Untuk memahami) : Definition of Medical Terminology (MT)


(Definisi MT)

The basic concept of MT (Konsep dasar MT) The systematical rules of MT (Aturan sistimatikal MT) How spell and write the words of MT (Cara
mengeja dan menulis kata-kata MT)

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LEARNING CONTENTS
(Materi Pembelajaran)

Definition of Medical Terminology (MT) (Definisi MT) The basIc concept of words used in MT (Konsep dasar kata-kata yang digunakan dalam
MT)

The rules of build a word in MT


(Aturan dalam membuat sebuah kata dalam MT)

Spell and write words of MT


(Mengeja dan menulis kata-kata MT)
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DEFINITION
(Definisi)

Medical terminology is a vocabulary for accurately describing the human body and associated components, conditions, processes and procedures in a sciencebased manner.
(Peristilahan dalam bidang kedokteran adalah perbendaharaan kata-kata untuk menjelaskan secara tepat tubuh manusia dan bagian-bagiannya, kondisi, prosesdan prosedur yang berbasis sains.)

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Concepts of Medical Terminology


Special vocabulary used by health care professionals for effective and accurate communication Consistent and uniform throughout the world Most medical terms are based on Latin and Greek words A few are adapted from modern languages

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Four Parts
Word Root
the word part that is the core of the word

Suffix
a word part attached to the end of the word root to modify its meaning

Prefix
a word part attached to the beginning of a word root to modify its meaning

Combining Vowel
a word part, usually an O
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Word Root
The word root is the word part that is the core of the word Fundamental unit of each medical word Establishes basic meaning of word It cannot stand alone a suffix must be added. Part to which prefixes and suffixes are added
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Word Root (contd)

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Word Root (contd)


Begin with learn
Learn + -er = one who learns Re + learn = to learn again

Greek word for heart is kardia


Forms word root cardi

Latin word for lung is pulmo


Forms word root pulm

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Word Root (contd)


Word Roots Indicating Color
Cyanosis
Cyan/o ( blue color of skin caused by lack of O2 ) + osis (condition)

Erythrocytes
erythr/o (red) + cytes (cells)

Poliomyelitis
Polio (gray) + myel (spinal cord) + itis (inflammation)

Melanocytes
Melano/o (black) + cytes (cells)

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Suffixes

Suffixes
Suffix = word ending that modifies a root Modifies the meaning of the root May indicate a noun or adjective Usually indicates
procedure, condition, disorder, or disease.
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Suffixes (contd)
Tonsill/o means tonsils. A suffix completes the word and tells what is happening to the tonsils. Tonsillitis.
tonsill (tonsil) + itis (inflammation).

Tonsillectomy
tonsill (tonsil) + ectomy (surgical removal).
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Suffixes (contd)
Some suffixes change the word root into an adjective.
Cardiac
cardi/o (heart) + ac (pertaining to).

Some suffixes change the word root into a noun.


Cranium
crani (skull) + um (noun ending).

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Suffixes (contd)
Suffixes Meaning Abnormal Condition
osis means an abnormal condition or disease
Gastrosis means any disease of the stomach

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Suffixes (contd)
Suffixes Related to Pathology
algia means pain
Gastralgia

dynia means pain


Gastrodynia

itis means inflammation


Gastritis

malacia means abnormal softening


Arteriomalacia
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Suffixes (contd)
Suffixes Related to Pathology
Megaly means enlargement
Hepatomegaly

Necrosis means tissue death


Arterionecrosis

Sclerosis means abnormal hardening


Arteriosclerosis

Stenosis means abnormal narrowing


Arteriostenosis
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Suffixes (contd)
Suffixes Related to Procedures
centesis surgical puncture to remove fluid
Abdominocentesis

ectomy surgical removal


Appendectomy

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Suffixes (contd)
Suffixes Related to Procedures
graphy means the process of recording a picture or record
Arteriography

gram - a record or picture


Arteriogram

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Suffixes (contd)
The Double RRs
rrhage and rrhagia mean abnormal excessive fluid discharge or bleeding
Hemorrhage

rrhaphy to stitch
Aneurysmorraphy

rrhea abnormal flow or discharge


Diarrhea

rrhexis rupture
myorrexis
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Words Ending in x
Change x to c or g when adding a suffix
Pharynx (throat) becomes pharyngeal (fa-RINje-al) (pertaining to the throat) Thorax (chest) becomes thoracotomy (thor-aKOT-o-me) (an incision into the chest)

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Suffixes (contd)
Look-alike Sound-alike Terms and Word Parts
Arteri/o = artery Ather/o = plaque or fatty substance Arthr/o = joint

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Suffixes (contd)
Look-alike Sound-alike Terms and Word Parts
Ileum = part of small intestine Ilium = part of the hip bone

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Suffixes (contd)
Look-alike Sound-alike Terms and Word Parts
Mucous adjective that describes specialized mucous membranes that line the body cavities. Mucus a noun and the name of the substance secreted by the mucous membranes.

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Adjective Suffixes
Adjective endings meaning pertaining to or resembling include:
-ac as in cardiac -form as in muciform -ory as in respiratory

No rules for which ending to use with a given noun

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Forming Plurals
Special plural forms
Words ending in a carry plural ending ae:
Gingiva vs. gingivae

Words ending in is carry plural ending es:


Diagnosis vs. diagnoses

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Some Exceptions to the Rules


Plural of virus is viruses Plural of serums is sera Plural of carcinoma is carcinomata

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Prefixes

Prefixes
Prefix = short word part added before a word root to modify the meaning
Uni- (one) + lateral = unilateral (affecting or involving one side) Contra- (against) + lateral = contralateral (opposite side)

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Prefixes (contd)
Prefixes usually indicate location, time or number.
Natal means pertaining to(al) + birth (nat). Prenatal means time & events before birth. Perinatal means time and events just before, during, & after birth. Postnatal means time & event after birth.

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Prefixes for Numbers


Mono = 1; Uni = 1 Bi = 2 Di = 2 Tri = 3 Quad = 4 Nulli = none Hemi = half Multi = many Poly = many Semi = partial or half
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Prefixes for Numbers


Prim/i- = first
primitive (occurring first in time)

Bi- = two, twice


bicuspid (a tooth with two points)

Tetra- = four
tetrahedron (a figure with four surfaces)

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Prefixes for Colors


Cyan/o- = blue
cyanosis (bluish discoloration of the skin due to lack of oxygen)

Leuk/o- = white, colorless


leukoplakia (white patches in the mouth)

Xanth/o- = yellow
xanthodermia (yellow discoloration of the skin)

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Negative Prefixes
A-, an- = not; without
aseptic (free of infectious organisms)

Dis- = absence, removal, separation


dissect (to separate tissues for anatomical study)

Non- = not
noninfectious (not able to spread disease)

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Prefixes for Direction


Ad- = toward; near
adhere (to attach or stick together)

Per- = through
percutaneous (through the skin)

Trans- = through
transfusion (introduction of blood or blood components into the blood stream)

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Prefixes for Degree


Hyper- = over, excess, abnormally high
hyperventilation (excess breathing)

Hypo- = under; below


hypoxia (decreased oxygen in the tissues)

Super- = above, excess


supernumerary (in excess number)

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Prefixes for Size and Comparison


Iso- = equal, same
isograft (graft between two genetically identical individuals)

Micro- = small
microscopic (extremely small; visible only through a microscope)

Re- = again; back


regurgitation (backward or return flow)
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Prefixes for Time and/or Position


Ante- = before
antenatal (before birth)

Pro- = before, in front of


prodrome (symptom that precedes a disease)

Post- = after, behind


postmenopausal (after menopause)

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Prefixes for Position


Ec-, ecto- = out; outside
excise (to cut out)

End/o = in; within


endoscope (device for viewing the inside of a cavity or organ)

Mes/o- = middle
mesencephalon (midbrain)

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Combining Form

Combining Form

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Combining Form (contd)


Combining Vowel
It is usually an o It is between two root words It can be between a root word and a suffix It eases pronunciation When combining a word root and a suffix, if suffix begins with vowel a combining vowel is not necessary. For example gastr/ectomy. When connecting two root words the o is used even if the second root begins with a vowel, example: gastroenteritis.
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Combining Form (contd)


Insert an o before a suffix beginning with a consonant when added to a root
-logy = study of Neur = nerve or nervous system

Neur + o + logy = neurology (study of the nervous system)

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Combining Form (contd)


Roots shown with a combining vowel are called combining forms
Vowels added after a slash Called roots Neur/o

Combining vowel omitted if suffix begins with a vowel


Neur + it is = neuritis (inflammation of a nerve)

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Combining Form (contd)

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Word Derivations
Most word parts derived from Greek (G) and Latin (L)
Muscle is Latin for mouse Coccyx named for the cuckoos bill

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Pronunciation
Use phonetic pronunciations provided Repeat words aloud Pronunciations may change when parts are combined

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Pronunciation (cont)
Vowels with no pronunciation marks get short pronunciation
a as in hat

Short line over vowel gives it long pronunciation


a as in say

Accented syllable indicated with capital letters

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Soft and Hard c and g


Soft c, as in racer = (RA-ser) Hard c, as in candy = (KAN-de)

Soft g, as in page, written as j = (paj) Hard g, as in grow = (gro)

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Silent Letters and Unusual Pronunciations


Gnathic = (NATH-ic)
Pertaining to the jaw

Apnea = (AP-ne-a)
Cessation of breath

Nephroptosis = (nef-rop-TO-sis)
Dropping of the kidney

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Symbols
Used as shorthand in case histories = right = increase

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Abbreviations
Can save time May cause confusion Acronym = abbreviation formed from first letter of each word in a phrase
ASAP = as soon as possible

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