electric motor is an electromechanical device that converts electrical energy to mechanical energy.

mechanical energy can be used to perform work such as rotating a pump impeller, fan, blower, driving a compressor, lifting materials etc.


Motor loads Description Examples Conveyors, rotary kilns, constantdisplacement pumps Centrifugal pumps, fans Constant Output power varies torque loads but torque is constant Variable Torque varies with torque loads square of operation speed Constant power loads Torque changes inversely with speed

Machine tools

Electric Motors

Alternating Current (AC) Motors

Direct Current (DC) Motors



Separately Excited

Self Excited






* Electrical current reverses direction * Two parts: stator and rotor  Stator: stationary electrical component  Rotor: rotates the motor shaft * Speed difficult to control * Two types  Synchronous motor  Induction motor


Most common motors in industry

Advantages:  Simple design  Inexpensive  High power to weight ratio  Easy to maintain  Direct connection to AC power source

A 3-phase induction motor has two main parts: • A stator – consisting of a steel frame that supports a hollow, cylindrical core of stacked laminations. Slots on the internal circumference of the stator house the stator winding. • A rotor – also composed of punched laminations, with rotor slots for the rotor winding.


There are two-types of rotor windings:

• Squirrel-cage windings, which produce a squirrel-cage induction motor (most common) • Conventional 3-phase windings made of insulated wire, which produce a wound-rotor induction motor (special characteristics)

Induction Motor: Squirrel cage rotor

Squirrel cage rotor consists of copper bars, slightly longer than the rotor, which are pushed into the slots. The ends are welded to copper end rings, so that all the bars are short circuited. In small motors, the bars and end-rings are diecast in aluminium to form an integral block.

Induction Motor: Wound Rotor
 

A wound rotor has a 3-phase winding, similar to the stator winding. The rotor winding terminals are connected to three slip rings which turn with the rotor. The slip rings/brushes allow external resistors to be connected in series with the winding. The external resistors are mainly used during start-up –under normal running conditions the windings short circuited externally.

* Construction is on next slide.

Wound Rotor & its connections

Induction Motor: Operating Principle

Operation of 3-phase induction motors is based upon the application of Faraday’s Law and the Lorentz Force on a conductor. Consider a series of conductors (length L) whose extremities are shorted by bars A and B. A permanent magnet moves at a speed v, so that its magnetic field sweeps across the conductors.

Operating Principle Contd…

1. 2. 3. 4.

The following sequence of events takes place: A voltage E = BLv is induced in each conductor while it is being cut by the flux (Faraday’s Law) The induced voltage produces currents which circulate in a loop around the conductors (through the bars). Since the current-carrying conductors lie in a magnetic field, they experience a mechanical force (Lorentz force). The force always acts in a direction to drag the conductor along with the magnetic field. Now close the ladder upon itself to form a squirrel cage, and place it in a rotating magnetic field – an induction motor is formed!

Induction Motor: Rotating Field
 

 

Consider a simple stator with 6 salient poles windings AN, BN, CN. The windings are mechanically spaced at 120° from each other. The windings are connected to a 3-phase source. AC currents Ia, Ib and Ic will flow in the windings, but will be displaced in time by 120°. Each winding produces its own MMF,which creates a flux across the hollow interior of the stator. The 3 fluxes combine to produce a magnetic field that rotates at the same frequency as the supply.

Rotating Field


Induction Motor: Stator Winding

In practice, induction motors have internal diameters that are smooth, instead of having salient poles. In this case, each pole covers 180° of the inner circumference of the rotor (pole pitch = 180°). Also, instead of a single coil per pole, many coils are lodged in adjacent slots. The staggered coils are connected in series to form a phase group. Spreading the coil in this manner creates a sinusoidal flux distribution per pole, which improves performance and makes the motor less noisy.

Stator Winding Contd…

Number of Poles – Synchronous Speed
The rotating speed of the revolving flux can be reduced by increasing the number of poles (in multiples of two).  In a four-pole stator, the phase groups span an angle of 90°. In a six-pole stator, the phase groups span an angle of 60°.  This leads to the definition of synchronous speed: Ns = 120 f / p Where Ns = synchronous speed (rpm) f = frequency of the supply (Hz) p = number of poles

For 50Hz ,synchronous Speeds (Ns) include 3000rpm, 1500rpm, 1000 rpm, 750rpm…


The difference between the synchronous speed and rotor speed can be expressed as a percentage of synchronous speed, known as the slip. s = (Ns – N) Ns

Where s = slip, Ns = synchronous speed (rpm), N = rotor speed (rpm) • At no-load, the slip is nearly zero (<0.1%). • At full load, the slip for large motors rarely exceeds 0.5%. For small motors at full load, it rarely exceeds 5%. • The slip is 100% for locked rotor.

Induction Motor: Frequency induced in the rotor

The frequency induced in the rotor depends on the slip: fR = s f

fR = frequency of voltage and current in the rotor f = frequency of the supply and stator field s = slip

Induction Motor: Active Power Flow

Efficiency – by definition, is the ratio of output / input power: η = PL / Pe Rotor copper losses: PJr = s Pr Mechanical power: Pm = ( 1-s)Pr Motor torque: Tm = 30Pr

  

Where: Pe = active power to stator Pr = active power supplied to rotor PL = Shaft Power

Power Losses

Induction Motor: Relationship between Load, Speed and Torque
At start: high At start: high current and low current and “pull-up” torque low “pull-up”

At 80% of full speed: highest “pull-out” torque and current drops


At full speed: torque and stator current are zero

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