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Problem-1

An installation is being planned for a DC emergency power scheme with the following details. Type of source : Flooded lead acid cells of plante type Capacity : 600 Ah, 220 V DC Location : On a mezzanine floor next to an oil-fired boiler Temperature : Maximum of 45C ambient Room : Steel walls and checkered steel plate floor Door/Window : Double-glazed windows, Steel door with gaskets Lighting used : Fluorescent tube in open type reflector construction Wash water : 100 meters away in the toilet Washing agent : Boric acid solution in glass jars Charger : Trickle and boost charger kept in the same room

Problem-1

Explain the shortcomings in this plan. If you were asked to specify your requirements for an alternative location, which of these details would you choose to change and why?

Problem-1

Preferred Location Away from hot area with ambient temperature near 25C. Higher temperatures are detrimental for battery operation and causes faster aging. Preferred construction Masonry/RCC construction as steel walls and flooring may be subject to acidic corrosion. Doors/Windows Arrangements should permit free ventilation. Negative pressure to be maintained in the room, so that acid fumes/hydrogen gas does not escape to working areas.

Problem-1

Lighting Lightning fixtures must be of flameproof type and should be designed for protection from acidic corrosion. Wash water To be made available near the battery room, in the form of running water supply, if possible. Locating it too far will not be useful in case of splashing of acid on personnel, which needs to be washed immediately. Washing agent Washing agent provided is not suitable for Lead acid cells, since it is acidic. Neutralizing agent of alkaline type such as sodium bicarbonate solution (mix 1 pound to 1 gallon of water) should be made available.

Problem-1

Chargers Charger equipment to be located away from the battery in a separate enclosure. Equipment may be as near as possible in order to minimize voltage drop in conductors.

Problem-2

A lead acid battery is subjected to capacity testing at an initial electrolyte temperature of 32C. Under this condition, a discharge current of 22 amperes could be maintained for a period of 8 hours and 10 minutes at which time the end cell voltage of 1.75 volts was reached. The rated capacity of the cell is 220 Ah. What is the percentage capacity of the battery at the time of testing? Does the battery need replacement?

Table 1 cell size correction factors for temperature, according to IEEE 485

Problem-2

We will derive the capacity using the expression

% capacity Ah Test = = Amp hour (test) x 100/ Amp hour (rated) 22 x 8.167 = 179.67 Ah

Temperature correction factor for 32C from Table 1 (is interpolated from the values for 31.6 and 32.2.

Factor K =

Problem-2

Ah rating corrected for this temperature derived as: Corrected Ah = Rated Ah/K = 220/0.9413 = 233.7 Ah Capacity % = 179.67 x 100/233.7 = 76.9 %

This figure being less than the permissible value of 80%, it can be concluded that the battery needs replacement.

Problem-3

Calculate the cell type required for an Uninterrupted power source having the following specifications. Load kVA 20 Power factor 0.7 Addl. DC load to be assumed 30 amperes Backup time 180 minutes UPS efficiency 85% Battery 92 cells of Ni-Cd type End cell voltage 1.14 volts at the end of backup period Electrolyte temperature 15C Note: Assume a design margin of 10%.

Problem-3

Substituting in the formula DC amperes = {kVA x PF x 1000} +AL {EFF x DCV} DC amperes = 20 x 0.7 x 1000 + 30 0.85 x DCV where; DCV = 92 x 1.14 x 1.04 = 109 VDC

Problem-3

Substituting, we get: DC amperes = (14000/(0.85 x 109)) + 30 = 181.1 Amps

A design margin of 15 % is selected. Required amps = 181.1 x 1.15 = 208.3 Amps

Problem-3

Temperature correction factor is obtained for 15C by interpolating the values given in the Table 1 for temperatures 15.6 and 12.8 as: 1.15 ((2.2 x 0.04)/2.8) = 1.119 Required Amps = 208.3 x 1.119 = 233 Amps

We should choose the NiCd cell capable of delivering more than 233 Amps in 3h, from the manufacturer table, at the end cell voltage of 1.14 VDC.

Problem-4

Calculate the cell type required for an uninterrupted power source having the following specifications. Load kVA 5 Power factor 0.7 Addl. load to be assumed 0.8 kW Backup time 30 minutes UPS efficiency 85% Battery 24 nos. of VRLA cells End cell voltage 1.75 volts at the end of backup period Electrolyte temperature 17C Note: Assume a design margin of 10%.

Problem-4

Substituting in the formula:

kW/cell = {kVA x PF} + AL {EFF x Number of Cells} (5 x 0.7) + 0.8 0.85 x 24

kW/Cell

= 0.21

Problem-4

Temperature correction factor is obtained for 17C by interpolating the values given in the Table 1 for temperatures 15.6 and 18.3 as: 1.11 ((1.4 x 0.03)/2.7) = 1.094 Required kW/Cell = 0.21 x 1.15 x 1.094 = 0.264

Based on the values given by manufacturer for 1.75 V and column for 30 minutes backup, the appropriate cell is selected.

Problem-5

For a given load current profile, find the number of VRLA cells connected. The rated DC voltage is 110 VDC. Minimal allowed DC voltage is 80% of the rated voltage. Temperature is 20 deg. Method is described in IEEE 485.

Problem-5

Rated capacity of the cell under consideration is 150 Ah float voltage at 20 deg 2.27 VDC Discharging current at 1.8 V end cell voltage and 20 deg : -15 min 226 ADC - 45 min 113 ADC - 60 min 91.2 ADC

Problem-5

Number of cells is derived as: Ncell = rated DC voltage / Cell voltage (float) Ncell = 110 VDC / 2.27 VDC Ncell = 48.45, we choose Ncell = 49 End cell voltage can be calculated as: Vend = minimal DC voltage / Ncell = (110 VDC * 0.8)/49 = 1.79 VDC, we will take 1.8 VDC value

Problem-5

Sequence by sequence analysys of the load cycle

226 ADC corresponds to 15 min discharge current at 1.8 VDC end cell voltage

Problem-5

The second sequence calculation can be omitted, due to positive current step in the next period.

Problem-5

60 min

45 min

15 min

Problem-5

We will choose the three parallel connected battery chains of 49 cells each, or we will repeat this calculation for the cells of bigger capacity.

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