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SAR Reduction In Mobile Phones

Using PIFA With EBG Structure

PRESENTED BY
Athira.D.Nair S7 ECE

OUTLINE

Introduction

SAR PIFA EBG Structure

Structure Optimization

Characteristics (After optimization)


Return loss Radiation pattern Total Radiated power (TRP)

SAR

Conclusion References
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INTRODUCTION

Health risk in mobile usage Need to reduce SAR

SAR (Specific Absorption Rate)


Power absorbed per mass of the tissue (Unit :- W/kg) Measurement Taking average over small volume (1g/10g tissue)

Sample electrical conductivity E - RMS electric field - Sample density

Must not exceed exposure guidelines Techniques to reduce SAR


Optimizing antenna geometry Use of ferrite
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PIFA with EBG structure

PIFA (Planar Inverted F Antenna)

Consists of :

Ground plane
Top plate Shorting strip Feed wire Compact Omni directional radiation pattern

Features:

High gain for both states of polarization


Reduced SAR

Electromagnetic Band Gap (EBG) Structure

Small scale periodic structures

Prevent propagation of EM waves in specified frequency band


High surface impedance Suppress propagation of surface waves Stop band characteristics (in PCS): control radiation characteristics Enhanced antenna performance

PROPOSED STRUCTURE

Consists of:

Antenna (PIFA) EBG cells PCB layer

All connected to ground plane

Side view

Top view

PROPOSED STRUCTURE .. cntd

Antenna (PIFA) :-

Operate at PCS band (1.85 1.91GHz)

Located on the underside of mobile phone

EBG Structure :Placed between PCB & PIFA

Control the radiations of EM waves towards body


Via less EBG structure selected (simple & less SAR) Consists of EBG unit cell

EBG unit cell

PCB:-

Consists of active circuits, power lines, battery etc Eg:- FR4


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OPTIMIZATION

SIMULATION & MEASUREMENT

Simulation

Microwave studio based on 3-D FIT EM simulator MR900-W SAR Uses SAM head phantom

Head Phantom

Measurement System

Consists of :

Head equivalent liquid (Er = 40, = 1.4) Shell

Test device (mobile) at distance 3mm Antenna location :

X-Y plane, orientation Z-axis

Probe measures Efields in head phantom Computer system calculates SAR values
MR900-W SAR Measurement System
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OPTIMIZATION . cntd

Parameter study of structure is done


Antenna bandwidth fixed under (-10dB) return loss

1.

Vertical length (L) of EBG unit cell

EBG unit cell

Vertical length (L) decreases Number of EBG cells increases More EBG cells in limited space SAR value reduced

Optimized value of L= 3mm

SAR Values With Parameter L

OPTIMIZATION . cntd
2. Antenna height (Ha); Antenna position fixed

Ha > 3 3.5mm , SAR reduced

Optimized value of Ha = 3.14mm

SAR values with Parameter Ha SAR Values With Parameter Ha

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OPTIMIZATION . cntd
3. Antenna position (T); Antenna height(Ha) fixed (3.14mm)

Position between antenna & EBG structure asymmetrical Optimized value of T = 8mm

SAR values with parameter T SAR Values With Parameter T


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CHARACTERISTICS

Return loss :-

Loss of signal power due to reflection RL(dB) = 20 log10(1 / ) Less for proposed structure Satisfies PCS transmitting band for VSWR < 3

Return loss of the proposed antenna

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CHARACTERISTICS .. cntd

Radiation pattern :-

Spatial distribution of radiation as a function of angle Reduced radiation pattern in users direction

Simulated Radiation Pattern - Proposed Antenna

Measured Radiation Pattern - Proposed Antenna


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CHARACTERISTICS .. cntd

Total Radiated power (TRP) :-

Power radiated by the antenna Should meet criteria of mobile communication service vendors Greater for proposed antenna (increased antenna gain)

TRP Values
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CHARACTERISTICS .. cntd

SAR :-

SAR reduced by 31% at center frequency


SAR DISTRIBUTION MAP

Conventional PIFA

SAR Values

Proposed PIFA

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CONCLUSION

Presented a novel scheme for SAR reduction Radiation towards body reduced Reduction in SAR value Antenna performance maintained

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REFERENCES

Sang il Kwak, Dong-Uk Sim, and Jong Hwa Kwon, Design of Optimized Multilayer PIFA With the EBG Structure for SAR Reduction in Mobile Applications, IEEE Transactions On Electromagnetic Compatibility, Vol. 53, No. 2, May 2011. Design of Multilayer PIFA based on an EBG structure for SAR reduction in mobile Applications - Sang il Kwak, Dong-Uk Sim, Jong Hwa Kwon and Je Hoon Yun. D. Sivenpiper, L. Zhang, R. F. Broas, N. G. Alexopoulos, and E. Yablonovitch, High-impedance electromagnetic surface with a forbidden frequency band, IEEE Trans Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 47, no. 11, pp. 20592074, Nov. 1999. Effects of Ferrite Sheet Attachment to Portable Telephone in Reducing Electromagnetic Absorption in Human Head - Jianqing Wangt Osamu Fujiwarat Tasuku Takagi.

Z. Duan, D. Linton, W. Scanlon, and G. Conway, Improving wearable slot antenna performance with EBG structures, in Proc. Loughborough Antennas and Propag. Conf., Mar. 2008, pp. 173176.
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Thank You