Fluent User Services Center www.fluentusers.


Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.0 Jan 2002

Fluent Overview


© Fluent Inc. 04/25/13

Fluent User Services Center www.fluentusers.com

Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.0 Jan 2002

Starting Fluent

From the class web page, go to Fluent Materials. Download the case, data and mesh files posted there. Go to Start->Programs->Fluent.Inc and choose Fluent 6.1. Choose the 2ddp solver. From the File menu, choose Read Case/Data. Read the case and data files elbow.cas and elbow.dat. If you specify the name “elbow” Fluent will read both automatically. Explore Fluent’s menu structure using this presentation as a guide.


© Fluent Inc. 04/25/13

Fluent User Services Center www.fluentusers.com

Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.0 Jan 2002

Solver Basics


© Fluent Inc. 04/25/13

Fluent User Services Center www.fluentusers.com

Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.0 Jan 2002

Solver Execution

Solver Execution:

Menu is laid out such that order of operation is generally left to right.
        

Import and scale mesh file. Select physical models. Define material properties. Prescribe operating conditions. Prescribe boundary conditions. Provide an initial solution. Set solver controls. Set up convergence monitors. Compute and monitor solution. Feedback into Solver Engineering Analysis

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© Fluent Inc. 04/25/13

fluentusers.Fluent User Services Center www. ‘q’ moves up one level. 04/25/13  Journal/Transcript write capability. 3-5 © Fluent Inc. . ‘Enter’ displays command set at current level.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.0 Jan 2002 Inputs to the Solver  GUI commands have a corresponding TUI command.    Advanced commands are only available through TUI.

com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6..Fluent User Services Center www.0 Jan 2002 Mouse Functionality  Mouse button functionality depends on solver and can be configured in the solver. Display → Mouse Buttons..fluentusers.  Default Settings:  2D Solver    Left button translates (dolly) Middle button zooms Right button selects/probes Left button rotates about 2-axes Middle button zooms   3D Solver   Middle click on point in screen centers point in window  Right button selects/probes  Retrieve detailed flow field information at point with Probe enabled.  Right click on grid display. 04/25/13 . 3-6 © Fluent Inc.

    Face = boundary of a cell Edge = boundary of a face Node = grid point Zone = grouping of nodes. Material data and source terms assigned to cell zones.0 Jan 2002 Reading Mesh: Mesh Components  Components are defined in preprocessor  cell center node Cell = control volume into which domain is broken up  face cell Simple 2D mesh computational domain is defined by mesh that represents the fluid and solid regions of interest.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. 04/25/13 Boundary data assigned to face zones.Fluent User Services Center www. and/or cells   node edge face cell Simple 3D mesh © Fluent Inc. faces. 3-7 .fluentusers.

0 Jan 2002 Reading Mesh: Zones Orifice_plate and orifice_plate-shadow orifice (interior) outlet wall inlet  Fluid (cell zone) Default-interior is zone of internal cell faces (not used). . 3-8 © Fluent Inc. 04/25/13 Example: Face and cell zones associated with Pipe Flow through orifice plate.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.fluentusers.Fluent User Services Center www.

0 Jan 2002 Scaling Mesh and Units  All physical dimensions initially assumed to be in meters. 3-9 © Fluent Inc.Fluent User Services Center www.  Other quantities can also be scaled independent of other units used.  Scale grid accordingly.fluentusers.  Fluent defaults to SI units. 04/25/13 .com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.

PDF lookup table used for mixture properties.  PDF Mixture Material concept    Multiple Phase Flows (Single Species)  Define properties for all fluids and solids.  Single-Phase. Constituent properties extracted from database.Fluent User Services Center www.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. 3-10 © Fluent Inc. Constituent properties must be defined. Single Species Flows   Define fluid/solid properties Real gas model (NIST’s REFPROP) Mixture Material concept employed   Multiple Species (Single Phase) Flows   Mixture properties (composition dependent) defined separately from constituent’s properties.fluentusers. 04/25/13 .0 Jan 2002 Material Types and Property Definition   Physical models may require inclusion of additional materials and dictates which properties need to be defined. Material properties defined in Materials Panel. – Transport properties for mixture defined separately.

fluentusers. Single Species Flows  Assign material to fluid zone(s) in Fluid Panel.   Multiple Species (Single Phase) Flows    Multiple Phase Flows (Single Species)  from Define menu  All fluid zones consist of ‘mixture’.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. 3-11 © Fluent Inc. Assign mixture material to fluid zones in Species Model Panel or in Pre-PDF.Fluent User Services Center www. 04/25/13 . All fluid zones consist of ‘mixture’.0 Jan 2002 Material Assignment  Materials are assigned to cell zone where assignment method depends upon models selected:  Single-Phase. Primary and secondary phases selected in Phases Panel.

 Example: an Iso-Surface of constant grid coordinate can be created for viewing data within a plane. Post-Processing functions typically operate on surfaces.0 Jan 2002 Post-Processing   Many post-processing tools are available.Fluent User Services Center www.fluentusers.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.   Surfaces are automatically created from zones. Additional surfaces can be created. 3-12 © Fluent Inc. 04/25/13 .

3-13 © Fluent Inc. defined explicitly (when available) with boundary condition data. Node values of the grid are either:   calculated as the average of neighboring cell data. 04/25/13 .com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.0 Jan 2002 Post-Processing: Node Values   Fluent calculates field variable data at cell centers.  Enable Node Values to interpolate field data to nodes.fluentusers.   Node values on surfaces are interpolated from grid node data.Fluent User Services Center www. or. data files store:   data at cell centers node value data for primitive variables at boundary nodes.

 Surface Integrals   Volume Integrals Examples: 3-14 © Fluent Inc. 04/25/13 .0 Jan 2002 Reports  Flux Reports   Net flux is calculated.Fluent User Services Center www. Total Heat Transfer Rate includes radiation. slightly less accurate on user-generated surfaces due to interpolation error.fluentusers.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.

04/25/13  To assist adaption process.  Registers can be defined based on:       Gradients of flow or user-defined variables Iso-values of flow or user-defined variables All cells on a boundary All cells in a region Cell volumes or volume changes y+ in cells adjacent to walls Combine adaption registers Draw contours of adaption function Display cells marked for adaption Limit adaption based on cell size and number of cells: 3-15 © Fluent Inc. you can:     .0 Jan 2002 Solver Enhancements: Grid Adaption   Grid adaption adds more cells where needed to resolve the flow field without pre-processor.Fluent User Services Center www.fluentusers.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. Fluent adapts on cells listed in register.

0 Jan 2002 Adaption Example: 2D Planar Shell  Adapt grid in regions of high pressure gradient to better resolve pressure jump across the shock. 2D planar shell .initial grid 2D planar shell .com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.Fluent User Services Center www. 04/25/13 .contours of pressure initial grid 3-16 © Fluent Inc.fluentusers.

04/25/13 .Fluent User Services Center www.contours of pressure final grid 3-17 © Fluent Inc.fluentusers.final grid 2D planar shell .0 Jan 2002 Adaption Example: Final Grid and Solution 2D planar shell .com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.

0 Jan 2002 Solver Enhancements: Parallel Solver     With 2 or more processes.Fluent User Services Center www. Some models not yet ported to parallel solver.fluentusers.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. Partitioned grid for multi-element airfoil. or a network of machines.  See release notes. multiprocessor machine. Can run on a dedicated. 3-18 © Fluent Inc. 04/25/13 . Fluent can be run on multiple processors. Mesh can be partitioned manually or automatically.

fluentusers. 04/25/13 .0 Jan 2002 Boundary Conditions 3-19 © Fluent Inc.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.Fluent User Services Center www.

you must specify information on the dependent (flow) variables at the domain boundaries. symmetry) supplying information at the boundaries  Defining boundary conditions involves:     The data required at a boundary depends upon the boundary condition type and the physical models employed.g.. inlets. energy.  Poorly defined boundary conditions can have a significant impact on your solution.  Specifying fluxes of mass. identifying the location of the boundaries (e. 3-20 © Fluent Inc. walls. into domain.fluentusers. 04/25/13 .Fluent User Services Center www.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. You must be aware of the information that is required of the boundary condition and locate the boundaries where the information on the flow variables are known or can be reasonably approximated .0 Jan 2002 Defining Boundary Conditions  To define a problem that results in a unique solution. etc. momentum.

Periodic. exhaust fan Other: Wall. Pressure far-field Special: Inlet vent.Fluent User Services Center www. Walls 3-21 © Fluent Inc. Radiator. intake fan. Symmetry.0 Jan 2002 Available Boundary Condition Types  Boundary Condition Types of External Faces      General: Pressure inlet. Porous Jump. Pressure outlet Incompressible: Velocity inlet.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. Axis interior outlet inlet wall  Boundary Condition Types of Cell ‘Boundaries’  Fluid and Solid Orifice_plate and orifice_plateshadow  Boundary Condition Types of Double-Sided Face ‘Boundaries’  Fan. outlet vent.fluentusers. Outflow Compressible flows: Mass flow inlet. 04/25/13 . Interior.

0 Jan 2002 Changing Boundary Condition Types  Zones and zone types are initially defined in pre-processor.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. 3-22 © Fluent Inc..Fluent User Services Center www..   Choose the zone in Zone list.  Select new zone type in Type list.fluentusers. 04/25/13 . To change zone type for a particular zone: Define → Boundary Conditions.  Can also select boundary zone using right mouse button in Display Grid window.

fluentusers. Profiles can be generated by:   Writing a profile from another CFD simulation Creating an appropriately formatted text file with boundary condition data.Fluent User Services Center www. 04/25/13 . Click Set.  Boundary condition data can be stored and retrieved from file. button  Boundary condition data can be copied from one zone to another.  To set boundary conditions for particular zone:   Choose the zone in Zone list. 3-23 © Fluent Inc.  file → write-bc and file → read-bc   Boundary conditions can also be defined by UDFs and Profiles..0 Jan 2002 Setting Boundary Condition Data  Explicitly assign data in BC panels..com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.

 Can be used as an outlet by specifying negative velocity.fluentusers.Fluent User Services Center www. You must ensure that mass conservation is satisfied if multiple inlets are used.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.    Static pressure adjusts to accommodate prescribed velocity distribution. Normal to Boundary Components Magnitude and Direction   Velocity profile is uniform by default Intended for incompressible flows. Using in compressible flows can lead to non-physical results.  3-24 © Fluent Inc. Total (stagnation) properties of flow also varies.0 Jan 2002 Velocity Inlet  Specify Velocity by:    Magnitude. 04/25/13 .

Doubles as back pressure (static gauge) for cases where back flow occurs.Fluent User Services Center www.abs (1 + Ttotal = Tstatic (1 + k −1 2 M ) 2 k − 1 2 k /( k −1) M ) 2 1 2 ρv 2  Inlet Flow Direction 3-25 Incompressible flows: ptotal = pstatic + © Fluent Inc.abs = pstatic . 04/25/13 .fluentusers.  Direction of back flow determined from interior solution. ignored if subsonic Will be used if flow field is initialized from this boundary.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.  Static Gauge Pressure   Static pressure where flow is locally supersonic. Used as static temperature for incompressible flow. Compressible flows:  Total Temperature  ptotal .0 Jan 2002  Specify:  Pressure Inlet (1) Total Gauge Pressure   Defines energy to drive flow.

fluentusers.   pabsolute = p gauge + poperating Operating pressure input is set under: Define → Operating Conditions Pressure inlet boundary is treated as loss-free transition from stagnation to inlet conditions. Fluent calculates static pressure and velocity at inlet Mass flux through boundary varies depending on interior solution and specified flow direction.Fluent User Services Center www.  Suitable for compressible and incompressible flows.     Can be used as a “free” boundary in an external or unconfined flow.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. 3-26 © Fluent Inc.0 Jan 2002 Pressure Inlet (2)  Note: Gauge pressure inputs are required. 04/25/13 .

Radial equilibrium pressure distribution option available.fluentusers. Can occur at pressure outlet during iterations or as part of final solution. Doubles as inlet pressure (total gauge) for cases where backflow occurs.Fluent User Services Center www. . 04/25/13  Backflow      Suitable for compressible and incompressible flows   Can be used as a “free” boundary in an external or unconfined flow.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. Pressure is ignored if flow is locally supersonic. 3-27 © Fluent Inc. Backflow direction is assumed to be normal to the boundary. Convergence difficulties minimized by realistic values for backflow quantities.0 Jan 2002 Pressure Outlet  Specify static gauge pressure    Interpreted as static pressure of environment into which flow exhausts. Backflow boundary data must be set for all transport variables.

fluentusers.  3-28 © Fluent Inc. Cannot be used if back flow is expected in final solution.  Flow exiting Outflow boundary exhibits zero normal diffusive flux for all flow variables.   Data at exit plane is extrapolated from interior.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. 04/25/13 . must use velocity inlet.0 Jan 2002 Outflow  No pressure or velocity information is required. Mass balance correction is applied at boundary.  Combination does not uniquely set pressure gradient over whole domain.  Cannot be used for unsteady flows with variable density. Cannot be used with a Pressure Inlet.   Intended for incompressible flows.  Appropriate where exit flow is close to fully developed condition.Fluent User Services Center www.  Poor rate of convergence when back flow occurs during iteration.

Normal velocity component = 0 Shear stress can also be specified. Wall shear stress and heat transfer based on local flow field.0 Jan 2002 Wall Boundaries   Used to bound fluid and solid regions. 3-29 © Fluent Inc.fluentusers.   Translational or rotational velocity can be assigned to wall. 04/25/13  Thermal boundary conditions:    Wall roughness can be defined for turbulent flows.Fluent User Services Center www.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. In viscous flows. . several types available Wall material and thickness can be defined for 1-D or shell conduction heat transfer calculations. no-slip condition enforced at walls:    Tangential fluid velocity equal to wall velocity.

3-30  Axis Boundary  symmetry planes  © Fluent Inc. No inputs required.0 Jan 2002 Symmetry and Axis Boundaries  Symmetry Boundary    Used to reduce computational effort in problem. 04/25/13 .Fluent User Services Center www. Flow field and geometry must be symmetric:    Zero normal velocity at symmetry plane Zero normal gradients of all variables at symmetry plane Must take care to correctly define symmetry boundary locations. No inputs required.  Can be used to model slip walls in viscous flow Used at centerline for 2D axisymmetric problems.fluentusers.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.

0 Jan 2002 Periodic Boundaries    Used to reduce computational effort in problem. Specify either mean ∆p per period or net mass flow rate. Flow field and geometry must be either translationally or rotationally periodic.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. 04/25/13 .Fluent User Services Center www.fluentusers. 3-31 flow Translationally periodic planes 2D tube heat exchanger © Fluent Inc. Axis of rotation must be defined in fluid zone. ∆p can be finite across periodic planes. Periodic boundaries defined in Gambit are translational. For rotationally periodic boundaries:   ∆p = 0 across periodic planes.   Rotationally periodic planes  For translationally periodic boundaries:   Models fully developed conditions.

 Optional inputs allow setting of source terms:  mass.fluentusers. Can define motion for fluid zone. momentum.0 Jan 2002 Cell Zones: Fluid   Fluid zone = group of cells for which all active equations are solved.     Define fluid zone as laminar flow region if modeling transitional flow.  Single species. 3-32 © Fluent Inc. Define axis of rotation for rotationally periodic flows. 04/25/13 . etc. energy. Can define zone as porous media. phase.Fluent User Services Center www.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. Fluid material input required.

Need to specify rotation axis if rotationally periodic boundaries adjacent to solid zone.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. but it is assumed that no convection takes place.fluentusers.Fluent User Services Center www.  Only required input is material type     Optional inputs allow you to set volumetric heat generation rate (heat source). So appropriate material properties used. 04/25/13 .   No flow equations solved Material being treated as solid may actually be fluid. Can define motion for solid zone 3-33 © Fluent Inc.0 Jan 2002 Cell Zones: Solid  “Solid” zone = group of cells for which only heat conduction problem solved.

com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.Fluent User Services Center www.0 Jan 2002 Solver Settings 3-34 © Fluent Inc.fluentusers. 04/25/13 .

0 Jan 2002 Solution Procedure Overview  Solution Parameters   Set the solution parameters Choosing the Solver Discretization Schemes Initialize the solution   Initialization Convergence   Enable the solution monitors of interest Monitoring Convergence Stability   Calculate a solution Setting Under-relaxation Setting Courant number Yes Modify solution parameters or grid Check for convergence No Check for accuracy Yes Stop No  Accelerating Convergence Grid Independence Adaption  Accuracy   3-35 © Fluent Inc.fluentusers.Fluent User Services Center www.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. 04/25/13 .

Memory required: Implicit solver requires roughly twice as much memory as coupledexplicit or segregated-implicit solvers!  The Coupled-Explicit solver should only be used for unsteady flows when the characteristic time scale of problem is on same order as that of the acoustics.Fluent User Services Center www.   Lower memory requirements than coupled-implicit solver. 04/25/13 ..fluentusers.0 Jan 2002 Choosing a Solver   Choices are Coupled-Implicit. In general. tracking transient shock wave  The Segregated (implicit) solver is preferred in all other cases.  e. Segregated approach provides flexibility in solution procedure. or Segregated (Implicit) The Coupled solvers are recommended if a strong inter-dependence exists between density.   e. Coupled-Explicit.. momentum.   Time required: Implicit solver runs roughly twice as fast.g.g. and/or species. 3-36 © Fluent Inc.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. the Coupled-Implicit solver is recommended over the coupled-explicit solver. energy. high speed compressible flow or finite-rate reaction modeled flows.

low Re flows).fluentusers. uses larger ‘stencil’ for 2nd order accuracy.Fluent User Services Center www.0 Jan 2002 Discretization (Interpolation Methods)  Field variables (stored at cell centers) must be interpolated to the faces of the control volumes in the FVM: ( ρφ )t + ∆t − ( ρφ )t ∆V + ∆t faces ∑ρ φ V f f f Af = faces ∑ Γ ( ∇φ ) f ⊥.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. useful for rotating/swirling flows. 3-37 © Fluent Inc. f Af + Sφ ∆V  FLUENT offers a number of interpolation schemes:  First-Order Upwind Scheme  easiest to converge. 3rd order accurate on uniform mesh. essential with tri/tet mesh or when flow is not aligned with grid. only first order accurate. slower convergence applies to quad/hex and hyrbid meshes (not applied to tri’s). 04/25/13  Power Law Scheme   Second-Order Upwind Scheme   Quadratic Upwind Interpolation (QUICK)  . more accurate than first-order for flows when Re cell< 5 (typ.

04/25/13 .Fluent User Services Center www. 3-38 © Fluent Inc. jump. PRESTO!  use on highly swirling flows.0 Jan 2002 Interpolation Methods for Pressure   Additional interpolation options are available for calculating face pressure when using the segregated solver..com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. not to be used with porous media. Linear  use when other options result in convergence difficulties or unphysical behavior. or VOF/Mixture multiphase models. e.g. FLUENT interpolation schemes for Face Pressure:      Standard  default scheme. fans. or strongly curved domains. etc. reduced accuracy for flows exhibiting large surface-normal pressure gradients near boundaries.fluentusers. flows involving porous media. Second-Order  use for compressible flows. high Ra natural convection or highly swirling flows. Body Force Weighted  use when body forces are large.

g.Fluent User Services Center www.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. robust Allows faster convergence for simple problems (e. useful for unsteady flow problems or for meshes containing cells with higher than average skew.. laminar flows with no physical models employed). 04/25/13 .fluentusers. Three methods available:  SIMPLE  default scheme.  SIMPLEC   PISO  3-39 © Fluent Inc.0 Jan 2002 Pressure-Velocity Coupling   Pressure-Velocity Coupling refers to the way mass continuity is accounted for when using the segregated solver.

Fluent User Services Center www. 04/25/13 ..0 Jan 2002 Initialization  Iterative procedure requires that all solution variables be initialized before calculating a solution. Solve → Initialize → Initialize.fluentusers.  “Patch” values for individual variables in certain regions.   Free jet flows (patch high velocity for jet) Combustion problems (patch high temperature for ignition) 3-40 © Fluent Inc... In some cases. correct initial guess is required:  Example: high temperature region to initiate chemical reaction. Solve → Initialize → Patch..com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.   Realistic ‘guesses’ improves solution stability and accelerates convergence.

You can also normalize the residuals. nb  At the start of each iteration. Coefficients updated each iteration. 3-41 © Fluent Inc.  Only for coupled equations. the monitored residuals are scaled. the above equality will not hold. 04/25/13 .0 Jan 2002 Convergence Preliminaries: Residuals  Transport equation for φ can be presented in simple form: a pφ p + ∑ anbφnb = bp   Coefficients ap.   The residuals that you monitor are summed over all cells: R = ∑ | R p | By default.fluentusers. additional scalar equations use segregated definition. R .com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.  The imbalance is called the residual.Fluent User Services Center www. where: R p = a pφ p + ∑ anbφnb − bp p nb   Rp should become negligible as iterations increase. anb typically depend upon the solution. cells  Residuals monitored for the coupled solver are based on the rms value of the time rate of change of the conserved variable.

Fluent User Services Center www.) are obeyed in all cells to a specified tolerance. etc.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. momentum.fluentusers.   Scaled energy residual must decrease to 10-6 for segregated solver. and scalar balances are obtained. Ensure that property conservation is satisfied. 04/25/13  Monitoring quantitative convergence:   . 3-42 © Fluent Inc.   Monitoring convergence with residuals:  Major flow features established. energy. energy. Scaled species residual may need to decrease to 10 -5 to achieve species balance. Overall mass. Monitor other variables for changes. Solution no longer changes with more iterations. a decrease in residuals by 3 orders of magnitude indicates at least qualitative convergence. Generally.0 Jan 2002 Convergence  At convergence:    All discrete conservation equations (momentum.

10-3 10-6 3-43 © Fluent Inc. 04/25/13 .fluentusers.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. All equations converged... Solve → Monitors → Residual.0 Jan 2002 Convergence Monitors: Residuals  Residual plots show when the residual values have reached the specified tolerance.Fluent User Services Center www.

fluentusers... 3-44 © Fluent Inc.Fluent User Services Center www..0 Jan 2002 Convergence Monitors: Forces/Surfaces  In addition to residuals.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. drag. Variables or functions (e.g. surface integrals) at a boundary or any defined surface: Solve → Monitors → Surface. or moment Solve → Monitors → Force. you can also monitor:   Lift.. 04/25/13 ..

fluentusers.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.Fluent User Services Center www..  At a minimum. you should also check for overall heat and mass balances. the net imbalance should be less than 1% of smallest flux through domain boundary.. Report → Fluxes. 3-45 © Fluent Inc. 04/25/13 .0 Jan 2002 Checking for Property Conservation  In addition to monitoring residual and variable histories.

Then calculate until solution converges to the new tolerance. 04/25/13 .0 Jan 2002 Decreasing the Convergence Tolerance  If your monitors indicate that the solution is converged.com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. 3-46 © Fluent Inc.fluentusers. but the solution is still changing or has a large mass/heat imbalance:   Reduce Convergence Criterion or disable Check Convergence.Fluent User Services Center www.

 Troubleshooting:   Continuity equation convergence trouble affects convergence of all equations. Reduce Courant number (coupled).    Exhibited as increasing (diverging) or “stuck” residuals. Decrease under-relaxation for equations having convergence trouble (segregated).com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6.0 Jan 2002 Convergence Difficulties  Numerical instabilities can arise with an ill-posed problem. Re-mesh or refine grid with high aspect ratio or highly skewed cells. and/or inappropriate solver settings. Diverging residuals imply increasing imbalance in conservation equations.Fluent User Services Center www. Unconverged results can be misleading! Ensure problem is well posed.fluentusers. poor quality mesh.    3-47 © Fluent Inc. 04/25/13 . Compute an initial solution with a first-order discretization scheme.

3-48 © Fluent Inc.fluentusers. α. 04/25/13 .  ‘Appropriate’ settings best learned experience. under-relaxation factors for equations outside coupled   set are modified as in segregated solver. Default settings are aggressive but suitable for wide range of problems. is included to stabilize the iterative process for the segregated solver.. Solve → Controls → Solution. Use default under-relaxation factors to start a calculation..com Introductory FLUENT Notes FLUENT v6. φ p = φ p .old + α∆φ p  Decreasing under-relaxation for momentum often aids convergence. Forfrom coupled solvers.Fluent User Services Center www.0 Jan 2002 Modifying Under-relaxation Factors   Under-relaxation factor.

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