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A helpful review of AS Physics. This is meant for the OCR b physics course

A helpful review of AS Physics. This is meant for the OCR b physics course

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Chapter 1 - Imaging

Although as humans we can only see the visible spectrum of electromagnetic radiation we can use machines to see UV and infrared radiation, they can also make an image from sound. Ultrasound used for seeing inside the body uses high frequency sound waves to make an image, a much higher frequency than human ears can detect. Resolution is the smallest size object a sensor can detect. For pictures this the size of the pixels, if you zoom in to far the image becomes pixelated. In order for a sensor to show a decent image the wavelength has to be much smaller than the object being detected, as this affects the resolution. Formulae for waves used in imaging: T=1 = vT = v T = time of oscillation f f v = velocity f = frequency = wavelength

To see very small things, such as atoms, we would need to use a wave with an extremely short wavelength. Much shorter than any of the electromagnetic spectrum, so instead we use electrons. An scanning tunnelling micro scope is a ultra sharp needle point held just above a surface so atoms, so close the electrons can tunnel across the gap, this creates a current and the smaller the gap the larger the current, and this data can be used to create an image of electrons.

Bits and Bytes Information is stored digitally in binary form, this is a series of 0s and 1s, one digit is called a bit. But in images we use 256 shades of colour so we need 8 bits to store each pixel, 8 bits is 1 byte. N = 2I and log2(N)=I N = Number of alternatives

I = Amount of bit

So N = 28 = 256 This is normally shown on a logarithmic scale, one which equal distances correspond to equal multiples Each shade of a colour is given a number given to each shade a colour of either grey (for black and white) or RGB (for colour pictures). The higher the number the darker the shade. This is pictures are stored and sent to people as the each pixel uses 3 bytes of storage

Image Processing Most images contain noise which distorts the image, so changes the data you can collect form it. To solve these problems we use of image processing Smoothing sharp edges: - replace each pixel by the mean of those around it, (mean method).

Image Processing Removing noise: - Replace each pixel with the median of those of its neighbours

Finding edges: Subtract the N,S,E and W from 4 times the value of each the pixel

1.3 Lenses

Introduction Lenses bend light to either focus it on a point, concave, or spread it out, convex. We only need to learn about concave lenses. Lenses bend light using refraction, as the light enter the glass it changes median so it slows down, so it refracts toward the median and as it leaves it bends away from the median.

As you can see the shape of the lens causes the light to bend.

1.3 Lenses

The Eye In the eye there are two main lenses the cornea and the lens. Although the lens is much more curved than the cornea, it bends the light less. This is because in order for the light to bend it needs to pass through a change in median to refract. As the light passes from the air into the cornea, there is a large change in refractive index, similar to that of a glass lens, this causes the light to bend on the steep angle. But the before the light enters the second lens, it is in the aqueous humour, and this has a similar refractive index the lens means the light doesnt bend very much.

1.3 Lenses

The Focal Length When the light is from a very distant source the waves have no curvature, they are parallel. When this is the case it will cause an image at the focal length (f). 1/f is the power of the lens in dioptres (D) when the focal length is meters.

1.3 Lenses

The Formula

1.3 Lenses

The Formula 1/u is the curvature of the waves before (negative), and 1/v is the curvature of the waves after the lens. 1/v = 1/u + 1/f So the curvature of the waves after the lens equal the curvature before the lens plus the curvature added by the lens. This works with parallel waves from far away, because 1/infinaty = 0, and so 1/v = 1/f, so v = f and the image is at the focal point.

1.3 Lenses

Image The further the source is away from the lens the closer the image will be, so to create an image that is in focus you have either move the lense or the image, but in the muscles contract and relax, to strengthen or weak the power of the lens so the image is always in focus on the retina.

Example If source 1 is 2m away from the lens the waves have a curvature of -0.5D and say the lens has a power of 2D the curvature afterwards is 1.5D so the image is 0.66m away from the lens. But say source 2 is 4m away from the lens the waves have a curvature of -0.25D, and with the same power lens the afterwards is 1.75D so the image is only 0.57m away from the lens.

1.3 Lenses

Magnification and Inversion Lenses can be used to magnify stuff, for example in magnifying glass, this is when the image is in focus after the waves have spread out causing the image to appear larger than the initial source. But they also turn the image upside-down, as you can see in the diagram the waves from the top of the source are projected to the bottom of the image, and the bottom to the top.

Chapter 2 - Sensing

Small things Very tiny things have to be produced in order to make sensors, for example circuit boards in mircosensors, which are then used in very day items, a car for example has hundreds of mircosensors to keep it running smoothly. These small things have to be made by very small tools, such as ions. If you ionise an atom for example, argon it will have a charge and can be fired at a surface, these ions now have the energy to knock other atoms out of the surface and so can shape something. This is how diamond styluses are sharpened and more importantly how Richard Hammond wrote his name into his own hair, on that engineering programme.

Electricity But in order to fire ions at a surface you need to have a force moving them, this force is potential difference, or voltage. It can be created in a battery, by a chemical reaction that causes the electrons to one end leaving a positive charge at the other end, this then attracts the electrons in the circuit including those at the other end of the battery, causing a current.

Electrical Formulae Q= Charge (coulombs) (C) I = Current (amperes) (A) (C/s) V = Potential Difference (volts) (V) (J/C) E = Energy (joules) (J) P = Power (watts) (W) (J/s) t = Time (Seconds) (s) The energy (E) given to a charge (Q) going through a potential difference (V) = E=QV If N ions arrive per second then the power : P=NE=NQV so P=IV

Transistors are uses as switches to store data in binary data, they can now be produced incredibly cheaply, cheaper than it costs to print one letter. Conductance (G) is the current for a given potential difference G=I conductance = 1 . Conductance is measured in V resistance Siemens Resistance is the potential difference needed for a given current R=V resistance = 1 . Resistance is measured in I conductance Ohms The power equation: P = IV = V2 = I2R R

Resistors (Potential Dividers) When resistors are added in series the total resistance is the sum of the value of all the resistors: Rtotal = R1 + R2 Or 1 = 1 + 1 Gtotal G1 G2

When the resistors are in parallel the total conductance is the sum of all the value of resistors : Gtotal = G1 + G2 Or 1 = 1 + 1 Rtotal R1 R2

Potential dividers are used to control potential difference. A potential divider tap off a fraction of its input to provide a controlled output, equal movements of the sliding contact give equal changes in output. So as the moving contact moves along the resistor the resistance increases, this can be used as a sensor, its called a potentiometer. There is a linear relationship between sliding displacement out in p.d. This is how a fuel gauge measures the amount of in the tank, with a float on the moving contact. But results can fluctuate so a control system is needed to smooth out errors

Types of sensors Sound sensors Microphones are electronic ears, they produce a varying electric signal from sound waves. Temperature sensors Thermocouples and thermistor create change in p.d. Light Sensors Charge-coupled device (CCD), is a silicon n-p junction and can detect radiation over varied wavelengths, UV to infrared. Strain gauges As a metal gets stretched it gets longer and the cross-sectional area get smaller, so the resistance increases. Smell Sensors They cant really smell but smoke detectors can quantities of certain substances in the air

Internal Resistance The electromotive force (e.m.f. or E) is the potential energy difference from a source on the open circuit. The total internal resistance is the total resistance inside a device (sensor or power source etc.) If the Rinternal of a sensor is very high then the current will be almost 0, so any other device will only show a significant change if the device has a very high internal resistance. I= E . Rinternal + Rexternal E = Vinternal + Vexternal Vexternal = IRexternal = E IRinternal

Definitions Resolution The smallest change a sensor can detect (the resolution can show the uncertainty in the measurement) Sensitivity Is the ratio of change of output to change of input Response time The amount of time a sensors takes to reaches its final reading after a sharp change in input

Uncertainty The extent to which you cant be sure of a measurement, due to small unsystematic and random variations

Systematic Error An error where something is wrong a needs to be put right, often human error of zero error (an error when the sensor should be reading zero)

Summary

Electric current = charge transferred I = Q time taken t Potential Difference = potential energy difference V = E charge transferred Q Conductance G = I Resistance R = V V I A conductor obeys Ohms law so has a constant conductance and resistance, so current is directly proportional to potential difference. Resistors in parallel: 1 = 1 + 1 Rtotal R1 R2 Resistors in series: Rtotal = R1 + R2 The potential difference from a source (E) and internal resistance is V = E - IR and V = IRload Power in a circuit: P = IV = V2 = I2R R

Chapter 3 - Signalling

Digital Vs Analogue

Digital signalling has caused a death of distance as a message can be sent from one side of the world to the other in seconds. Analogue signals are a series of continuous data that can be at any value, like a wave. Digital signals are either 1 or 0 (binary), they are discrete data. As signals are sent they pick up noise from other signals that interfere with them, this can cause inaccuracies in analogue signals

But digital signals are unaffected by noise as it is always easy to see whether it was a 0 or 1 Also because digital signals work in binary it is easy to send data stored as binary Because analogue signals are affected by noise it means they cant be transmitted very long distances, as they become unreadable, whereas digital signals can.

Digitising Analogue In order to convert a analogue to digital to things need to be done: sampling, binary coding and further encoding Sampling: - To digitalise you need to break up the continuous data tiny discrete figure, to avoid losing accuracy this needs to be done more than twice the highest frequency. So if the highest frequency is 20kHz then is must be sampled 40,000 times a second. If this is not done than the original signal is not recovered correctly or aliases form where low frequency waves appear to form in the places of higher frequency. Binary coding The numbers from the sampling have to be converted into binary, so they can be sent by digital signal. This size of bandwidth needed to transmit the digital sampled signal depends on: - The resolution of each sample (number of bits specifying the value) - The rate of sampling Further encoding This is used to ensure your picture or email arrives error free.

E.M. Waves and Polarisation There are many different types of the E.M waves, each with different properties, such as range and bandwidths. E.M waves are formed by flowing charges flow back and forth in an aerial causing the electric field to form a wave. The magnetic plane is then formed from this. Polarisation is when the waves all oscillate on the same plane, most e.m wave generated for signalling are polarised, this why the aerial rod are always parallel to waves so they can receive the greatest signal. The light from the sky is polarised, because the electrons on atoms in the atmosphere absorb the energy and the emit it on a certain planes, this is also why the sky is blue, as the wavelength the electrons emit is that of blue light.

Multiplexing Multiplexing means sending more than signal at once. There is two types, timedivision and frequency-division. Frequency-division means sending each signal at a different frequency so they dont interfere. This means they can be sent at exactly the same time, but it uses a lot of bandwidth so not very many can be sent at once. Time-division means sending the signals on the same frequency but one after the other, for example in a telephone line it sends 8 bits every 100 microseconds, this is undetectable to the receive but it means many signals can be sent on the same frequency. There is still a limit depending on how fast it can send the 8 bits but this is a lot higher than of frequency-division. Bandwidth The bandwidth needed to send a signal is: B = b bits per second 2 This is because a pair of bits is like one cycle of a wave. So the larger the bandwidth the faster the signal can be sent. To make a analogue signal digital you need to sample it: Rate of sampling per second = 2W (W is the width of the spectrum) Rate of transmission (bits per second) = 2Wb (b is the number of bits per sample) And the bandwidth is half the rate of transmission B=Wb

Noise Although noise doesnt affect digital signals as much analogue if the amplitude isnt high enough it can cause errors in reading. If b is the bits per sample then: 2b total noisy signal variation = Vtotal noise variation Vnoise The largest number of bits per sample its worth using is: b = log2(Vtotal) Vnoise Communication engineer measure the ratio of signal power S to noise power N, using these measure the formula can be rewritten: b = log2(1+S ) N

Different materials have different properties, so this means if you need a material for a job you have to make the right choice. Ceramic materials are hard and brittle, made up of crystals, whereas polymers strong and sometimes flexible, made up of long chains. Compression is when forces squash the material. Compressive strength is a materials strength to withstand these forces Tension is when forces stretch a material along its length. Tensile strength is a materials ability to withstand these forces. When a material is bent there is compression on the inside of it and tension on the outside. The toughness of a material is measure by the energy needed to create a new fracture. Brittle materials, such as glass have a low fracture energies, whereas tough materials such as rubber have high fracture energies. Composite materials are materials made up of two or more very different substance to take the best properties from each.

Stress is force per unit area usually measured in Nm-2 commonly called Pascal's (Pa). The elastic limit of a material is point where the stress on the material causes it to become permanently deformed. Before the elastic limit the material deforms elastically so it will return to its original shape, but after the elastic limit it deforms plastically so it wont return to its original shape. The breaking stress is the stress at which the material breaks. Strain is a measure of extension in relation to length, it has no units as it is a ratio. Stress = Load Strain = Extension . Area Original length Youngs modulus of elasticity is a measure of elasticity, it is higher for stiffer materials. Youngs modulus = Stress Strain

Conductance (G) is the inverse of resistance (R), and conductivity () is the inverse of resistivity (). G=1 G = A R L R=1 R = L G A =1 = GL A =1 = RA L

Problems of measuring breaking stress A break will usually start at a weaker point or a fault, and each piece of a material will have different amounts and kinds of faults so you get a wide spread of results. Problems with measuring youngs modulus Most materials yield only a few percentage under a large stress, so you need to have a large load and a small cross-sectional area, this can causes errors in measuring. Problems with measuring resistivity Resistivity can vary over 20 orders of magnitude so measuring values accurately for it can be hard. Also for insulators getting a current at all can be hard, for good conductors seeing any resistance at all is also hard.

To see very tiny thing we used two special types of microscopes; a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an atomic force microscope (AFM). A SEM works by firing electrons at a tiny spot on the specimen, and collecting them where they scatter off to. The specimen has to be kept in a vacuum with a metal film coating so it cant be alive, also you only get a black and white image. But the SEM has a good depth of focus. Magnification = scan line spacing on monitor scan line spacing on specimen An AFM works by using a tip on the end of an arm, the force between the tip and specimen is kept the same, so the arm bends to do this. A laser beam is bounced off the tip on to a detector so it can read when the arm bends, this is then used to create an image. The AFM specimen does not have to be in a vacuum and doesnt need a metal coating so it can be alive.

As I said earlier the fracture energy is a measure of how tough something is. Cracks can propagate through a material and cause it to break, because as the material is bent there is tension on the area of the crack, this puts extreme stress at the point of the crack, so the bond at the tip of the crack breaks and then the next bond until the crack has spread throughout the whole material. Metals can resist cracks propagating because they are ductile and so the crack is made wider, so less stress is put on the bond below the crack. Fracture energy = total energy used to fracture specimen cross-sectional area Tensile strength = breaking force . specimen cross-sectional area Large fracture energy = tough, large tensile strength = strong. Composite materials can combine the properties of two materials to make it better. Fibre composites are strong because of the fibres and tough because the soft matrix spreads the stress over many fibres, so that cracks dont propagate.

Many materials are made up of a crystal lattice, but the crystals are not perfect they have dislocations, where atoms dont fit to together. This means the atoms can move making the metal more ductile and malleable. Alloys can contain more than one element, these are less ductile than pure crystals, because the smaller atoms can fill the dislocations. There are three different types of bonding structures: Covalent structures such as silica, atoms share electrons with neighbouring atom, there bonds are directional and hold the atoms in place making a hard and brittle structure. Ionic structures like sodium chloride, give electron to each to form ions which attract each making a bond. These bonds are strong and hold the atoms in place. Metallic structure such has gold, atoms are ionised and the free electrons form a negative glue holding the nuclei in place. But the ions can slip making it strong but ductile. When stretching metal it is the bond the lengthens but only by 0.1% this is why metals have a high youngs modulus. In polymers the bonds rotate making the chains fold so when stretched can extend up to 1%. In rubber sulphur cross-links hold the chains together in certain points but they can fold up in between and when stretched the chains straighten out, allowing for a lot more elastic stretching.

For metals as temperature increase so does resistance, this is because the atoms get excited and this blocking the electrons trying to carry the current. But for semi-conductors the opposite occurs, this happens because semi-conductors are covalently bonded, so have no or very few free electrons, but as it is heated these bonds break causing electrons to be freed so they can conduct electricity. We can also control how well the semi-conductors conduct by doping, there are two kinds positive and negative doping: Negative doping (N-type) involves adding phosphorus to the silicon, phosphorus has 5 electrons in its outer shell so can complete the 4 bonds with the silicon with an electron free to conduct electricity. Positive doping (P-type) involves adding boron to the silicon, boron only has 3 electrons in its outer shell so when completing the 4 bonds with silicon it leaves a hole which other electrons can move into moving the hole in the opposite direction to the electrons, so it acts as a positive particle.

Superposition This is when waves interfere with each other, either constructively or destructively If two waves are in phase they will interfere constructively, the waves will added together to produce a larger amplitude. If the two waves are out of phase they are exact opposites and they will interfere destructively. If they were perfectively out of phase the wave will have been destroyed If the two waves are in between these two marks their phasors will add up to produce a resultant phasor with a amplitude bigger than one but double and an average of the angles. This can worked out from Pythagorass theorem. This is why you get a light spectrum shining off the oil some of the light is reflected off the top surface but some goes through and is reflected off the surface of the water, if this difference is x and a half wavelength of one colour of light (say red) then this colour will be in phase and be amplified more than the others and it will appear red.

Waves travelling opposite directions can form standing waves (waves that look like they are staying still), these are in phase and so amplify to give a greater colour or sound. They are antinodes where the waves add up to from a large oscillation and nodes where the waves cancel out so have no oscillation. Standing make music because waves go back and forth in the instrument so that the right frequency constructively interfere and amplify to make the note you hear. This is why long distances inside the instrument (e.g. the organ) form lower notes, a longer wavelength forms the standing wave and so a lower frequency, hence lower note. You hear the note that has a wavelength of twice the length of the string, pipe etc, this is called the fundamental frequency Only in waves with a stable interference can you see the effects of it, this is called coherent interference.

Angle of incidence = Angle of reflection Another theory of light is that it is made up of tiny wavelets and these wavelets can interfere with each other.

Youngs double slit interference pattern shows that has light passes through two slits and diffracts the waves interfere with each other. Depending on the angle the waves are either in phase or out of phase because you are at different distances from each slit. This causes a series of maxima and minima to occur on the screen.

The formula for working the angle of each of the maxima is: n = dsin Where n is the order of the maximum

This formula is the same when you are using a diffraction grating, though the order of the maximum is relevant to where you are measuring it from

Waves also diffract when they goes through a single slit, you can see this in water waves as they you through a small gap, and because of this the tiny wavelets can interfere with each other. This can be seen in the single slit experiment: At the right angle the wavelets that go through the bottom of the gap are out of phase with those in the middle and the very top. This is repeated as you go up the gap. So the resultant phasor is zero. To find the angle of this minimum you use the equation : = dsin

Quantum behaviour explains the behaviour of light as photons. Photon can and do explore every possible path of getting from the source to where it is detected. Light arrives in is lump or quanta, called photons, if less than the right amount of photons arrives then the image appear grainy. Because the photons arrive in some place but not in others. There is also light where there shouldnt be because another photon would be out of phase with it and cancel it out. When it is bright there is a higher probability of all the photons arriving, but when it is dim the probability is low. LEDs work using photons because they drop each electron by a certain p.d. when glowing so it releases a photon of that colour of light.

The relationship between frequency and energy is constant for all electromagnetic radiation, E/f= 6.634x10-34 J s, this is called Planck's constant (h). So electromagnetic radiation of frequency f is emitted and absorbed in quanta of energy E where E = hf. If the different photons explore different paths, some may take longer than others, this means that the phasor will be out of phase. So in order to get the resultant phasor you need to add the phasor tip to tail and the distance between the start and finish is the resultant phasor. A B C

A B C Resultant Phasor

Photons also produce the same superposition patterns as waves: Diffraction - In the double slit experiment, the photons explore both paths through the slits, this causes one to be out of phase with the other, when detected at a certain angle, hence causing interference and a minimum.

Reflection - When light reflects off a mirror all of the light reflected in the same angle, no quantum behaviour there. But there is, the photons explore all the paths, you only see the light at the angle. The photons that reflect off the mirror in the centre have a much shorter trip time than those near the edge, this means the ones near the middle are in phase and all those at the edge are randomly out of phase, so cancel each other out. This means that the resultant phasor is made up from the photons following the centre path and this is what you see. Refraction The photons that make up the resultant phasor are those that travel fastest, those that travel close to the shortest but slightly further than in the faster medium than the slow one, this means the main photons will bend towards the normal as they enter a slower medium. Propagation The photons which will be in phase are those that do the journey fastest and so go in the straightest line.

Lenses -

Quantum mechanics is important because it is common in all fundamental particles, including electrons. It is not exactly the same because electron have a mass so they cant travel at the speed of light. This can be seen when Youngs double slit experiment was repeated for electrons, and they showed diffraction. For electrons: = h . mv Or: = h . momentum

8.1 Journeys

Time can be used to describe distance, for example a 30 min car journey or 100 light years. Speed = Distance time Average speed = Total distance Total time Instantaneous speed is the speed at one instant in time and is very hard to work out, normally we just use a very small period of time. A journey can represent on two different graphs, distance-time and speed-time graphs. On a distance-time graph the speed is the gradient of the line. On a speed-time graph the distance is the area under the line.

Vectors have a quantity (magnitude) and a direction (for example velocity). Scalar has a magnitude but no direction (for example speed). Vectors can be added to give a resultant. For example if you travel along A and then B your resultant is C so A+B=C. If you know any of the angles in the vector map you can use the sine and cosine rules to work out the distances. Sine Rule: a = b = c . C sin A sin B sin C Or: Sin A = Sin B = Sin C A B a b c Cosine rule: a2 = b2 + c2 2abCos A Or: Cos A = b2 + c2 - a2 2ab

8.3 Velocity

Velocity is speed in a certain direction. Velocity = displacement (s) time (t) You can add velocities but you have to take into account the direction of each velocity, you add them the much like you add vectors. There is instantaneous and average velocities the same as there is for speed.

Vplane

Vresultant

Vair

We constantly make calculations about what will happen next, e.g. catching a tennis ball you work the velocity to find out where its going so you can catch it. Displacement s = v t Relative velocities are two velocities in comparison to each other, so if two planes are travelling at 1000km towards each other they have relative velocities of 2000km. Relative velocities can be calculated by reversing your velocity and adding it to the other velocity. For example car A is travelling at 30m/s and car B is travelling at 25m/s in the same direction, the relative velocity of B from A is -30m/s +25m/s = -5m/s

Acceleration is an increase in velocity, deceleration is a decrease in velocity. For uniform acceleration: V = final velocity U = initial velocity v = u + v And v = a t so, v = u + at Acceleration (a) = change of velocity a = v - u time taken t These two are the same formula reversed. All formulae: v = u + at s = u+v x t 2 v2 = u2 + 2as s = ut + at2 On a speed-time graph the gradient is the acceleration.

Force (N) = mass (kg) x acceleration (ms-2) (F=ma) Gravitational force = mass x gravitational field Acceleration in free fall = gravitational force mass Gravitational field = gravitational force mass So acceleration in free fall = gravitational field The gravitational field strength can be measured by the acceleration in free fall. Forces are require to change velocity, either slow it down, speed it up or change its direction.

Force x time = mass x acceleration x time Acceleration x time = velocity Force x time = mass x velocity (mv) mv is also called momentum so Force x time = momentum Displacement = average velocity x time Average velocity = v/2 Force x displacement = average velocity x force x time Force x displacement = mv x v/2 Force x displacement = mv2 This is also called kinetic energy

The distance taken for an object to stop can be worked out from the formula: u2 = -2as This taken from the formula v2 = u2 + 2as but the final velocity is zero as its stopped. Weight = mass x gravitational field (mg) Displacement vertically = h Work done = force x displacement = mgh When going uphill the energy used is mgh this is also the gain in gravitation potential energy. The gravitation potential energy is mgh = mv2 The kinetic energy from falling is v = gt (g is the acceleration) So t = v/g and distance = average velocity x time So distance (h) = v/2 x (v/g)2 gh = v2 and this is the same as mgh = mv2 so the increase is kinetic energy is the same as the decrease in gravitational potential energy

When something is giving energy to something change in kinetic energy = energy in energy out. Work done = drag force x displacement Work done per second = drag force x velocity Power = drag force x velocity

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