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• Culture is a learned set of shared norms and practices of a particular group that direct thinking, decisions, and actions (Transcultural Nursing, 2004). In the country where the population is homogenous, culture is not an issue. All of the people function from a common set of norms and practices. This is not case in a diverse population as that in the United States. In addition to cultural differences, there can be variation in norms and practices in the different geographic region of the United States.


CULTURE AFFECTS • Health behaviors • Teaching – Learning process 3 .

tea Exercise Communication Educational pursuits 4 .) Drug use (alcohol. slimness. hallucinogens. coffee. etc.CULTURE INFLUENCES • • • • • • • • • Gender Roles Sexual Behavior Diet Personal hygiene Body image (obesity.

5 .• Culture can affect the way people experience and describe illness and will therefore affect the educational approach we use.

HWA – BYUNG (SUPPRESSED ANGER SYNDROME) Symptoms • Constriction in the chest • Palpitations • Flushing • Headache • Dysphoria • Anxiety • Poor concentration 6 .

• It can be safely assume that based on western medicine. 7 . anxiety or stress. Since mental illness in many of Asia cultures is associated with shame and fear of stigma. education on the treatment for hwa –byung may be much more acceptable . However.byung but perhaps to one of depression. these symptoms are would not likely to a diagnosis of hwa. education focusing on mental illness would not likely lead to successful treatment.

Teaching older adult • • • Presents some challenges.AGE As more of our population lives longer. Educational session need to be of longer durations or broken down into more sessions of shorter durations. it is increasingly the aged who are our clients in the health care setting. 8 . covering less information. although none insurmountable. Usually needs more time to learn. • Enjoy learning in group.

• Use large – print materials or print in larger letters if using a flip chart or a chalkboard. 9 . and loudly if needed. • Make a tape recording of pertinent instructions. slowly.Be cognizant of possible hearing and visual deficits. • Face the client while speaking clearly.

• Depression • Stress • Denial • Fear • Anxiety 10 . emotional or mental status should be acknowledged and taken into account when planning an educational intervention.EMOTIONAL STATUS With all learners.

• Roommate disagreement • Relationship issues • Separation or adjustment anxiety • Fear of failure 11 .

Socioeconomic level takes into account a number of factors including: • Income • Education level • Occupational / employment 12 .SOCIOECONOMIC LEVEL The impact of socioeconomic level on learning has more to do with being able to use the information being taught rather than the process of learning.

for example.• Clients may not have the resources needed to comply with the medical regimen prescribed. Changes in diet. Fresh produce is expensive. the behavior cannot be changed because of factors beyond the client’s control. Although the nutrition information is learned. and may not be available to some at the local grocery store. may include increasing the intake of fresh fruits and vegetables. is difficult to store. 13 .


Stice 1987) • 10% reading • 26% hearing • 30% visual • 50% see and hear • 70% of what they say • 90% of what they say as they do something 15 . 2002. Use several senses (Felder and Silverman.LEARNING PRINCIPLES 1.

that is they are passive or active.2. Actively involve the patients or clients in the learning process this principle relates to the teaching methods used . Passive • Lecture • Videos • Print materials Active • Discussion • Role playing • Small group discussion • Question and answer 16 .

graffiti. peeling paint. Ideal Room • Good lightning • • • • • • Temperature control Comfortable seating with enough space between seats Free of unpleasant smell (mold. cigarette smoke.Learning takes place best when people are comfortable and extraneous interference is kept to a minimum. dirty carpeting) Adequate acoustics (no echo) Arrange chair in a circle 17 . mildew. heavy perfume) Signs of deterioration (falling ceiling tiles. Provide an environment conducive learning .3.

Creature features do count. they can make the difference between successful and unsuccessful program.While attention to these factors may seem trivial. 18 .

Assess the extent to which the learner is ready to learn .In general. people learn only if they are emotionally and physically ready. 19 .4. • An adolescent who is in denial about a diabetes diagnosis may not be ready to learn how to inject insulin or follow a prescribed diet. • A student whose parent recently died from a heart attack may not be ready to learn about coronary artery disease.

Physical readiness to learn can be hampered by a myriad of thins including: • Pain • The effects of anesthesia • Visual impairment • Auditory impairment • Lack of privacy • Sleep deprivation • Hunger 20 .

or families. • Data can be obtained directly from clients. or literature.Therefore the primary step in educational process is to assess readiness for learning. • Can be obtained from a variety of other sources such as charts. 21 . or student. reports.

Adults are generally willing to learn if they perceive the information or skill being taught as relevant to their lives in some way. 22 . Determine the perceived relevance of the information . depending on their readiness to learn. The easiest way to determine perception is to simple ask.5. Keep in mind that this response may vary from person to person.

Repetition enhances learning.6. Repeat Information . Repetition is particularly important when the information is complex or completely new. including rewording of the information. When new information is presented. Information can also be repeated throughout the educational session by referring back to material that was previously discussed. 23 . it should be presented several times and in a variety of ways.

24 .7.Information is more readily learned it is applied to more than one situation. Using a variety of examples to demonstrate application of the information in a number of different situations promotes learning. Generalize Information .

8. even for seemingly small successes. 25 . when obvious progress is being made. can go a long way toward a successful education intervention. This can be accomplished through frequent encouragement and positive feedback. Make learning a pleasant experience Learning is enhanced if the learning experience is pleasant. and learning is enhanced. People usually enjoy learning. Frequent recognition of accomplishment.

It should begin with the basics or general information that is known and move toward new information.9. or that which is unknown. Starting with information that people generally have knowledge building on that increases the likelihood of a pleasant. move toward what is unknown . learning experience. Using this approach may also contribute to a pleasant learning experience. 26 .Information should be presented in an organized fashion. Being with what is known. and most importantly a successful.

27 . The rate which you should teach new information depends on a host of things including. their education level. Present information at an appropriate rate Nothing us ore frustrating for learners than have new information presented at such a rapid pace that they cannot keep up. physical limitations of the learners. the time frame available. and prior experience or familiarity with the information being taught.10. but not limited to.