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# Wavelet Transform 1

Wavelet Transform
Wavelet Transform 2
Introduction
Wavelet Transform 3
Why Transform
To obtain further information that is not readily available
in the raw signal
Wavelet Transform 4
Limitation of Fourier Transform
Loss of time/space information
Wavelet Transform 5
Benefit of Wavelet Transform
No Loss of time/space information
Wavelet Transform 6
Non-Stationary Signal Analysis
Stationary Signal
Properties do not
evolve in time
Fourier Transform is
suitable
Non-Stationary Signal
Properties evolve in
time
Time Frequency
Analysis
Short time Fourier
Transform (STFT)
Wavelet
Transform (WT)
Wavelet Transform 7
is a time domain windowing function
is the starting position of the window
STFT maps a function into 2-D plane
STFT uses sinusoidal wave as its basis function
Basis functions keep the same frequency over the
entire time interval
STFT uses a single analysis window
Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT)
t
( , ) e t
( ) f t
( ) w t
Wavelet Transform 8
A windowing technique with variable-sized regions
Long time intervals with more precise low-frequency
information
Short time intervals with high-frequency information

Wavelet Analysis
+ f
Time
Frequency
Wavelet Transform
Wavelet Transform 9
Wavelet Analysis A Contrast with
other Methods
Wavelet Transform 10
Wave vs Wavelet
Wave: No compact
support (extends to
infinity)
Transient signal
(Anomaly, burst):
Have compact
support (non-zero
only in a short
interval)
Many image features
(e.g., edges) highly
localized in spatial
position.

0 100 200 300 400 500 600
-8
-7
-6
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
1
Wavelet Transform 11
What is a Wavelet
A wavelet is a waveform of effectively limited duration
that has an average value of zero

Haar Wavelet
Finite Energy
Wavelet Transform 12
What is a Wavelet (continued)
Basis of Fourier Analysis
unlimited duration sine waves
Smooth, predictable
Basis of Wavelet Analysis
limited duration wavelets
Irregular, asymmetric
Fourier Analysis is breaking up of signal into sine
waves of varying frequencies
Wavelet Analysis is breaking up of signal into shifted
and scaled version of mother wavelet

Wavelet Transform 13
Continuous Fourier Transform (CFT)
( ) ( )
j t
F f t e dt
e
e

=
}
Wavelet Transform 14
Scaling a Sinusoid
( ) sin
t
f t
a
| |
=
|
\ .
Time
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e

Wavelet Transform 15
Scaling a Wavelet
( )
t
f t
a

| |
=
|
\ .
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e

Time
Wavelet Transform 16
Shifting a Wavelet
Wavelet Transform 17
Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT)
,
( , ) ( ) ( )
s
W s f t t dt
t
t

=
}
,
1
( )
s
t
t
s
s
t
t

| |
=
|
\ .
Wavelet
Function
Scaling
Shifting
,
2
0
( )
1
( ) ( , )
s
t
f t W s d ds
C s
t

t t

=
} }
CWT
Inverse CWT
2
| ( ) |
| |
u
C du
u

+
=
}
Wavelet Transform 18
Computing Wavelet Transform
1
2
3
Wavelet Transform 19
Wavelet Spectrum
Wavelet Transform 20
Scale and Frequency
Wavelet Transform 21
Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT)
DWT
Inverse DWT
,
1
( , ) ( ) ( )
o
o j k
t
W j k f t t
M

=
,
1
( , ) ( ) ( )
j k
t
W j k f t t
M

=

Scaling Coefficients
Wavelet Coefficients
, ,
1 1
( ) ( , ) ( ) ( , ) ( )
o
o
o j k j k
k j j k
f t W j k t W j k t
M M

=
= +

Scaling Function
Wavelet Function
Wavelet Transform 22
Some Scaling and Wavelet Functions
Wavelet Transform 23
Two Dimensional Discrete Wavelet Transform
( , ) ( ) ( ) x y x y =
Separable Scaling function
( , ) ( ) ( )
( , ) ( ) ( )
( , ) ( ) ( )
H
V
D
x y x y
x y x y
x y x y

=
=
=
Separable Wavelets
/ 2
, ,
( , ) 2 (2 , 2 )
j j j
j m n
x y x m y n =
Scaled and Translated Basis Functions
/ 2
, ,
( , ) 2 (2 , 2 ) { , , }
i j i j j
j m n
x y x m y n i H V D = =
Wavelet Transform 24
Two Dimensional Discrete Wavelet Transform
(continued)
1 1
, ,
0 0
1
( , , ) ( , ) ( , )
o
M N
o j m n
x y
W j m n f x y x y
MN

= =
=

2-D DWT
Scaling Coefficients
1 1
, ,
0 0
1
( , , ) ( , ) ( , ) { , , }
M N
i i
j m n
x y
W j m n f x y x y i H V D
MN

= =
= =

Wavelet Coefficients
Inverse 2-D DWT
, ,
, ,
1
( , ) ( , , ) ( , )
1
( , , ) ( , )
o
o
o j m n
m n
i i
j m n
i j j m n
f x y W j m n x y
MN
W j m n x y
MN

=
=
+

Wavelet Transform 25
Some Applications of Wavelet Transform
De-noising
Compression
Detection of Discontinuities
System Identification
Video Compression (MPEG-4)
Speech Recognition
Face Recognition
Wavelet Transform 26
De-noising Application of Wavelet Transform
Noisy Image
De-Noised
Image
De-Noised
Image
Information removed in
De-Noising Process
De-Noised
Image
Wavelet Transform 27
References
Rafael C. Gonzalez, Richard E. Woods, Digital Image Processing,
2
nd
Edition, Prentice Hall, 2002
Robi Polikar, The Wavelet Tutorial
http://engineering.rowan.edu/~polikar/WAVELETS/WTtutorial.html
Jan T. Bialasiewicz, Introduction to Wavelet Transform & its
Applications, http://pelincec.isep.pw.edu.pl
Wavelet Transform (WT) and JPEG 2000
http://missouri.edu/~llxm7/CS4670-7670/ Slides/Ch8%20Wavelet
%20Transform%20for%20Image%20Coding.ppt
Wavelet Toolbox Matlab 7 Help