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BY- SUNEET SRIVASTAVA

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History of Fiber Optic Transmission Types of Multiplexing Principle of WDM WDM Technology WDM Components Transmission Challenges Future Scope Application Conclusion

EVOLUTION OF FIBER OPTIC TRANSMISSION
• In mid 1960’s researchers proposed optical fiber as suitable transmission medium.

• In 1970 , Corning produced the first communication –grade fibers. • AT& T first standardized transmission at DS3 speed(45Mbps) for multimode fibers.

•These regions called windows. single mode fibers were shown to be capable of transmission rates 10 times that of older type. lie between area of high absorption. .•Thereafter.

band DWDM Window 1600 CWDM Window C Band Range : 1530nm – 1560nm L Band Range : 1570nm – 1600nm  Fiber Characteristics Water Peak 1310 Window 1550 Window 5 .band Wavelength (nm) 1280 1320 1360 E .band 1400 1440 S .band 1520 1552 1560 L .WINDOWS O .band 1480 C .

and a device that performs the reverse process is called a demultiplexer (demux).WHAT ACTUALLY IS MULTIPLEXING ? MULTIPLEXING (also known as muxing) is a method by which multiple analog message signals or digital data streams are combined into one signal over a shared medium. a device that performs the multiplexing is called a multiplexer (mux). .

• • • • Time Division Multiplexing Frequency Division multiplexing Code Division Multiplexing Wavelength Division multiplexing .

PROBLEM: DEMAND FOR MASSIVE INCREASES IN CAPACITY IMMEDIATE SOLUTION: WAVELENGTH DIVISION MULTIPLEXING LONGER TERM SOLUTION: OPTICAL FIBRE NETWORKS PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS .

LIGHTWAVE SYSTEM .

•Colors are transmitted through air and may mix •These colors can be easily separated by prism .

PRINCIPLE .

ADVANTAGES OF WDM • • • • Unlimited Transmission Capacity Transparency Scalability Dynamic Provisioning .

IS WDM FLEXIBLE? GE WDM Fiber MUX Independent opticial bit rates and formats SONET Fiber Channel ATM Fiber Cable .

IS WDM EXPANDABLE? •Incremental capacity expansion to 80 Gbits/s and beyond •Allows reuse of the installed equipment base .

TYPES OF WDM .

WDM SYSTEM Block Diagram of DWDM System .

n l1 l3 l2 prism l1 l2 l3 l1..n Light source Photo detector ..WDM COMPONENTS lens Fiber optic lens prism l1...

LIGHT SOURCES  LED (light emitting diode)  LASER (Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) .

.n l1 l2 l3 Optical De-multiplexer Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer (OADM) 19 ..n Transponder Optical Multiplexer l1 l2 l3 l1..WDM COMPONENTS l1 850/1310 15xx l2 l3 l1..

WDM SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS •Component reliability •System availability •System margin. •System wavelength and bit rate can be upgraded .

including stress from the manufacturing process.Attenuation • Attenuation is caused by : .intrinsic factors primarily scattering and absorption . and physical bending • Rayleigh scattering .is an issue at shorter wavelengths TRANSMISSION CHALLENGES . the environment.extrinsic factors.

RAYLEIGH SCATTERING .

. and any atomic defects in the glass.• Attenuation due to absorption .impurities in the glass.the intrinsic properties of the material .is an issue at longer wavelengths .

Absorption .

DISPERSION • Spreading of light pulses Two general types of dispersion • Chromatic Dispersion .is linear • Polarization Mode Dispersion .is nonlinear. .

expanding the range of transmission wavelengths .better EDFAs .reducing the “space” between wavelengths .FUTURE OF WDM What the future holds • Two-way video communication • Digital video for our everyday use • The Ultimate Squeeze .

• Develop better equipment • Cheap WDM pipelines .

APPLICATIONS OF WDM • Long-distance telecommunications • Building or expanding networks • Network wholesalers can lease capacity • Utilize the existing thin fiber • • DWDM improves signal transmission .

 New technology for utilization of bandwidth Ultra high speed data rate  .