TRANSPORT OF O2 & CO2

By Dr.M.Anthony David MD. Professor of Physiology

OXYGEN IN THE BLOOD in Milliliters: 200ml in 1lt.
Oxygen Hb Oxygen in soln.

197

3

How much Oxygen is carried in the blood?
The Cardiac Output normally is 5lts.  So the Oxygen carried to the tissues per minute is:

• 5lts/min X 200 ml O2 • = 1000 ml/min.

How does Hemoglobin carry Oxygen?

Hemoglobin exists in two forms:
• Oxyhemoglobin: HbO2

O2 + Hb

HbO2

• Deoxyhemoglobin

The fraction of all the Hemoglobin in the form of Oxyhemoglobin is expressed as Hemoglobin saturation.

PERCENTAGE SATURATION

Percentage Saturation:
= Oxygen bound to Hb X 100 Hb content

Here the denominator gives the total Oxygen carrying capacity of the blood.

OXYGEN- HEMOGLOBIN DISSOCIATION CURVE

The total amount of Oxygen carried by Hb in blood depends upon:
• The percentage saturation of Hb. • The amount of Hb in the blood.

The quantitative relation between the PO2 and Hb saturation is called as the O2 – Hb dissociation curve.(ODC)

OXYGEN DISSOCIATION CURVE

ODC: SHIFTS

ODC SHIFTS
SHIFT TO THE LEFT  Increased pH

SHIFT TO THE RIGHT  Decreased pH

Decreased conc. of 2,3 DPG Decrease in the Temperature

Increased conc. of 2,3 DPG Increase in the Temperature

OXYGEN DISSOCIATION CURVE
 

Is sigmoid in shape due to HemeHeme interaction Oxygen linking occurs sequentially for each subunit. Each combination facilitates the next.(Cooperativity)

SOME FEATURES OF THE ODC
 

P50 The partial pressure of Oxygen at which 50% saturation of Hb occurs. It is an index of the Hb affinity to Oxygen. High P50 : Low affinity Low P50 : High affinity (Eg Fetal Hb)

 

ODC SHIFTS: STR: Right:
    [H+] PCO2 Temperature 2,3 DPG.

STL: Left:
PCO2 [H+] Temperature 2,3 DPG

BOHR EFFECT
  

Increased CO2 helps to release more Oxygen from the Hemoglobin. How? By altering the configuration and decreasing the Oxygen affinity. Is useful during physical exercise when more of Carbon dioxide is produced.

FETAL HEMOGLOBIN
It has no Beta chain.  It has more affinity to Oxygen than the Adult Hemoglobin.  This helps the fetus to extract Oxygen from the maternal blood.

CARBON DIOXIDE IN THE BLOOD

CO2 crosses cell membranes much more readily than O2. It needs to be transported out to the lungs and thus into the external environment. It plays a vital role in maintaining body fluids at their correct pHs: Acid Base balance.(HOMEOSTASIS)

CARBONDIOXIDE IN PLASMA
   

CO2 is more soluble than O2 in water. CO2 unlike O2 reacts with water. CO2 + H2O  H2 CO3 (Carbonic Acid) Carbonic Acid dissociates to Hydrogen & Bicarbonate ions. H2 CO3  H+ + HCO3-

CARBONDIOXIDE IN PLASMA

If the PCO2 increases, more CO2 dissolves and the concentrations of H+ & HCO3 increase. On the other hand, if the [H+] & [HCO3] levels rise, the CO2 will rise. The dissolved CO2 will be given out as gas. So, [H2CO3]  [H+] + [HCO3-]

CARBON DIOXIDE IN BLOOD

200 ml of CO2 is produced per minute at rest. It diffuses from the tissues to the blood. As it is more soluble, is more dissolved in blood.

CARBON DIOXIDE IN BLOOD

In physical solution Plasma/Erythrocyte: 10% As Carbamino Hemoglobin : 30%
• CO2 + Hb  HbCO2

As Bicarbonate ions: 60%
• Mostly in the Erythrocyte which has the enzyme, Carbonic anhydrase.(Catalyses the formation of Carbonic acid 5000 times.) • CO2 + H2O  H2 CO3 [H+] + [HCO3-]

CARBON DIOXIDE IN BLOOD
Phy. Soln. CarbaminoHb Bicarbonate

10%

60%

30%

CHLORIDE SHIFT

Most of the HCO3- so formed in the Erythrocyte, shifts out through a transporter. This is an antiport which influxes one ion of Chloride for every ion of Bicarbonate shifting out. This is called as the Chloride shift or the Hamburger Phenomenon/shift.

HAMBURGER EFFECT

The Chloride shift occurs in the tissue capillaries. Since some bicarbonate and Clremain and the osmolarity of RBCs increases, they swell slightly. This is called “Hamburger effect.”

THE CHLORIDE SHIFT
ERYTHROCYTE
CO2  CO2 CO2 + H2O  H2CO3

H+ + HCO3- HCO3 ClCl-

HALDANE EFFECT
 

Is opposite to the Bohr effect. Binding of Oxygen to Hemoglobin tends to displace CO2 from the blood. This is called as the Haldane effect. Is quantitatively more important than the Bohr effect. It promotes the transfer of CO2

 

EFFECTS OF CO
 

CO binds to Hb on its Oxygen binding sites. It has about 200 times the affinity of Oxygen for Hb. So it excludes Oxygen from binding to Hb. The Oxygen carrying capacity of blood is reduced.

CO Poisoning: symptoms
HEADACHE

CHERRY PINK CHEEKS

CO Poisoning: Therapy

High concentrations of Oxygen are given to occupy all available sites on Hb & cause CO dissociation. Administration of some CO2 will:
• stimulate ventilation • cause a STR of the ODC • Improve perfusion of certain organs.

Carbogen: Has 5% CO2 in O2