Are you sure?
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
near a body of water, such as a bay, harbour, lake or river. Hydrographic surveys
are conducted to determine the position of the bottom of bodies of water, to
determine submarine contours and to locate other topographical features related
with large bodies of water.
Hydrographic surveys are also conducted for making nautical charts for
navigation and for planning and designing of engineering projects related with
large bodies of water such as bridges, dams, docks and harbours. Hydrographic
surveys consist of one or more of the following operations.
9˙1 INTRODUCTION
1. Measurements of tides at sea coast.
This is required for the establishment of a leveling datum and for reducing
the soundings to a common datum. (The measurement of depth below the
water surface is called sounding).
2. Determination of bed depths by soundings.
The depth of bed is required for navigation and for location of rocks, sand
bars, navigation lights, buoys, etc. The bed depths are also required for the
location of underwater works, for the computation of volume of
underwater excavation and for the planning of irrigation and drainage
schemes.
3. Determination of direction of currents.
This is required for navigation purposes and for the location of sewer
outfalls. These are also useful to locate areas subjected to scouring and
silting.
4. Measurement of discharge
This is required in connection with flood control, power development,
water supply schemes, etc.
9˙2 HORIZONTAL CONTROL
In most hydrographic surveying, a single horizontal control survey is
done to serve both for shore details and for offshore details. The horizontal
control usually consists of a series of connected lines whose lengths and
azimuths are determined accurately. For rough works, these connected lines
may form a tachometric traverse or a plane table traverse. However, for more
precise control, a theodolite and a tape traverse is usually run. For extended
surveys where great precision is required, the horizontal control is a
triangulation system.
When making soundings of the depth of a river bed or sea bed, the
location of the sounding vessel is fixed by reference to fixed to control points
on shore. For precise location, the control points should be fixed accurately. It
is essential to establish suitably located intervisible control points all along the
shore line. As permanent control points cannot be established in water,
hydrographic charts are prepared with reference to control points located on
the shore.
No definite rules can be given whether the control should consist of a
traverse or a triangulation system. It depends upon a number of factors, such as
topography, reliefs, type of the water body, and size of water body. The
following guide lines should be kept in view while selecting the type of control.
1. For long and narrow rivers where shore conditions are favourable to
traversing, a traverse is run only on one shore.
2. For a long and wide river, with a width more than about 1 km, the traverse is
usually run on both sides and the two traverses are connected by suitable
ties.
3. When the store lines of rivers and lakes are not suitable for traversing, a
triangulation system is used. A base line is measured at the beginning and at
the end of the survey. Check bases are also measured at very 15 km or 20km.
4. For large lakes and ocean shore lines, the horizontal control consists of a
network of connected triangulation systems on shore. These are usually
supplemented by traverses run along the shore and connected to the primary
triangulation system.
Fig. 9˙1 shows a combined triangulation and traverse system for a wide river.
Δ Triangulation Station ˚ Traverse Station
Figure 9˙1
9˙3 VERTICAL CONTROL
Bench marks are established to serve as vertical control. The bench
marks are located near the shore line at close spacing. The bench marks are
required for setting and checking the levels of gauges. The soundings are
referred to these gauges.
Mean sea level (M.S.L.) is generally used as a datum for all types of
surveys. Meansea level at selected points along the shore of a country is
determined for establishing the datum. The mean sea level is determined by
taking hourly observations extending over a period of 19 years for establishing
the datum.
The following procedure is used for establishing the datum.
1. A gauge is set at a location where it is protected from rough wave action, and
where water level not affected by local conditions. The gauge should be
located at a low level in sufficient depth of water so that the gauge reading
can be taken even at low tide.
2. The zero of the gauge is referred to a permanent point on shore to serve as a
bench mark.
3. The elevations of water surface are read continuously for 19 years.
However, observations extending over one lunar month will give results
which are quite close to the average of 19years. These results can be used for
most of the hydrographic surveys.
4. The mean of all the readings is taken to compute the mean sea level (M.S.L)
5. When the gauge reading is equal to M.S.L., the level of a permanent point on
the shore is determined. The permanent point would serve as a bench mark
(B.M) after its elevation with reference to the mean sea level has been
determined.
TIDAL DATUM
For navigation purposes, tidal datum instead of the mean sea level
datum is used. The tidal datum is the level of the water surface below which
the tide rarely falls. It is also known as the mean low water spring datum
(M.L.W.O.S.T.) or the chart datum.
Tidal datum is more convenient than the mean sea level datum
because negative values of elevations are avoided.
9˙4 SHORE LINE SURVEY
Shore line survey is conducted to prepare a topographical map of the
shore line. It consists of the following operations.
1. Location of the shore line.
2. Location of the shoreline details
3. Location of light houses, and other features.
4. Determination of high and low water lines for average spring tides.
Location of the shore line is usually done by normal methods of
chain survey, plane table survey or compass survey. The shore line
elevation is located by a level party as a trace contour.
The details are generally located by the tacheometric method or the
planetable method. All irregularities in shore line should be located
accurately. All prominent features of topography and manmade features
should be located so that these points can be later used as references in range
lines and sounding work.
Determination of highwater line is done by locating the points on the
shore at the time of high tides. These points can easily located from the visible
marks on permanent rocks after the high tide has subsided. The imaginary line
connecting all such points is the high water line. Determination of low water
line is rather difficult because the low water line does not remain exposed for a
long period. The low water line is usually determined indirectly by
interpolation from soundings.
9˙5 THEORY OF TIDES
The alternate rise and fall of the surface of sea water caused by the
gravitation pull of the moon and sun on the body of water are called tides. The
periodic oscillations of the sea level are caused by the variation of the
attractive forces of the moon and the sun. The attractive forces vary because
of change in the relative positions of the moon and the sun relative to the
earth. The tidal phenomena are widely difference at difference places because
of the earth’s irregular land masses and because of the variation of the depth
of water. At some places on the coast, there is no tidal change, whereas at
other places the tidal oscillations may exceed 15m. Moreover, there is no
definite pattern and the relation of the tidal phenomena to the actual positions
of the moon and the sun is highly variable. The actual theory of tides is very
complex and beyond the scope of this text. A simplified presentation is given
below.
Newton’s equilibrium theory is probably the simplest and the most
commonly used theory. This theory is based on Coulomb’s law of attraction
between heavenly bodies. The force of attraction between two celestial bodies
acts in a straight line joining their centres. The magnitude of the force is
directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional
to the square of the distance between them. Thus
2
2 1
d
m m
F ·
Where m
1
and m
2
are the masses, and d is the distance between them.
Figure 9˙2
The tides caused due to the gravitational force of attraction between the
moon and the earth are called lunar tides. The tides caused due to the force of
attraction between the sun and the earth are called solar tides. Because the moon
is nearer to the earth, the lunar tides are more important of the two. The cycle of
tidal phenomena is mainly governed by the moon and its principal period is equal
to the apparent period of rotation of the moon around the earth, which is
approximately equal to 24 hours and 50 minutes.
In addition to the force of attraction discussed above, there is the
centrifugal force due to rotation of earth about its axis. The tides are caused by
the resultant force of the two forces due to the celestial bodies and the centrifugal
forces.
The following assumptions are made in the Newton equilibrium theory.
1. The earth is surrounded all around by an Ocean of uniform depth.
2. The ocean water has no inertia and viscosity and it is capable of assuming the
equilibrium figure instantaneously after the application of the resultant force.
Effect of Moon
The moon and the earth revolve around each other in ellipses in a
period of about one lunar month. The curvature of the elliptical path is such
that the centrifugal forces of the moon and the earth balance the effect of the
gravitational pull between them. Thus the two forces are balanced. But this
balance exists only at the centre of mass. At points on the earth surface which
are nearer to the moon than earth’s centre, the gravitational pull is greater
than the centrifugal force, and the water surface is pulled out. Thus the bulge
of the ocean surface is caused by the unbalanced force. At points on the earth
surface which are nearer to the moon than earth’s centre, the gravitational
pull is greater than the centrifugal force, and the water surface is pulled out.
Thus the bulge of the ocean surface is caused by the unbalanced force. At
points on the earth’s surface which are away from the moon, the gravitational
pull is slightly less than the centrifugal force. The water surface is depressed.
Thus there is one bulge towards the moon and one away from the moon.
(Fig.9˙2).
The surface of sea water takes the shape of an ellipsoid whose axis
passes through the moon in bolt the cases. As the earth rotates, the ellipsoid
changes its position. At any points on the earth’s surface, each of the two bulges
pass twice in a lunar day and, therefore, there is one highwater stage and one
lowwater stage. (Fig.9˙3).
Figure 9˙3
The moon moves from a point south of the equator to a point north
of the equator every month. As the axis of the ellipsoid follows the moon, its
position also changes. When the moon is north of the equator, there is a bulge
in the sea which is centred under the moon. There is another bulge centred
opposite to the moon. However, the tide under the moon is higher than that
opposite the moon.
Effect of Sun
The effect of the sun on the tides is similar to that of the moon.
Because of the large distance, the effect is relatively small. It is about half of
that due to moon. The sun increases the effect of the moon at the new moon
and the full moon when the sun, moon and earth are in one line. The effect is
decreased when the sun and moon are at right angles when viewed from the
earth. This occurs in the first and third quarter of the lunar month. The tides of
increased effect are called spring tides and those for the decreased effect are
called neap tides.
The following points may be noted.
a) The combined effect of the moon and the sun is a maximum at the new
moon. The sun and the moon have the some celestial longitude and the
cross the meridian simultaneously. If it is assumed that they lie in the
same horizontal plane passing through the equator, their effects are
added and it gives rise to the maximum tide or the spring tide. Fig. 9˙4
(a) shows the spring tide.
FULL MOON 15
DAYS
SUN
MOON
MOON
NEW MOON
0 DAY
EARTH
(a) SPRING TIDES
DAYS
SUN
MOON
DAYS
EARTH
MOON
(b) NEAP TIDES
b) After the new moon, the moon trails behind the sun. The moon crosses each
difference between the longitude of the moon and that of the sun is equal
to 90˚. The moon is said to be at quadrature. The effects of the moon and
the sun oppose each other and the crest of one coincides with the trough of
the other. It gives rise to be minimum tide or the neap tide. Fig. 9˙4 (b)
shows the neap tide.
2
1
7 meridian 50 minutes after the sun has crossed. After about days, the
c) After about 15 days of the new moon, the full moon occurs. The difference
between moon’s longitude and sun’s longitude is 180˚, and both are in
opposition. However, the crests of both the tides coincide and once again
the maximum tide is obtained. It is called spring tide of the full moon (Fig.
9˙4 (a)).
d) After about
2
1
22
moon and the sun is equal to 270˚ and the neap tide of the third quarter
occurs (Fig. 9˙4 (b)).
days of the new moon, the difference in longitudes of the
e) After about
2
1
29
again have the same longitude, and the spring tide of the new moon is
again formed.
days of the previous new moon, bolt the moon and the sun
It may be mentioned that the equilibrium theory is based on various
assumptions which are seldom justified. Moreover, these are many other
factors that affect the tides which have not been considered. The actual field
observations of the tides are sometimes quite different from the predicted
values. To have a clear picture of the patent of tides at a particular place, it is
essential to have tidal observation over a long period of time, usually 19 years.
The combined cycles of the sun and the moon repeat the same patent once in
about 19 years. To study various stages of the tides at a place, the record must
be available for over 19 years.
The whole cycle thus repeats with a period of about
2
1
29 days.
9˙6 TIDE GAUGES
Tide gauges or water gauges are installed at suitable places to
determine the water level and its variation with time. The elevation of the
surface of water is required when the sounding is taken so that the depth
measurement can be used to determine the elevation of the bottom.
In tidal water, tide gauges are used to establish a datum relative to a
certain stage of the tide. The water gauges are used in rivers to determine the
depth of water for the computation of discharge. The water gauges are also
used in reservoirs to estimate the volume of the stored water. Tide gauges are
also used to establish a datum at mean sea level for geodetic leveling.
The tide gauges may be broadly classified into two types.
1. Nonregistering tide gauges.
2. Self registering tide gauges.
In nonregistering tide gauge, an attendant is required to take the
reading; whereas in the selfregistering tide gauges, the readings are
automatically recorded on a graph. The selfregistering tide gauge is described
in the next section.
The nonregistering tide gauges are of the following three types.
1. Staff gauges
2. Float gauges
3. Weight gauges
1. Staff gauge
A staff gauge usually consists of a painted wooden board, about
150mm wide and 100mm thick. It is marked in metres and decimeters from the
bottom upward. The graduations should cover sufficient height so that the
highest as well as the lowest tides may be recorded. The zero graduation is
generally below the lowest water level so that all readings are positive. The
staff gauge if fixed vertically at the site of observation (Fig.9˙5a). The staff
gauge is read by noting down the readings of the crests and troughs of several
waves. The two values are recorded and the average value is taken as the water
level.
The staff gauge should be calibrated before use. To calibrate the staff
gauge, differential leveling is done from the nearest B.M. to a point on the staff
gauge. Thus the actual R.L of the staff zero is determined.
Figure 9˙5
STAFF
INDEX MARK
FLOAT
HOLES
(b)
1
3
2
0
4
(a)
2. Float gauge.
A float gauge consists of a float to which a staff is attached. The float
and the staff are enclosed in a stilling well. The stilling well is often made of
pipe or wooden boards. The well is usually of the crosssection
300mm×300mm. A few orifices (holes) are provided in the bottom and the sides
of the well through which water can enter (Fig.9˙5b). Thus the water level inside
the well is the same as that outside the well. The orifices have the tendency to
clog and need proper maintenance. The staff extends through a hole at the top of
the well. The staff is graduated, with graduations increasing downwards. The
reading of the staff is taken against an index mark through a slit window.
Float gauges are more suitable than staff gauges at places where the
intensity of tides is high. In such cases, staff gauges are difficult to read owing
to the wave action but float gauges are convenient and give reasonably accurate
results.
3. Weight gauge
The weight gauge (or a chain gauge) consists of a brass chain having
a weight attached to its one end. The chain passes over a pulley and is laid
horizontal along the side of a graduated scale (Fig. 9˙6). The weight touches
the water surface. The reading is taken on the graduated scale against an index
attached to the chain.
The weight gauge is first calibrated. The reduced level of the water
surface corresponding to the zero reading of the gauge is determined by
differential leveling. For calibration, the foot of the staff is kept against the
bottom of the weight when the index of the chain is against zero reading and a
foresight is taken with a leveling instrument.
As the water level changes, the weight moves up or down and the
reading is changed. Thus the water level is determined.
When the gauge is not in use, it is hooked to a board. The gauge is
usually mounted on a bridge, but may also be located on the river bank.
Figure 9˙6
GRADUATED SCALE
CHAIN
INDEX
WEIGHT
˙
9˙7 SELFREGISTERING TIDE GAUGE
A selfregistering tide gauge automatically records the variation of
water level with time on a graph attached to a recording drum. The gauge
consists of a float placed in a stilling well (Fig. 9˙7). Thus the float is protected
from wind, waves, etc. the float is attached to a wire (or a cord) which passes
over a float wheel. The wire is maintained at a constant tension by a
counterweight, marked (1) in figure.
The movement of the float occurs when the water level changes. The
movement is transferred to the float wheel which reduces it through some gear
system. The movement is finally communicated to a stylus (or a pencil)
attached to a lever. The movement of the stylus is recorded on a graph paper
wound round the recording drum. The recording drum rotates at a constant
speed by a suitable clockwork arrangement. The time is indicated on the
horizontal axis of the graph and the water level is indicated on the vertical axis
by the stylus. Thus a graphical record of the movement of the float with time
is obtained. The stylus wire is kept under constant tension by two counter
weights (2) and (3), as shown.
Sometimes the selfregistering tide gauges stop working. It is a good
practice to install a visual staff gauge to check the working of the self
registering gauge at frequent intervals.
The selfregistering gauge is usually housed in a well constructed
under a building in order to minimize the effect of wind and other disturbances.
If kept in open, the gauge may not work efficiently due to the effect of wave
action.
Figure 9˙7
COUNTER
WEIGHT
RECORDING DRUM
CLOCK
STYLUS
WIRE
FLOAT WHEEL
COUNTER
WEIGHT
COUNTER 
WEIGHT
FLOAT
STYLUS
(3)
(1)
(2)
9˙8 SOUNDINGS
Determination of the bed profile of a water body is one of the main
operations in hydrographic surveying. The process of determination of the bed
depth of a water body is called sounding. In other words, sounding is the
measurement of depth of bed below the water surface. Once the water depth
has been determined by sounding, the bed level can be determined. Obviously
the bed level is equal to the reduced level of the water surface minus the depth
of water. However, the water level does not remain constant. In order to
determine the reduced level of the bed accurately, it is essential to determine
the reduced level of the water surface at the time of sounding by the tide
gauge. Thus the waterlevel measurement and soundings are two essential
steps for the determination of the bed profile.
The sounding operation is generally carried out from a flatbottom boat of
the low draft. For sounding in the sea, the boats of large size and equipped
with a motor or launches are used. For tidal waters, roundbottomed boats are
more suitable. A common name vessel is commonly used for all types of
boats.
The sounding boat should have sufficient space and should be stable
under different conditions. Boats are generally provided with openings, called
wells, through which soundings are taken. In smaller boats, a sounding platform
extending far enough over the sides of the boat is provided so that the sounding
line or sounding rod does not strike the boat. If the depth of water is not more
that 25m or so, the sounding is made without stopping the boat.
Soundings are required for one or more of the following purposes.
1. For determination of the bed profile and for location of the areas from where
the material can be dredged or the areas where the dredged material can be
dumped.
2. For locations of the areas subjected to scouring or silting, and to determine
the quantities of the material involved.
3. For preparation of charts for navigation.
4. For collection of subaquous information. The information collected is used
for the design, construction, development and improvement of ports, and
other related structures.
Soundings may be carried out by the following methods.
1. Direct Methods. (a) Sounding rods, (b) lead line, (c) Sounding Machines.
2. Indirect Methods. Echosounder or fathometers. Echosounder is
discussed in the next section.
For complete information, it is essential to locate the position of the
point where a sounding is taken, as discussed in Art.9˙11.
a) Sounding rods.
A sounding rod is a rod of 5 to 8 m length. The diameter is between 5 to
10 cm. When the currents are not strong, wooden rods can be used. The
sounding rod generally consists of two or three lengths screwed together. For
shallow water, instead of the full rod, smaller lengths can be used. The rod is
generally graduated in metres, decimeters and halfdecimetres. The
graduations are form bottom upwards. Thus the reading of the sounding rod at
the water surface directly gives the depth of water. A rod of about 5 m length is
required for sounding depth upto 4m.
An arrow or lead shoe of sufficient weight is fitted at the bottom of the rod
so that the rod can be held vertical in flowing water. The base area of the arrow
or the lead shoe should be large so that it does not sink into mud at the bed. In
strong currents, it becomes difficult to maintain the verticality of the rod, and
the results obtained are not correct.
b) Lead Lines
A lead line is generally a rope made of hemp. A lead (or sinker) is
attached to the end of the lead line. Sometimes, a metallic chain is used as a
lead line. Chains of brass are better than hemp lead line due to wetting, the
line is first thoroughly stretched when wet and then it is dried. The process of
wetting and drying is repeated a number of times till the stretch is negligible.
The line is then soaked in water and graduated at very metre interval. Cloth
tags or leather tags are generally used to indicate metres.
The mass of the lead generally varies between 5 to 10 kg, depending
upon the strength of current and the depth of water. The lead is usually of
conical shape and streamlined (Fig.9˙8). It has an eye at the top for attaching
it to the lead line. The lead often has a cupshaped cavity at the bottom for
lifting samples. If the bottom surface is very soft, a leadfilled pipe fitted with
a board is attached to the lead weight. The weight penetrates the soft soil, but
it stops when the board strikes the soil surface.
Figure 9˙8
If the lead line is used for taking sounding in deep and swift
flowing water, the measured length of the line will be greater than the true
depth because of drag (Fig.9˙9). The correction is applied to the measured
length to obtain the correct depth.
SOUNDING LINE
CURRENT
DEPTH
APEX OF VERTICAL ANGLE
BED
Figure 9˙9
c) Sounding machine
A sounding machine is useful when a large number of soundings are
to be taken and when the depth of water is large. The sounding machine may
be automatic or handdriven. Fig. 9˙10 shows a handdriven sounding
machine. It is also called Waddell’s sounding machine.
It consists of a barrel which can be rotated by the winding handle. A
lead weight is attached at one end of a flexible wire and the other end is
attached to the barrel. The lead weight may be raised or lowered by the
winding handle. It may be suspended at any height by means of a pawl arm.
The amount paid out which is related to the depth is measured by a friction
driven roller and it is shown on a recording dial. There is a brake to control
the speed of the drum.
The machine is fixed over the well of the sounding boat. It can be used
to measure depths upto 30 m.
Figure 9˙10
9˙9 ECHOSOUNDER
An echosounder (also called fathometer) is an instrument which is
used for sounding in ocean where the depth of water is great. The echo
sounder consists of a transmitting unit and a receiving unit. A sonic or
supersonic impulse is transmitted by a oscillator fitted in the bottom of the
sounding vessel. The return (echo) impulse is picked by the receiver also
fitted on the same vessel. It records time interval between transmission and
reception. The depth is determined indirectly from the time of travel of the
sound waves from a point near the surface of water to the bottom of the sea
and back to the water surface (Fig.9˙11).
RECEIVER
d
TRANSMITTER
DATUM
h
Figure 9˙11
t v h 2 + =
2
vt
h =
( ) ( )
2 2
2 d ' h h ÷ =
2
vt
or
Where v = speed of sound in water.
t = time interval between the transmission and reception of the
signal.
As the transmitter and the receiver are at a small distance d, a slight
correction is required. The actual depth is given by
Where h′ is the inclined distance, given by h′ =
The depth (h) is given by the relation
For shallow depths, the correction is significant, but for great depths,
it is negligible.
Because the velocity of sound waves varies with density of water, the
echosounder should be adjusted to read the depth for different densities. The
echosounder indicates the depth graphically on a roll which continuously goes
on revolving at a uniform speed. The record of depth is made by a stylus. Thus
it provides a profile of the ocean.
Advantages of echosounder
An echosounder has the following advantages over the conventional lead
line method.
1. It is more accurate, and it gives the vertical depth correctly. It is more
sensitive than the line method.
2. It can be used even in strong currents and when the weather is not suitable
for the leadline method.
3. It gives a continuous record of the bed.
4. The sounding and plotting is done quickly.
5. Rocks underlying the softer bed material can also be located.
Limitations of echosounder
1. The instrument cannot be used to jetties and quay walls which may reflect the
sound waves. It would cause interference with the waves coming from the
bottom.
2. Air bubbles which may occur under the bottom of the vessel may cause
reflection of the sound waves. The instrument should be carefully positioned
with regard to the pockets of air bubbles.
3. For shallow depths, a correction is required because there is significant
difference between the inclined distance and the vertical depth.
4. The impulses do not form a perfect beam but have a conical shape, with its
main strength in an acute angle cone at the centre. On steep slopes at the bed,
it causes an error. To reduce the error. To reduce the errors, the instrument has
to be used at its lowest sensitivity when the bed is having steep slopes.
9˙10 REDUCING SOUNDINGS TO
A FIXED DATUM
Soundings are taken from the water surface. These give the depth of
bed as measured from the water surface. Since the water surface changes
continuously, the reference surface for sounding also changes. In order to reduce
the sounding to a fixed datum, it is necessary to take the readings of the tide
gauge at the time of sounding. To correlate each sounding with the gauge
reading, it is the usual practice to record of the tide gauge reading. Thus the
water level at the time of sounding is determined from the record. For this
purpose, a recorder goes on observing the tide gauge reading every 5 minutes.
Before soundings can be plotted, these are reduced to a fixed datum by
subtracting (algebraically) the gauge reading from the measured sounding. Thus,
Reduced sounding = Measured sounding – Gauge reading
In Fig. 9˙12, the measured sounding is the height ac and the gauge
reading is the height ab. Therefore, the reduced sounding is (ac – ab) = bc. It is
indicated by h. The gauge reading is indicated by D.
In navigation, the mean low water of spring tide (M.L.W.O.S.T.) is
commonly adopted as the fixed datum or chart datum. The difference between
the actual water level (gauge reading) and the assumed datum is known as the
correction for gauge reading. The correction is positive if the assumed datum
reading is greater than the gauge reading and negative when it is less than the
gauge reading.
WATER LEVEL
DATUM
SEA BED
D
h
a
b
c
2
1
0
Figure 9˙12
For illustration, let us assume that the gauge reading when the water
level is at MLWOST is 3˙00 m (Fig.9˙13). Let the gauge reading at the time of
sounding be 4˙0 m.
Figure 9˙13
Therefore,
Correction to be applied = Gauge reading at M.L.W.O.S.T.
– Gauge reading at the time of sounding
= 3˙00 – 4˙00 = 1˙00 m
Thus all soundings will be reduced by 1˙00 m
Let us consider the 5 soundings shown in the figure.
The soundings at points 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 are respectively 0˙5 m, 3˙50 m, 4˙90
m, 5˙50 m and 5˙80 m. The corrected soundings are
Point (1) = 0˙50 – 1˙00 = – 0˙50 m
Point (2) = 3˙50 – 1˙00 = 2˙50 m
Point (3) = 4˙90 – 1˙00 = 3˙90 m
Point (4) = 5˙50 – 1˙00 = 4˙50 m
Point (5) = 5˙80 – 1˙00 = 4˙80 m
9˙11 METHOD OF LOCATING
SOUNDINGS FROM SHORE
The point in the water body where a particular sounding has been made
should be located in the horizontal plane so that it can be plotted on the
drawing sheet. The points are located with reference to the shore control
traverse by taking suitable observations. The observations can be made
entirely from the shore, entirely from the vessel or from both the shore and
the vessel. The location of soundings from the shore is discussed in this
section.
Before taking the observations, it is the usual practice to mark a range
line along which the soundings are taken. The range lines are generally
marked perpendicular to the shore line. However, if the shore is irregular, the
range lines are usually marked radiating from some prominent object or shore
signal (Fig.9˙14 a).
The range lines are generally market by means of signals erected at
two points on it. The points should be at a considerable distance apart for
accurate making. The signals should be prominent and easily visible.
Generally, the signal is made of wood. It consists of a wooden tripod and has
a white and coloured flag of cloth at its top. Each signal should have some
mark so that it can be distinguished from other signals. The positions of the
signals should be located very accurately with reference to the shore traverse.
Sometimes, spires, chimney, etc. near the shore are taken as the signals.
1. Location by tacheometer.
Fig. 9˙14 (b) shows the two range lines AA′ and BB′. The tacheometer is
set up at the station A′ and oriented along AA′. A leveling staff is held vertically
on the bottom of the sounding boat. The boatman rows the boat along the range
line from shore to a
1
. When the boat reaches the point a
1
, a stadia reading is
taken on the staff and a sounding is also taken. The second sounding is taken
when the boat is at point a
2
. The stadia reading is also taken at the time.
Likewise, other points are located. The horizontal distances of those points
A′a
1
, A′a
2
etc. are determined by tachometric formulae.
Now the boat is rowed along the range line BB′ and the sounding points b
3
,
b
2
, b
1
etc. are located by taking the stadia readings. For going from the range
line AA′ to BB′, the boat is rowed perpendicular to the range line AA′ from a
3
to b
3
.
In the same manner, the points on range line CC′ and other range lines (not
shown) are located. The time of all sounding should be recorded.
The tachometer is generally set up near the shore line so that only horizontal
sights are required. The tachometric calculations are relatively easier when the
sights are horizontal.
This method of location of points on the range line is rapid and fairly
accurate. However, the method is suitable only in shallow depths and smooth
water, and where the width of the river is not great.
SIGNALS
RANGE LINES
(a)
RANGE
LINE
A B C
A′ B′ C′
a
1
b
1
c
1
b
2
c
2
a
2
b
3
c
3
a
3
(b)
Figure 9˙14
2. Location by range line one angle from the
shore line.
1
·
B C A D
B′ C′
b
1
c
1
b
2
c
2
b
3
c
3
A′
a
1
a
2
a
3
D′
d
1
d
2
d
3
x
1
x
2
x
3
Fig. 9˙15 shows the four range lines AA′, BB′, CC′ and DD′. The
theodolite is set up at the station B′ for locating points on the range line A′A.
the theodolite is oriented along the line A′B′. Let x
1
be the perpendicular
distance of the point B′ from the point A′
Figure 9˙15
The sounding boat is rowed along the line AA′. The first sounding is taken
at point a
1
. The signalman on the boat gives the signal to the instrumentman at B′
to be ready by raising a flag a few seconds before the sounding is taken. The
signalman lowers the flag at the instant of actual sounding, and the
instrumentman bisects the signal on the boat. Thus the horizontal angle a1 is
measured. The distance of the point a1 from A′ is given by
A′ a
1
= a
1
tan a
1
Likewise, the other points a
2
, a
3
etc. are located on the range lines AA′.
Now the boat is rowed perpendicular to the range line AA′ to the point b
3
on the range line BB′. The instrument is shifted to the station C′. The horizontal
angles of the points b
3
, b
2
, b
1
from C′ are measured. Thus the points are located.
In the same manner, the points on the other range lines are located.
The time of all soundings should be recorded.
This method is quite accurate and convenient. It is commonly used in
practice.
3. Location by two angles from the shore line.
The points can be located by measuring two angles from the shore
line. This method is used when it is not possible to keep the sounding boat on a
fixed range line. The method required two theodolites. The instruments are set
up at two known stations A and B on the shore line which provide good
visibility and intersections.
When the sounding boat is at a point P
1
whose location is required,
both the instrumentman measure the horizontal angles (Fig. 9˙16). Let the two
angles be a
1
and a
2
. The time at which the sounding is taken should be noted.
The distance d between A and B is also measured.
180˚–
d
P
1
B A
C
y
x
( )
2 1
· + ·
1
·
2
·
Figure 9˙16
( )  
2 1
1
1
2
1
180 sin
d
sin
BP
sin
AP
o + o ÷
=
o
=
o
( )
2 1 1
1
2
1
sin
d
sin
BP
sin
AP
o + o
=
o
=
o
( )
( )
2 1 2 1
1 2
1 2
2 1
sin cos cos sin
cos sin d
cos sin
sin
d
o o + o o
o o
=
o ×
(
¸
(
¸
o ×
o ÷ o
=
The distances x and y of the sounding point can be calculated as under.
From the triangle ABP
1
, by sine law,
Or
Let P
1
C be the perpendicular from P
1
an AB.
Now x = AP
1
cos
1
α
( )
2 1
2 1 2 1
2 1
1 2
cos cos
1
sin cos cos sin
cos cos
1
cos sin d
x
o o
× o o + o o
o o
× o o
=
( )
2 1
2
tan tan
tan d
x
o + o
o
=
1 1
sin AP y o =
( )
( )
2 1
2 1 2 1
1
1 2
2 1 2 1
1 2
1 2
2 1
cos cos
1
sin cos cos sin
cos cos
1
sin sin d
sin cos cos sin
sin sin d
sin sin
sin
d
o o
× o o + o o
o
× o o
=
o o + o o
o o
=
o ×
(
¸
(
¸
o ×
o + o
=
( )
2 1
2 1
tan tan
tan tan d
y
o + o
o o
=
Or
Or
Similarly,
Or
…(9˙1)
…(9˙2)
If required, the bearings of the lines AP
1
and BP
1
can be computed from the
bearing of the line AB and the angles a
1
and a
2
.
This method gives good results if the angle AP
1
B is approximately 90˚.
The main disadvantage of the method is that it requires two instruments.
Moreover, it requires long time in occupying new stations of observations.
Both the disadvantage of the method is that it requires two instruments at
frequent intervals. They should also compare their watches with the recorder in
the boat before the start of the work and after the close of the work.
Illustrative Example 9˙1
There are two stations A and B near the shore line and 1000 m apart.
When the sounding is taken at a point P, the horizontal angles at A and B are
respectively 30˚ 15′ 20″ and 44˚ 26′ 40″. Determine the X and Y coordinates
of P if those for the point A are respectively 600 m and 800 m.
m 06 657
98079 0 58331 0
98079 0 1000
" 40 ' 26 44 tan " 20 ' 15 30 tan
" 40 ' 26 44 tan 1000
·
· ·
·
=
+
×
=
+
=
Solution:
From Eq. 9˙1,
2 1
tan tan
tan d
x
o + o
o
=
( )
m 77 365
98079 0 58331 0
58331 0 98079 0 1000
·
· ·
· ·
=
+
× ×
=
From Eq. 9˙2,
Xcoordinates of P = 600˙00 + 627˙06 = 1227˙06 m
Ycoordinates of P = 800˙00 + 365˙77 = 434˙23 m
2 1
2 1
tan tan
tan tan d
y
o + o
o o
=
9˙12 LOCATION OF SOUNDINGS
FROM BOAT
In this method, observations are taken from the sounding boat with a
nautical sextant at the time of sounding. The following two methods, are
commonly used.
The use of a nautical sextant is discussed in Vol. I.
1. Location by range and one angle from the boat.
Fig. 9˙17 shows the 3 range lines AA′, BB′ and CC′. For location of
soundings at points on the range line AA′, a signal is fixed at point B on the
range line BB′. The sounding boat is rowed along the range line AA′ to the
sounding point a
1
and the angle A a
1
B (= a
1
) is measured with a nautical
sextant. The time is also noted.
The distance A a
1
is given by
A a
1
= AB cot a
1
= d cot a
1
Likewise, the points a
3
, a
2
etc. are located.
The above procedure is repeated for location of soundings on other
range lines.
A B C
B′
C′
A′
a
1
a
2
a
3
d
Figure 9˙17
The method is not accurate and is rarely used in practice. The
advantage of the method is that as the angles are measured from the sounding
boat, there is better control over the field work.
2. Location by two angles from the boat.
In this method, the location of sounding is made by measuring two angles
a
1
and a
2
simultaneously with a sextant from the sounding boat at P to three
prominent signals A, B and C. (Fig. 9˙18). The location of P is determined by
solving threepoint problem (see Section 9˙16).
The precision with which the point P is located depends upon the relative
locations of the points A, B, C and P. The problem becomes indeterminate when
the point P lies on the circumference of the circle passing through A, B and C.
This will occur when the sum of the angles ABC, a
1
and a
2
is equal to 180˚.
A C
B
P
2
·
1
·
The precision is poor when the point P is near the circumference of the circle
passing through A, B and C. If the stations A, B and C are on a straight line or if
the point B is nearer to the boat than points A and C, the location of P is accurate
unless one of the angles a
1
and a
2
is very small.
If the sights PA, PB and PC are extremely long, the values of angles a
1
and
a
2
will be small and the accuracy is reduced.
Figure 9˙18
9˙13 LOCATION OF SOUNDINGS FROM
BOTH SHORE AND BOAT
The following methods are commonly used.
1. Location by range and time interval.
The range lines are marked as shown in Fig. 9˙19. The sounding boat is rowed
from the shore near point a on the range and rowed along the range. After
some time the boat attains a constant speed.
A sounding is taken at point a
1
, and the time of observation is noted. The
distance aa1 is calculated from the speed of the boat and the line interval. The
boat moves along the range AA′ from a
1
to a
3
and soundings are taken at
regular intervals. Thus the distances of the various sounding points a
2
, a
3
etc.
are determined.
The method is not accurate, and it is used only in still water for short
distances. The method is generally used to obtain the intermediate soundings
between two soundings located by other methods.
A
B
B′
b
1
b
2
b
3
b
A′
a
1
a
2
a
3
a
VESSEL
RANGE
LINES
Figure 9˙19
2. Location by intersecting range lines.
Fig. 9˙20 shows two sets of intersecting range lines, one set
perpendicular to the shore and the other set inclined to the shore. To locate
the sounding point a
1
, row the boat to the point where the range AA′ and CB′
intersect. The signals are fixed at points B, B′, C, C′, etc. so that the points of
intersection can be located by sighting. The location is thus obtained without
measuring the angles.
The procedure is repeated for locating other points.
The accuracy of the method depends upon the distance between the
intersecting ranges. The larger the distance, the more the accuracy.
The method is generally used to determine changes in the bottom level
of a water body due to scouring or silting, and to determine the quantity of
material to be removed by dredging. To know the changes in bed levels, it is
required to repeat the soundings at the same intersection points after some
time.
Figure 9˙20
3. Location by one angle from the shore and one
angle from the boat.
Two points A and B are selected on the shore (Fig. 9˙21). The point
A is the instrument station where a theodolite is set up. At point B, there is
shore signal or any other prominent object.
Figure 9˙21
( )    + o ÷
=
o
=

180 sin
AP
sin
BP
sin
AB
( )  + o
=
o
=
 sin
AP
sin
BP
sin
AB
( ) ( )

 + o
=

 + o
=
sin
sin d
sin
sin
AB AP

o
=

o
=
sin
sin d
sin
sin
AB BP
P is the sounding point which is to be located. When the boat is at P, the
angle α is measured with the theodolite at A and the angle β is measured at the
boat with a nautical sextant. Knowing the distance d between A and B, the
position of P can be determined from its coordinates x and y.
From the triangle APB,
Or
Thus
And
o = cos AP AP
1
( )
o

 + o
= cos
sin
sin d
x
o = sin AP PP
1
( )
o

 + o
= sin
sin
sin d
y
( )  + o = sin BP y
( ). cos BP x d  + o = ÷
Or
Also
Or
And
…(9˙4)
Check:
Let PP
1
be the perpendicular from P on AB.
From the triangle APP
1
,
…(9˙3)
4. Location by stretched wire across a river.
If the river is of narrow width, a wire can be stretched between
two supports at the two points A and B on the opposite banks (Fig. 9˙22).
The width is divided into a number of segments, and tags are attached at
the division points. The distances are marked from a reference tag, also
called zero tag. The zero marked is transferred to the ground by a plumb
bob.
The boat is rowed to a point a
1
below the tag no.1, and a
sounding is taken. The distance of the sounding point is known. Likewise,
other points are located.
The method is quite accurate, but it is expensive. Moreover, the
method can be used only when the width of the river is narrow.
Figure 9˙22
9˙14 PLOTTING OF LOCATION OF SOUNDINGS
The method of plotting the soundings depends upon the method used for
the location of soundings.
1. If the soundings have been made along the range lines, the positions of
the signals and range lines are plotted on the drawing sheet, and then the
soundings are plotted on the range lines by measuring the corresponding
distances.
2. If the soundings have been located by two angles measured on the shore,
the point is located by drawing the lines at the corresponding angles and
determining the point of intersection.
3. If the soundings have been located along the range line and one angle
from the boat, the range line is plotted first. The sounding points are
plotted by measuring the calculated distances from the shore station.
4. If the soundings have located by measuring two angles from the boat, the
plotting is slightly difficult. It is a classical threepoint problem, which
can be solved as explained in Section 9˙16.
9˙15 SUBMARINE CONTOURS
Submarine contours, depths contours or fathoms, are the lines
joining the points of the same depth below the water surface (Fig. 9˙23). The
submarine contours can be obtained from the soundings.
Figure 9˙23
Depths of water determined by sounding are plotted on the cross
section to the desired scale. The points of depths of 1 m, 2 m, 3 m, etc. are
determined and marked on the plan. Interpolation of submarine contours is
done as in the case of contouring by spot levels. The line joining the points
of 1 m depth is the submarine contour of 1 m depth. Likewise, the submarine
contours of depths 2 m, 3 m, etc. are drawn. In Fig. 9˙23, the submarine
contours are shown as straight lines for simplicity. In actual field conditions,
these are curved.
9˙16 THREEPOINT PROBLEM
The threepoint problem can be stated as under. Given the three shore
signals A, B, C, and the angles α and β subtended at P by AB and BC, it is
required to plot the position of P (Fig. 9˙24).
The problem can be solved by mechanical, graphical or analytical
methods. The mechanical methods are discussed in this section. The analytical
methods and the graphical methods are discussed in Sec. 9˙17 and 9˙18,
respectively.
The mechanical solution can be obtained by the following methods.
1. By tracing paper
2. By station pointer.
1. By Tracing Paper
The following procedure is used.
1. Plot the positions of signal A, B and C on a plan to a suitable scale.
2. Take a tracing paper, and select a point P on it. Draw three rays
from P
such that the angle between the first two rays is equal to α and that
between the second and the third rays is equal to β.
3. Place the tracing paper on the plan, and move it on the plan until
the
three rays simultaneously pass through the locations of A, B and C.
4. Prick the position of P on the plan. The point P is thus located on
the
plan.
Figure 9˙24
2. By Station Pointer
A station pointer, also called threearm protractor, consists of three arms
(Fig. 9˙25). The two outer arms A and C are movable while the middle arm B is
fixes so that its bevelled edge is at the 0˚ mark of the circle. The circle is
graduated clockwise as well as anticlockwise from 0˚ to 360˚. The outer arms
are capable of rotation about the centre. With the help of verniers and tangent
screws, the movable arms are set to read the angles α and β to the nearest 1′.
Plot the positions of A, B and C on a plan. The station pointer is then laid
on the plan, and moved about until the bevelled edges of the three arms
simultaneously pass through A, B and C. When the station pointer is in that
position, the centre of the station pointer is pricked to obtain the location of P.
The station pointer is very convenient and is generally used in practice.
The accuracy of the plot is approximately the same as that of the sextant with
which the angles are measured in the field. The extra lengths of the arms are
usually supplied by the manufacturers for extending the arms in the case of
very large maps.
Figure 9˙25
9˙17 ANALYTICAL SOLUTION OF
THREEPOINT PROBLEM
o
u
= u ×
o
=
sin
sin c
sin
sin
AB
PB

¢
= ¢ ×

=
sin
sin c
sin
sin
BC
PB
In this method, the point P is located after calculating the angles or
sides required for plotting the position of the point P. In Fig. Fig. 9˙24, let the
angles BAP and BCP be respectively θ and φ. Let the angle ABC be γ. Let us
assume that the points B and P are on the opposite sides of the side AC. Let the
lengths BC, CA and AB be respectively a, b and c.
From the triangle ABP,
From the triangle CBP,
…(b)
…(a)

¢ o
=
o
u
sin
sin
sin
sin
c
 ·
o
u
· = ¢ sin
sin
sin
a
c
sin
( ) ( ) say x 360 = ¸ +  + o ÷ = ¢ + u
u ÷ = ¢ x
( )  ·
o
u
= u ÷ sin
sin
sin
a
c
x sin
 ·
o
u
· = u ÷ u sin
sin
sin
a
c
sin x cos cos x sin
From Eqs. (a) and (b),
Or
Now
Or
From Eqs. (c) and (d)
…(c)
…(d)
Or
x sin sin a
sin c
x cot cot
o

= ÷ u
x sin sin a
sin c
x cot cot
o

+ = u
(
¸
(
¸
× ×
o

+ = x tan
x sin
1
sin a
sin c
1 x cot
(
¸
(
¸
o

+ = u x sec
sin a
sin c
1 x cot cot
Dividing both the sides by sin θ sin x,
Or
Or
The value of the angle θ can be calculated from Eq. 9˙5 if the angles
α, β and x are known. The angle φ can then be calculated from Eq. (d).
…(9˙5)
ABP sin
sin
AB
AP
o
=
( )   u + o ÷
o
=
180 sin
sin
c
( ) u + o
o
= sin
sin
c
AP
u
o
= sin
sin
c
BP
¢ ·

= sin
sin
a
BP
Again from the triangle ABP,
Or
Thus the distance AP can be determined
Again from the triangle ABP,
The distance BP can be found.
Likewise, in the triangle CBP,
…(9˙8)
…(9˙6)
…(9˙7)
( )   ¢ +  ÷

=
180 sin
sin
a
CP
( ) ¢ + 

= sin
sin
a
CP
This can be used as a check.
Or
Thus all the angles and the sides have been found. Knowing the sides AP, BP
and CP, the positions of the point P can be plotted.
Fig. 9˙26
Now
…(9˙9)
( ) o + ÷ = u y 180
( )  + ÷ = ¢ z 180
( )  + o + + ÷ = ¢ + u z y 360
¸ ÷ = +
360 z y
( ) ( )  + o ÷ ¸ ÷ ÷ = ¢ + u
360 360
( ) ( ) say x =  + o ÷ ¸ = ¢ + u
The above solution is based on the assumption that the points B and P
are on the opposite sides of AC. Sometimes, the points B and P occur on the
same side of AC. Fig. 9˙26 shows the case when the point P is outside the
triangle ABC. Fig. 9˙27 shows the case when the point P is within the triangle
ABC.
In Fig. 9˙26,
And
Therefore,
But
Therefore,
Or
Knowing the values of α, β and x, the values of θ can be obtained from Eq. 9˙5.
( )
( )  + ¸ ÷ = ¢
o + ¸ ÷ = u
2
1
180
180
( )
2 1
360 ¸ + ¸ +  + o ÷ = ¢ + u
( ) ( ) say x 360 = ¸ +  + o ÷ = ¢ + u
In Fig. 9˙27,
Therefore,
Or
Knowing the values of x, α and β, the value of θ can be calculated
from Eq. 9˙5.
Figure 9˙27
Illustrative Example 9˙2.
A, B and C are three signals on a coast line. The distance AB and BC are
respectively 1340 m and 1520 m, and the included angle ABC is 112˚15′.
The sounding point P is in the sea. The angles APB and BPC measured with
a sextant are respectively 40˚25′ and 48˚15′. The signal A is to the west of BP
whereas the station C is to the east of BP. The point P is to the south of B.
Calculate the distance AP, BP and CP.
) ' 15 48 ' 25 40 ' 15 112 ( 360
+ + ÷ = ¢ + u
' 5 159
=
u ÷ = ¢ ' 5 159
Solution: (Refer Fig. 9˙28)
Let the angles PAB and PCB be respectively θ and φ.
In the quadrilateral ABCP,
Or …(a)
Figure 9˙28
u × = sin
' 25 40 sin
1340
u =
·
sin 81 2066 BP
¢ × = sin
' 15 48 sin
1520
¢ =
·
sin 38 2037 BP
u = u
· ·
sin 38 2037 sin 81 2066
u = ¢
·
sin 0144 1 sin
From the triangle ABP, BP
Or
From the triangle BPC, BP
Or
From Esq. (b) and (c),
Or
… (b)
… (c)
Substituting the value of φ from Eq.(a),
( ) u = u ÷
·
sin 0144 1 ' 5 159 sin
Or sin 159˚5′ cos θ − cos 159˚5′ sin θ = 1˙0144 sin θ
Or 0˙3570 cos θ + 0˙9341 sin θ = 1˙0144 sin θ
0˙3570 cos θ = 0˙0803 sin θ
Or tan θ = 4˙4458
Or θ = 77˚19′
φ = 159˚5′ − 77˚19′ = 81˚46′
Now angle ABP = 180˚ − (77˚19′ + 40˚25′) = 62˚16′
and angle CBP = 180˚ − (81˚46′ + 48˚15′) = 49˚59′
m 38 2016 ' 19 77 sin
' 25 sin40
1340
BP
·
= × =
m 38 1829 ' 16 62 sin
' 25 sin40
1340
AP
·
= × =
m 34 1560 ' 59 49 sin
' 15 sin48
1520
CP
·
= × =
( ) Check m 38 2016
' 15 sin48
' 46 81 1520sin
BP
·
= =
From the triangle ABP,
From the triangle CPB,
Illustrative Example 9˙3.
P.Q and R three visible stations in a hydrographic survey. The
computed sides of the triangle PQR are : PQ = 1000 m, QR = 1300 m, and RP =
1900 m. Outside the triangle PQR and nearer to PR, a station X is established
and its position is found by threepoint resection P, Q and R, the angle PXQ and
QXP being respectively 40˚ and 50˚. Find PX and RX.
(AMIE, 1975 Winter)
Solution: (See Fig. 9˙29)
Figure 9˙29
( )  
40 θ 180 sin
sin40
PQ
sinPQX
sin40
PQ
PX + ÷ = =
( )
40 θ sin
sin40
1000
PX + =
( )( )
1000 1300
1000 s 1300 s
2
sin
×
÷ ÷
=
¸
2100
2
1900 1300 1000
s =
+ +
=
822753 0
1000 1300
1100 800
2
sin
·
=
×
×
=
¸
From the triangle PQX,
or
From the triangle PQR,
Where
Therefore,
… (a)
' 22 55
2
=
¸
' 44 110
= ¸
( ) ¸ +  + o ÷ = ¢ + u
360
( ) ' 16 159 ' 44 110 50 40 360 x
= + + ÷ =


.

\

o

+ = u x sec
sin a
sin c
1 x cot cot


.

\

+ = u ' 16 159 sec
40 sin 1300
50 sin 1000
1 ' 16 159 cot cot
04993 0
·
÷ =
' 52 92
= u
Or
Now
Or
From Eq. 9˙5,
Or
Or
Or
' 24 66 ' 52 92 ' 16 159 x
= ÷ = u ÷ = ¢
( ) ' 08 47 40 ' 52 92 180 PQR
= + ÷ = Z
m 25 1140 ' 08 47 sin
40 sin
1000
PX
·
= =
( ) ' 36 63 50 ' 24 66 180 RQR
= + ÷ = Z
m 05 1520 ' 36 63 sin
50 sin
1300
PX
·
= =
Now
In the triangle PQX,
In the triangle RQX,
9˙18 GRAPHICAL SOLUTION OF THREE
POINT PROBLEM
The following three methods are commonly used to determine the location of
point P graphically.
I Method
Let a, b and c be the plotted positions of the stations A, B and C (Fig.
9˙30). The sounding point p can be located by adopting the following
procedure.
1. Join points a and c.
2. At point a, draw a line ad making an angle β with ac.
3. At point c, draw a line cd making an angle α with ac.
4. Draw a circle passing through the points a, b and c.
The required point p lies on this circle.
5. Join the points d and b, and prolong the line db to meet the circle at the
point p, which is the required point.
Proof: From the properties of a circle, as the angles apd and dca are made
by the same chord ad,
o = Z = Z dca apd
 = Z = Z dac cpd
Likewise,
Thus the angles at the point p are equal to the measured angles α and β.
Figure 9˙30
1. Let a, b and c be the plotted position of the stations A, B and C respectively.
Join points a and b, and b and c (Fig. 9˙31).
2. From a, draw a line ao
1
making an angle of (90˚– α) with ab. Similarly, from
b, draw a line bo
1
making an angle of (90˚– α) with ba.
The point of intersection of two lines is o
1
.
3. With o
1
as the centre, draw a circle marked I to pass through a and b.
4. From b, draw a line bo
2
making an angle of (90˚– β) with bc. Also draw a
line co
2
making an angle of (90˚– β) with cb.
The point of intersection of two lines is o
2
.
5. With o
2
as the centre, draw a circle marked II to pass through b and c.
6. Determine the point of intersection b of the two circle, which is the required
point p.
Z ao
1
b = 180˚ – (90˚– α) – (90˚– α)
II Method
Proof: In the triangle ao
1
b,
or Z ao
1
b = 2 α
Figure 9˙31
The angle apb subtended at the circumference is onehalf the angle at the
centre and equal to α.
In the same manner, it can be shown that the angle bpc is equal to β.
1. Join points a and b, and b and c (Fig. 9˙32).
2. At a and c, erect perpendiculars ad and ce, respectively.
Fig. 9˙32
III Method
3. At b, draw a line an angle of (90˚– α) with ba to meet the perpendicular ad
at d.
4. Likewise, at b, draw a line be making an angle of (90˚– β) with bc to meet
the perpendicular ce at e.
5. Join points d and e.
Draw a perpendicular from b on the line de. The foot of the perpendicular is
the required point p.
Proof. Because angles bad and bpd are each equal to 90˚, the quadrilateral
abpd is concyclic. Hence
Similarly, the quadrilateral cbpe is concyclic.
Z Z bec = bpc = β.
Z Z adb = apd = α
9˙19 DETERMINATION OF DIRECTION AND
VELOCITY OF CURRENT BY FLOATS
In many engineering problems, the direction and velocity of water
currents are required. The following methods are commonly used.
1. Surface Floats.
Surface floats are commonly used to measure the direction and
velocity of water currents. The float should be light in weight and of such a
shape that it offers least resistance to the floating bodies and eddy currents
(Fig. 9˙33a). In order to make the float visible at a distance, a small flag of
some bright colour is attached to its top. The float gives the direction of
current. A weight is attached to the bottom of the float to keep it vertical.
For determining the velocity of the current, the distance traveled by
the float is measured or computed and the time of travel is also found.
For locating the position of a float, the same methods can be used as
used for the location of soundings. The following two methods are commonly
used.
(a)
(b)
(c)
Figure 9˙33
1. For fixing the position of a float at a particular instant,
simultaneous
observations are made by two theodolites set over the shore
control points.
The float is located from the two angles. For details, see Sect.
9˙20.
2. A boat is pulled up along side of the float. The position of the boat is
then
located by measuring two angles to three shorecontrol stations with a
nautical sextant. The boat (and hence float) is located from two angles.
The distance traveled by the float can be determined from the
starting position and the position after certain time t. The rate of drift,
which is equal to the velocity of current, is then found.
Different floats with separate identification number or colour
are released at intervals, and the velocity is determined.
In rivers and streams, the mean velocity is about 0˙85 to 0˙90
times the surface velocity given by the float. Because of the effects of
wind and eddies, the results are not accurate.
2. Rod Float
A rod float is generally a cylindrical tube of copper or brass, about 3
cm diameter, and 2 to 6 m long (Fig. 9˙33 b). Sometimes, a wooden pole is
used. A weight is attached at the lower end of the rod so that it floats in the
upright position, with about 15 cm length projecting above the water surface. A
small flag is attached at the upper end.
The length of the rod should be adjusted to clear any obstruction in
the bed. The length of the rod is, therefore, kept about 0˙9 times the water
depth.
The velocity of the current is obtained as discussed above for the
surface float.
In river and streams, the rod float gives the velocity which is slightly
greater than the mean velocity.
3. Subsurface Float
A subsurface float, also called a double float, consists of two floats,a
surface float and a subsurface float. The subsurface float is slightly heavier
that water, and it is suspended at known depth below the surface float.
Generally, the subsurface float consists of a perforated cylinder, a kite or a
canvas vane. Fig. 9˙33 (c) shows a kite subsurface float. The connecting cord
is light and strong and can be adjusted to any desired length.
In rivers and channels, the length of the cord is adjusted so that the
double float directly gives mean velocity. It gives better result than a surface
float because it is not much affected by wind and surface eddies.
9˙20 LOCATION OF FLOATS WITH
THEODOLITES
The floats can be located by the following two methods. In the first
method, two theodolites are used, whereas the second method requires only one
theodolite.
Let A and B be two stations on the shore, about 100 m apart (Fig. 9˙34). The
base line AB is measured accurately.
Establish two parallel sections AC and BD. Set up the theodolites at stations
A and B. Set the verniers at zero. The instrumentman at A sights C and the
instrumentman at B sights D.
1. Two theodolite method.
Figure 9˙34
Release a float at a distance of about 50 m upstream of AC. As the float
crosses the section AC, the instrumentman at A calls tick. Timekeeper notes
the time and the instrumentman at B bisects the float at position G, and
measured the angles GBF.
The instrumentman at A goes on following the float with the telescope till
he listens ‘get ready’ from the instrumentman at B. He than clamps the upper
plate and follows the float with the upper tangent screw. He takes the reading
when the float is at F. The instrumentman at B calls ‘tick’, and the
instrumentman at A measures the angles GAF.
The distance L between G and F is computed from the measured base AB
and the angles GBF and GAF.
2. One Theodolite Method.
Let A and B be two stations on the shore about 200 m apart (Fig.
9˙35). Measure the distance AB accurately.
Establish two parallel sections AC and BD.
Set up the theodolite at the station E on the line AB. Sight the
signal at A.
Release a float from a point about 50 m upstream of A. Measure the
angle when α the float is at G on CA.
Unclamp the upper plate and swing the telescope to sight the signal
at B.
Measure the angle β when the float is at point F on the section BD.
Compute the length L between G and F as under.
( ) ( ) say 180 u =  + o ÷ =
( ) ( ) ( ) u × ÷ + = cos EF GE 2 EF GE GF
2 2 2
( ) ( ) u × ÷ + = cos EF GE 2 EF GE L
2 2
o = sec AE GE
 = sec EB EF
In the triangle GEF, angle GEF
Now
Or
Where
(from triangle AEG)
(from triangle BEF).
Figure 9˙35
and
Illustrative Example 9˙4.
Two crosssections AB and CD each perpendicular to a base line AC, 200
m in length, are established for measuring velocity of water in a river. When
the float was at the section AB and CD, the angles ACB and CAD were
respectively 52˚40′20″ and 45˚50′20″. If the time taken by the float to travel
the distance BD was 89 seconds, calculate the velocity of water.
Solution: (See Fig. 9˙36).
In the triangle ACB,
AB = AC tan ACB
= 200 tan 52˚ 40′ 20″
= 262˙27 m
In the triangle ACD,
CD = 200 tan 45˚ 50′ 20″
= 205˙94 m
Let us assume that the origin of the coordinates is at B, and
the line BA represents the meridian.
Therefore, bearing of AC = 90˚
And bearing of CD = 180˚
Latitude of BA = 262˙27 m
Departure of BA = 0˙00
Latitude of AC = 0˙00
Departure of AC = 200˙00 m
Latitude of CD = – 205˙94 m
Departure of CD = 0˙00
Total latitude of D = 262˙27 + 0˙00 – 205˙94 = 56˙94
m
Total departure of D = 0˙00 + 200˙00 + 0˙00 = 200˙00
m
Figure 9˙36
( ) ( )
2 2
0 0 00 200 0 0 33 56 BD
· · · ·
÷ + ÷ =
m 78 207
·
=
s / m 33 2
89
78 207
·
·
= =
Distance
Velocity of water
Illustrative Example 9˙5.
Two cross sections AB and CD each perpendicular to the base AC of 250
m length are established for measuring the velocity of flowing water in river.
When the float was on the section AB, the angle AEB measured from a point
E on the base line, 100 m from A, was 50˚30′40″, and the angle CED was
45˚35′20″. If the time taken by the float to travel the distance BD was 90
seconds, calculate the velocity of water.
Solution: (See Fig.9˙37).
In the triangle AEB,
EB = 100 sec 50˚30′40″
= 157˙25 m
In the triangle CED,
EB = 150 sec 45˚35′20″
= 214˙35 m
In triangle BED, angle BED = 180˚ – (50˚30′40″ + 45˚35′20″)
= 83˚54′0″
Now (BD)
2
= (ED)
2
– 2BE × ED cos BED
= (157˙25)
2
+ (214˙35)
2
– 2 ×157˙25 × (214˙35) × 0˙1062641
= 24727˙56 + 45945˙92 – 7163˙59
Or BD = 252˙01 m
Fig. 9˙37
90
01 252
·
= 2˙80 m/sec
Velocity of water =
9˙21 CURRENT METER
The velocity of water can be determined indirectly by means of a current
meter. It consists of a wheel with cups or vanes so constructed that the impact of
flowing water causes the wheel to rotate. The greater the velocity, the greater is
the speed of the wheel. The numbers of revolutions made by the wheel per
second are indicated by some counting device.
The current meters can be classified into two types.
1. Those in which the revolving clement is cupshaped.
2. Those in which the revolving element is helicoidal or of the
propeller type.
In the first type, the most commonly used current meter is the Price meter
and in the second type, Ott and Fteley meter.
A current meter should be of simple construction. Its all delicate parts
should be properly protected. It should have a simple device for recording the
number of revolutions. The shape of the rotating elements should be such that
there is least possible resistance to flow of water. It should be adaptable for use
in all types of open channels. It should be rugged and durable. The cleaning and
replacement of parts should be convenient.
PRICE METER
The price meter is the most commonly used current meter. It consists
of a horizontal wheel mounted on a vertical shaft (Fig. 9˙38). There are 6
conical cups fitted to the wheel. The vertical shaft turns upon a steel point in a
conical bearing at the lower end. The upper end of the shaft is fitted with either
a worm gear or an eccentric that passes into the cylindrical contact chamber.
The contact chamber contains a mechanism which produces a click at each
revolutions of the wheel. In some meters, there is an arrangement such that a
click is produced every fifth revolution. There are used when the velocity is
more than 2 m/sec. For high velocities, the human ear is unable to distinguish
the separate click for each revolution.
ELECTRIC WIRE
ROPE
VERTICAL STEM
TAIL
LEAD WEIGHT
WORM GEAR
YOKE
WHEEL
WITH BUCKETS
Figure 9˙38
The wheel and shaft are carried by a yoke which holds the wheel in
position. To the other side of the yoke, a tail vane is attached to hold the
meter heading into the current. There is a vertical stem at the top of the yoke
to support the weight of the current meter and to supply a connection to the
cable by which the meter is suspended. A heavy lead weight is suspended at
the bottom of the yoke to keep the instrument in the upright position. The
tail vane balances the instrument so that instrument so that the cups always
face the current.
Several methods for counting the revolutions of the wheel are used. In
some metres, there is an arrangement so that the electric contact is made at
each revolution and the number of revolutions is counted from the number
of bells activated by electric contact. For prolonged observations and in high
velocity water, there is an electrical registration system which records the
number of revolutions on a dial kept above the water surface. For small
velocities, a headphone is used to count the number of revolutions.
The instrument is suspended with a graduated wire or a rope so that the
depth of the current meter can be found. The meter may be supported on a rod.
The meter is suspended from the end of the rod and the rod is held in hand or
clamped to some support. Sometimes, the meter is clamped to an upright
graduated rod so that the meter can slide up or down the rod.
For deep waters, a cable is used for suspending the meter from an overhead
cableway or bridge. The cable is also used for suspending the meter when it is
used from a boat.
After the meter has been properly lowered to a point where the velocity is
required, the numbers of revolutions made by the wheel are counted. The
velocity of the current is determined from the calibration chart or a standard
rating table supplied by the manufacturer. If the chart is not available, rating of
the current meter is done as explained below.
Rating a current meter.
The object of rating of a current meter is to obtain a calibration chart
between the velocity of current and the number of revolutions per second. The
most common method of rating is to tow the meter through a body of still
water at known velocities and to count the number of revolutions of the wheels
per seconds for different velocities.
The meter is attached to a small car which is driven along a level track
laid on one side of the rating flume. The rating can also be done by suspending
the meter from a propelled boat. The car method is preferred because the boat
causes water disturbances.
Various runs are made of the car at different speeds, and the
corresponding numbers of revolutions per second are recorded. A plot is
made between the velocity and the number of revolutions per second. The
rating curve is a straight line. The equation of the rating curve is (Fig.
9˙39),
b aN V + =
Where V = velocity (m/sec)
N = revolutions per second
a and b are constants.
In some current meters, the constant b is equal to zero.
The rating curve obtained may be used to determine the velocity (V)
corresponding to the observed revolutions per second in the field.
Figure 9˙39
60
100
sec / m 33 3
60
100
2 V
·
= × =
Illustrative Example 9˙6.
A current meter has the rating curve represented by the equation V =
2N, where V is the velocity in m/sec and N is the number of revolutions per
second.
Determine the velocity at a point in the river if the number of
revolutions per minutes as counted by the headphone is 100.
Velocity,
Solution :
Number of revolutions per second =
9˙22 STREAM GAUGING
Stream gauging is the process of measuring the discharge of a stream. The
volumetric computation of water can be made from the continuous record of
the rate of discharge. The record of the rate of discharge is used to estimate the
character of the flow in the stream. It is also used for estimating the quantity of
water that may be expected on each day, month or year. These data are useful
for the design of various engineering projects such as those for water supply,
irrigation, flood control, water power, culverts, bridge, sewage disposal works.
The following methods are commonly used.
1. Slope method
2. Weir method
3. Velocityarea method
4. Saltvelocity method
5. Salfdilution method.
The slope method is discussed in this section. The other methods are
described in the following sections.
Slope Method of Measuring Stream Flow
In this method, a straight reach of the river with uniform slope and cross
section is selected. The difference in levels of the water surface at the two ends
of the each is determined. Hook gauges are used to determine the water levels.
For best results, observations of the water level should be made on each shore,
and the mean should be taken as the water level at that section.
The area of crosssection of the river is obtained by sounding. A number
of crosssections are obtained to get an average value of the area of cross
section and the wetted perimeter. The hydraulic radius is obtained from the
area of crosssection and the wetted perimeter.
A proper value of the rugosity coefficient (N) is selected, depending upon
the cannel conditions.
2 / 1 3 / 2
S R
N
1
V =
A S R
N
1
Q
2 / 1 3 / 2

.

\

=
) P ( perimeter wetted
) A ( tion sec cross of area
=
L
h
=
RS C V =
The velocity is obtained from Manning’s formula
The discharge is given by
Where R = Hydraulic radius
S = water surface slope
Where h = difference of water levels at the end sections
L = length of the reach.
The velocity can also be determined by Chezy’s formula
where C is Chezy’s coefficient.
…(9˙10)
The method is approximate because it is extremely difficult to secure
suitable conditions of flow and to measure the slope accurately. Moreover, it is
difficult to assign a proper value of rugosity coefficient N or Chezy’s C.
The method is commonly used to estimate the approximate flood
discharge from the highwater marks left after the flood. These marks are used
for the determination of the water surface slope, area of crosssections (A) and
the wetted perimeter (P).
9˙23 WEIR METHOD OF MEASURING
FLOW
A weir or notch is an opening at the top of a structure through which water
flows. The notches are usually rectangular in shape (Fig. 9˙40). The horizontal
lower edge is called crest. The upper surface of water is free. The crest is thin
so that the following water will have only a line contact. The weir is, therefore,
called sharpcrested weir.
The head over the crest is determined by means of a hook gauge. The free
water surface is drawn down as it passes over the weir. The head (H) over the
crest should be measured at a distance of 3 H to 5 H upstream of the weir.
END
CONTRACTION
PLAN
ELEVATION
H
Figure 9˙40
2 / 3
H ' b 83 1 Q
·
=
2 / 3
d
gH 2 ' b C
3
2
Q=
The discharge is usually determined from the Francis Formula.
Where b′ = effective width of crest
H = head over the crest
Alternatively, it is determined from the formula,
Where C
d
= coefficient of discharge ( ~ 0˙60)
…(9˙11)
…(9˙12)
…(9˙13)
When the vertical edges of the notch are at some distance from the sides
of the cannel of approach, the sheet of water passing around the ends of the
notch has the ends contracted. The weir is said to have end contractions. In
that case, the effective width is given by
b′ = b − 0˙1 nH
Where b = total width and H is the head over the crest.
n = number of end contractions (= 2 for one pier).
( )( )
2 / 3
a
2 / 3
1 1
H H nH 1 0 b 83 1 Q ÷ ÷ =
· ·
g 2
V
2
a
=
However, when the notch extends to the whole width of the cannel and
the edges of the notch coincide with the sides of the feeding channel, the notch
has no end contraction and it is called a suppressed notch. In that case, b′ = b.
Sometimes, the head over the crest is measured with a float gauge, and a
continuous record of the head is maintained.
If the velocity of approach is significant, it may be taken into account
by modifying the formula as
Where H
a
= velocity of approach head
H
1
= H + H
a
And V
a
= velocity of approach
…(9˙14)
Triangular Notch
2 / 5
d
H 2 tan g 2 C
15
8
Q u =
In the triangular notch, the discharge is given by
Where θ is the apex angle, g is the acceleration due to gravity
(= 9˙81 m/sec
2
) and C
d
is the coefficient of discharge ( ~ 0˙60).
…(9˙15)
Dams as weirs
An overflow dam can be used as a weir for measuring the
discharge if it is of sufficient height so that backwater below the dam does
not interfere with freeflow over it. The crest should be level. The dam acts
as a broadcrested rectangular weir, and the discharge is given by
2 / 3
CbH Q =
where the value of the coefficient C depends upon the shape of
the crest.
…(9˙16)
9˙24 VELOCITYAREA METHOD OF
MEASURING FLOW
This method is most commonly used for measuring discharge in rivers and
in artificial channels. In this method, the crosssection of the river is
determined by ordinary surveying methods, and the mean velocity at that
crosssection is determined by a current meter. The crosssection on which
above measurements are taken is called the measuring section.
The crosssection where the watergauge is located is known as the
gauging section. The gauging section must be located at a point upstream of a
control section. A control section is the crosssection which controls the water
level in the river where the gauge is located. The gauging section is located at
the pool created by the control section.
A control section may be natural or artificial. A natural control section
may be sand or gravel bar in the river which restricts the flow. It many be a
stretch of large boulders or a ledge outcrop that extends across the width and
restricts the flow. An artificial control may be dam, a measuring weir or a
bridge with piers which restricts the flow of the stream. The main function of
the control section is that it stabilizes the relationship between gauge (water
surface level) and discharge. The float gauge and the stilling well are
connected by a pipe with the pool on the upstream of the control section. On
the upstream of the control section, the water surface has a relatively smooth
appearance whereas on the downstream, there are eddies and the flow is much
more turbulent.
The measuring section should be selected so that the discharge at this
section is the same as that on the gauging section. It may be at the same site as
the gauging section, but not necessarily so. Generally, it is on the upstream or
downstream of the gauging section, within a distance of 300 m. the river
should have a straight reach for a distance of 100 to 200 m on the upstream
and on downstream of the measuring section.
While selecting the gauge section, the following points should be kept in
view
1. The river is regular in shape and is straight upand downstream of the
section.
2. The river should be free of obstructions.
3. The flow is smooth because the eddy currents affect the accuracy of the
current meter.
4. The bed of the river should be fairy uniform in shape and character.
5. It should be located near the gauge section.
6. The gauge section must be located on the upstream of the control section.
The crosssection of the river is determined by soundings. The width
of the river is divided into vertical strips of equal width. These strips are also
known as the segments. If the width of the river is small, a graduated rope or
wire is pulled taut across the section and the section is divided into equal
segments. Fig. 9˙41 shows the crosssection of a river divided into segments
of width x.
2
V V
V
d 8 0 d 2 0
· ·
+
=
The velocity at any section varies from the top to the bottom. However,
the variation of velocity in the crosssection follows a welldefined distribution.
The mean velocity at any section can be determined by measuring the velocity
at one or two depths on that section. The mean velocity (V) is the average of the
velocities at 0˙2 times depth and 0˙8 times depth measured from the water
surface. Thus
, where d is the depth of water
Figure 9˙41
d 6 0
V V
·
=
tion sec that at Depth
curve the of Area
V =
....... V A V A Q
2 2 1 1
+ + =
The mean velocity is also equal to the velocity at 0˙6 times depth (d) from the
watersurface. Thus
If a very accurate value of the mean velocity is required, the velocity
is measured at various depths and a velocitydistribution curve is plotted as
shown in Fig 9˙41. The area of the curve is determined by a planimeter. The
mean velocity (V) is then obtained as
The current meter is held at the required depth along the vertical
centre line of each segment, and the mean velocity at each centre line section
is determined. The discharge in a particular segment is equal to the area of
the segment multiplied by the mean velocity. The total discharge in the river
is, of course, equal to the sum of discharges in all segments. Thus
Mean Velocity from Floats
When a current meter is not available, the mean velocity can also be
obtained from floats. As the surface floats give the velocity of currents at the
water surface, the mean velocity is usually taken as 0˙85 to 0˙9 times the surface
velocity. Rod floats give the mean velocity. In kite subsurface floats, if the kite
is at 0˙6 times depth, it also gives the mean velocity directly.
Once the mean velocity has been determined, the discharge can be
determined as in the case of a current meter
9˙25 SALTVELOCITY METHOD
In this method, a chemical (salt) is introduced into the river and the
discharge is determined indirectly from the concentration of the chemical at
various sections. When salt solution is introduced, it increases the electrical
conductivity of water. Two sets of electrodes are kept at a known distance
apart in the river, one set is on the upstream end of the reach and the other at
the downstream end. These electrodes are connected to a recording
instrument, which is generally a galvanometer, that records the changes in
electrical conductivity of the river water with respect to time.
Under normal conditions of flow when there is no salt, the graph
between conductivity and time is more or less horizontal. When a salt
solution is introduced into the river on the upstream of the electrodes, the
first set of the electrodes shows a sudden jump in the graph. Later on, after
sometimes, when the salt solution reaches the second set of electrodes, a
jump occurs in the graph. The time of transit is equal to the time between the
centres of the areas of two jumps. Dividing this time into the volume of
water between two stations, the discharge can be determined.
9˙26 SALTDILUTION METHOD
In this method, a salt solution of known concentration is added at a point
into the river at a constant rate. By analysis, the subsequent dilution of the
solution is determined.
The salt solution mixes with the river water. The samples of water are
taken far enough downstream below the entry point for complete mixing. The
weight of salt per second that passes at the downstream section where
samples are taken must be equal to the combined weights of the salt normally
present and the salt added in the solution. Thus,
wp + w′ p′ = (w + w′) p″
… (a)
Where w = weight of water discharge per second ( = γQ)
p = percentage of salt normally present in the stream
w′ = weight of salt solution added per second
p′ = percentage of salt in the salt solution
p″ = percentage of the salt in the sample after mixing
… (9˙17)
( )
( ) p " p
" p ' p
' w w
÷
÷
=
From Eq. (a),
The value of p″ must be uniform at all points in the crosssection for
accurate results. The salt used should be stable in water. Generally, sodium
dichromate is used, with a concentration of 5 ppm. The concentration above 30
ppm should not be used as it may kill fish.
If sodium chloride is used, it would be needed in large quantities as it is
also present in natural water. In this case, p should not be grater than 0˙15 p″
for accurate results.
The method is used for approximate determination of discharge in
turbulent, mountain streams where other methods are not convenient to use.
Illustrative Example 9˙7
A stream crosssection is divided into 5 equal segments of 6 m wide.
The average depths of the 5 segments were 4 m, 6 m, 7 m, 6 m and 4 m. A
current meter was used to determine the velocity in various segments, and the
following results were obtained.
1˙30 m/s
1˙40
1˙10
−
−
−
1˙40 m/s
1˙70
1˙30
1˙20
1˙10
−
1˙40 m/s
1˙85
1˙65
1˙25
0˙90
0˙80
1˙40 m/s
1˙85
1˙65
1˙20
1˙00
−
1˙20 m/s
1˙40
1˙10
−
−
−
1
2
3
4
5
6
Segment
(5)
Segment
(4)
Segment
(3)
Segment
(2)
Segment
(1)
Depth
(m)
Determine the discharge.
Figure 9˙42
( )


.

\

+ +
× × =
· · ·
3
10 1 40 1 20 1
4 6 Q
1
cumecs 60 29
·
=
( )


.

\

+ + + +
× × =
· · · · ·
5
00 1 20 1 65 1 85 1 40 1
6 6 Q
2
cumecs 12 51
·
=
( )


.

\

+ + + + +
× × =
· · · · · ·
6
80 0 90 0 25 1 65 1 85 1 40 1
7 6 Q
3
cumecs 95 54
·
=
Solution : (See Fig. 9˙42). The mean velocity is taken as the arithmetic average.
Discharge in II segment,
Discharge in 1st segment,
Discharge in III segment,
( )


.

\

+ + + +
× × =
· · · · ·
5
10 1 20 1 30 1 70 1 40 1
6 6 Q
4
cumecs 24 48
·
=
( )


.

\

+ +
× × =
· · ·
3
10 1 40 1 30 1
4 6 Q
5
cumecs 40 30
·
=
40 30 25 48 95 54 12 51 60 29 Q
· · · · ·
+ + + + =
cumecs 32 214
·
=
Discharge in IV segment,
Discharge in V segments,
Total discharge,
ADDITIONAL EXAMPLE
Illustrative Example 9˙8
The following observations were made from two stations A
and B on the shore to a sounding boat at C.
Angle ABC = 25˚ 25′
Angle BAC = 45˚ 20′
Distance AB = 5 km
The true bearing of the line AB was 50˚ 25′. Calculate the
coordinates of C if the coordinates of A are (100 m, 1000 m).
Also determine the perpendicular distance of AB from C.
Solution : (See Fig. 9˙43)
Figure 9˙43
' 15 25 sin
AC
' 20 45 sin
BC
' 25 109 sin
5000
°
=
°
=
°
m 49 3770 BC
·
=
m 46 2261 AC
·
=
And
Bearing of AC = 50˚ 25′ + 45˚ 20′ = 95˚ 45′
Latitude of AC = 2261˙46 cos 95˚ 45′ = −226˙57 m
Departure of AC = 2261˙46 sin 95˚ 45′ = +2250˙08 m
Xcoordinates of C = 1000 + 2250˙08 = 3250˙08 m
Ycoordinates of C = 1000 + (−226˙57) = 773˙43 m
Perpendicular distance CD = AC sin 45˚ 20′ = 1608˙37 m
Check : CD = BC sin 25˚ 15′ = 1608˙37 (O.K)
Angle ACB = 180˚− (25˚ 15′ + 45˚ 20′)
= 109˚ 25′
In the triangle ABC,
Illustrative Example 9˙9
A, B and C are three stations on a coast line used to fix the position of
a bore hole P being put down off shore. Find the coordinates of P if Z APB and
are measured as 35˚ 24′ and 38˚ 36′, respectively. The coordinates of
the stations are :
Station N E
A 600 200
B 700 500
C 650 850
Graphical method is acceptable. Full credit shall be given for accurate
answer.
(A.M.I.E., Summer 1979)
Z BPC
Figure 9˙44
( ) ( )
2 2
200 500 600 700 ÷ + ÷ =
m 23 316 90000 10000
·
= + =
( ) ( )
2 2
650 700 500 850 ÷ + ÷ =
m 55 353
·
=
( ) ( ) m 92 651 600 650 200 850
2 2 ·
= ÷ + ÷ =
Solution: The analytical solution is given below (Fig. 9˙44)
Distance AC
Let the angles PAB and PCB be respectively θ and ø. Let the
angle ABC be γ.
θ + φ = 360˚ − (γ + 35˚ 24′ +38˚ 36′)
Distance AB
Distance BC
( ) ( ) ( )
55 353 23 316 2
92 651 55 353 23 316
2 2 2
· ·
· · ·
× ×
÷ +
=
55 353 23 316 2
425000 125000 100000
· ·
× ×
÷ +
= ¸
' 26 153 γ ° =
( ) ' 34 132 ' 36 38 ' 24 35 ' 26 153 360 ° = ° + ° + ° ÷ ° = ¢ + u
u ÷ ° = ¢ ' 34 132
u = u ×
°
=
·
·
sin 90 545 sin
' 24 35 sin
23 316
¢ = ¢ ×
°
=
·
·
sin 70 566 sin
' 36 38 sin
55 353
In triangle ABC,
or
or
From the triangle CBP, BP
cos ABC
From the triangle ABP, BP
… (a)
¢ u sin 70 566 sin 90 545
· ·
=
( )   u ÷ ° = u
· ·
' 34 132 sin 70 566 sin 90 545
( ) u ° ÷ u ° = u
·
sin ' 34 132 cos cos ' 34 132 sin sin 9632963 0
u + u =
· ·
sin 6764476 0 cos 7364908 0
5675236 2 tan
·
= u
' 43 68° = u
' 51 63 ' 43 68 ' 34 132 ° = ° ÷ ° = ¢
m 67 508 ' 43 68 sin
' 24 35 sin
23 316
·
·
= ° ×
°
=
m 69 508 ' 51 63 sin
' 36 38 sin
55 353
·
·
= ° ×
°
=
Equating the two values of BP,
Or
From the triangle ABP, BP
From the triangle CBP, BP
(check)
Substituting the value of φ from Eq. (a),
( ) ' 53 75 ' 43 68 ' 24 35 180 ABP ° = ° + ° ÷ ° = Z
m 41 529 ' 53 sin75
' 24 sin35
23 316
AP
·
·
= ° ×
°
=
600 700
200 500
tan
÷
÷
= o
' 34 71° = o
From the triangle ABP,
The bearing of line AB is given by
Bearing of AP = 71˚ 34′ + 68˚ 43′ = 140˚ 17′
Latitude of AP = 529˙41 cos 140˚ 17′ = − 407˙23 m
Departure of AP = 529˙41 sin 140˚ 17′ = + 338˙29 m
Coordinates of P N = 600 − 407˙23 = 192˙77 m
E = 200 + 338˙29 = 538˙29 m
( ) ' 27 102 180 ' 36 38 ' 51 63 180 CBP ° ÷ ° = ° + ° ÷ ° = Z
' 33 77° =
m 37 553 ' 33 sin77
' 36 sin38
55 353
CP
·
·
= ° ×
°
=
( ) 360 ' 24 35 ' 36 38 180 ' 17 140 ° ÷ ° + ° + ° + ° =
' 17 34° =
Check: From the triangle CBP,
Bearing of PC
Latitude of PC = 553˙37 cos 34˚ 17′ = 457˙23 m
Departure of PC = 529˙41 sin 34˚ 17′ = 311˙71m
Coordinates of C , N = 192˙77 + 407˙23 = 650 m
and E = 538˙29 + 311˙71 = 850˙00 m (O.K)
2 / 3
H ' b 83 1 Q
·
=
( ) cumecs 69 49 2 6 9 83 1
2 / 3 · · ·
= × × =
Illustrative Example 9˙10.
In a rectangular weir, the width of the crest is 10 m, and the head
over the crest is 2 m. Determine the discharge if there are two end
contractions. Use Francis Formula.
Solution:
From Eq. 9˙13, effective width b′ = 10 − 0˙2 × 2 = 9˙6 m
From Eq. 9˙11, the discharge is given by
2 / 5
d
H 2 tan g 2 C
15
8
Q u =
( )
2 / 5
4 0 1 81 9 2 60 0
15
8
· · ·
× × × × × =
cumecs 143 0
·
=
Illustrative Example 9˙11.
In a rightangled, triangular notch the head over the crest is 0˙4 m.
Determine the discharge if C
d
= 0˙60.
From Eq. 9˙16, taking θ = 90˚
m 33 3
120
400
·
= =
m 008 0
150
2 1
·
·
= =
( ) ( ) 400 008 0 33 3
025 0
1
2
1
3
2
×
(
¸
(
¸
× × =
· ·
·
400 0894 0 231 2
025 0
1
× 
.

\

× × =
· ·
·
cumecs 22 3192
·
=
In a stream, the following observations were made.
Crosssectional area = 400 m
2
Wetted perimeter = 120 m
Difference of water levels at the two ends = 1˙2 m
If Manning’s rugosity coefficient is 0˙025, determine the discharger.
Slope
From Eq.9˙10, Discharge
Solution: Hydraulic radius
Illustrative Example 9˙12.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?