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Consequentialism = Teleology
Teleology – Classic Definition
The word teleology comes from the Greek roots ‖telos”, which means end, and logos, which means science.
Thus, teleology is the "science of ends." Key questions which teleological ethical systems ask include:
What will be the consequences of this action? What will be the consequences of inaction? How do I weigh the harm against the benefits of this
. then we are acting morally. then we are acting immorally.Teleology and Ethics Teleological moral systems are characterized primarily by a focus on the consequences which any action might have Referred to as consequentialist moral systems In order to make correct moral choices. when we make choices which result in the incorrect consequences. we have to have some understanding of what will result from our choices. When we make choices which result in the correct consequences.
those actions should be chosen which lead to more positive and fewer negative consequences. and those actions should be rejected which lead to more negative consequences and fewer positive consequences. and then choosing the method that has the most positive consequences and the fewest negative consequences. According to these methods. .Teleology Teleological methods are based on estimating what the likely outcomes of a given course of action will be.
Ethical Altruism: An action is morally right if the consequences of the action are more favorable than unfavorable to everyone except the moral agent. Ethical Utilitarianism: An action is morally right if the consequences of the action are more favorable than unfavorable to everyone. .Types Examples of teleological ethical theories include: Ethical Egoism: An action is morally right if the consequences of the action are more favorable than unfavorable only to the moral agent performing the action.
Key Ethical Principles 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Principle of Beneficence Principle of the Common Good Principle of Distributive Justice Principle of Double Effect Principles of Formal and Material Cooperation Principle of Human Dignity Principle of Informed Consent Principles of Integrity and Totality .
Key Ethical Principles 9) Principle of Proportionate and Disproportionate Means 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) Principle of Religious Freedom Principle of Respect for Autonomy Principle of Respect for Persons Principle of Stewardship Principle of Subsidiarity Principle of Toleration .
Principle of Beneficence First principle of morality It means ‗Do good. avoid evil‘ Some norms that arise from this principle: Never deliberately kill innocent human life Never deliberately (directly intend) harm Seek the patient‘s good Act out of charity and justice Respect the patient‘s religious beliefs and value system Never knowingly commit or approve an objectively evil action Appreciate the complexity of life and make sound judgments for the good of oneself. others. and the common good .
Principle of the Common Good Common good consists of all the conditions of society and goods secured by those conditions. which allow individuals to achieve human and spiritual flourishing human community must be actively concerned in promoting health and welfare of every one of its members Principle has three essential elements: respect for persons social welfare peace and security Obligates public authorities to respect the fundamental human rights of each person .
contribution and responsibility. the resources available to the society or organization the society‘s or organization‘s responsibility to the common good Implies that society has a duty to the individual in serious need and that all individuals have duties to others in serious need . and human rights Refers to what society owes its individual members in proportion to: the individual‘s needs.Principle of Distributive Justice Closely linked to the concepts of human dignity. the common good.
.Principle of Double Effect An action that is good in itself that has two effects— An intended attainable good effect and An unintended yet foreseen evil effect However there is a due proportion between the intended good and the permitted evil Moral criteria to distinguish between ‗The Good‘ and ‗Permitted Evil‘ are: The object of the act must not be intrinsically evil The direct intention of the agent must be to achieve the beneficial effects and to avoid the foreseen harmful effects as far as possible The foreseen beneficial effects must not be achieved by the means of the foreseen harmful effects. The foreseen beneficial effects must be equal to or greater than the foreseen harmful effects The beneficial effects must follow from the action at least as immediately as do the harmful effects. and no other means of achieving those effects are available.
Principles of Formal and Material Cooperation Moralists have long recognized that under many circumstances. either explicitly or implicitly. Formal cooperation in intrinsically evil actions. without being involved to some extent in evil Formal Cooperation: Occurs when a person or organization freely participates in the action(s) of a principal agent. . either for its own sake or as a means to some other goal. or shares in the agent‘s intention. it would be impossible for an individual to do good in the world. is morally illicit.
Mediate material cooperation in an immoral act might be justifiable under three basic conditions: ○ If there is a proportionately serious reason for the cooperation the graver the evil the more serious a reason required for the cooperation. Mediate Material Cooperation: Occurs when the cooperator participates in circumstances that are not essential to the commission of an action. such that the act could not occur without this participation.Principles of Formal and Material Cooperation Immediate Material Cooperation: Occurs when the cooperator participates in circumstances that are essential to the commission of an act. such that the action could occur even without this cooperation. ○ The importance of the reason for cooperation must be proportionate to the causal proximity of the cooperator‘s action to the action of the principal agent ○ The danger of scandal must be avoided . Immediate material cooperation in intrinsically evil actions is morally illicit.
Principle of Human Dignity Intrinsic Worth Imago Dei Self Respect .
Principle of Informed Consent Right to advance one‘s own welfare Right to grant or refuse consent Adequate disclosure of information .
Principles of Integrity and Totality Human nature is an integration of body and spirit The body and soul are inseparable entities Human body should be respected as one would respect the person Surgeries and health care .
it helps surrogate decision-makers to weigh benefits and burdens .Principle of Proportionate and Disproportionate Means Analysis of ethical questions arising from the general obligation to preserve human life and the limits of that obligation In case of euthanasia.
Principle of Religious Freedom Freedom to practice any religion of your choice One cannot be compelled to act against one‘s religion Discrimination based on religion is unethical .
and tell the truth This can be done through the process by obtaining informed consent . respect privacy. and that others are obligated to protect confidentiality.Principle of Respect for Autonomy Autonomy is the capacity for self-determination To respect autonomy means to acknowledge that person‘s right to make choices and take action based on that person‘s own values and beliefs This principle implies that one should be free from coercion in deciding to act.
Principle of Respect for Persons All individual human beings are presumed to be free and responsible persons and should be treated as such in proportion to their ability in the circumstances 4 Dimensions of Human Life Biological Psychological Social Interrelation bodily subject knowing subject social subject Spiritual self-transcendent subject As a subject. a human person must be treated with respect in such a way that recognizes his or her human dignity . and not merely an object.
Principle of Stewardship Stewardship requires us to appreciate the two great gifts: the earth and our own human nature The principle requires that the gifts of human life and its natural environment be used with profound respect for their intrinsic ends Particular commitment to human dignity and common good .
and how best and to what degree those individuals most affected should participate in the decision making process. this principle requires those in positions of authority. when a decision is to be made. to recognize that individuals have a right to participate in decisions that directly affect them.Principle of Subsidiarity Corollary of the principle of common good. we should identify the most appropriate forum and level of decision making. . in accord with their dignity and with their responsibility to the common good The principle implies that.
where the eradication of this participation is not practically or morally feasible . tolerate the evil actions of others. those who govern both society and the individual institutions.Principle of Toleration According to this principle. or. if two criteria are met: 1) if a greater good or set of goods would be lost if the evil action were not tolerated. may at times. it is toleration of others participating in evil actions. 2) if greater evils would occur were the original evil not tolerated. In short.
Jeremy Bentham Jeremy Bentham was an English jurist. and legal and social reformer He has come to be considered the founding figure of modern utilitarianism John Stuart Mill was student of Jeremy Bentham . philosopher.
political economist and civil servant. political theory. and political economy He was a proponent of utilitarian. an ethical theory developed by Jeremy Bentham Mill's famous formulation of utilitarianism is known as the "greatesthappiness principle" . He was also an influential contributor to social theory.John Stuart Mill John Stuart Mill was a British philosopher.
which can lead to morally counter-intuitive conclusions Amongst various forms of Consequentialism. or consequence It derives the rightness or wrongness of one's conduct from the outcomes or result of the conduct Consequentialism have been criticized for placing too much emphasis on the maximization of valuable resulting states of affairs.Consequentialism Consequentialism is one form of teleological ethics and it emphasizes on the principle of ―the good‖ as its central concept A morally right act is one that will produce a good outcome. the most popular form is Utilitarianism .
then one is a strict utilitarian.Utilitarianism Two influential contributors to this ethical theory are Jeremy Bentham and John Mill Utilitarianism holds that morally valuable actions are those actions that bring about the greatest good for the greatest number of people For example: If one believes that the good consists in the maximization of utility. Utilitarian refers to maximization of good to maximum number of people .
These may or may not be viewed as differing in importance or priority. c. a. Agathism: views good as an indefinable. bad or evil with pain. Values pluralism: holds that there are many good. or simply as the absence of good. Agapeism: equates good with live. Hedonism: equates good with pleasure. Eudamonism: equates good with happiness. friendship. love. e. but also knowledge. intrinsic feature of other situations and states. b. bad or evil with unhappiness. and so forth. . including pleasure and happiness.Utilitarianism There are several theories of value held by individuals who have been called Utilitarians. d. intrinsic feature of various situations and states. evil as either an indefinable. bad with hate.
encompassed morality. Bentham Aristotle was a Greek philosopher. etc. logic. politics. Thus he was teleological Bentham was hedonistic and thus a strong utilitarian He believed in ―the greatest happiness principle‖ which predominantly means ―pleasure over pain‖ . He believed that final causes guided all natural processes. founder of Western philosophy.Aristotle vs. science.
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