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2005-CTE-13 2005-CTE-18 2005-CTE-27

Contents
Private Vehicle Ownership Public Transport Comparison b/w both for mode choices

Private Vehicle Defined
“Private vehicles are defined as the number of road motor vehicles, other than motorcycles, intended for the carriage of passengers and designed to seat no more than nine persons including the driver.”
Source: OECD REGIONS AT A GLANCE 2007 – ISBN 978-9264-00987-5 – © OECD 2007 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/248421278185

Private Vehicle Ownership statistics 1
Figure: Range of regional variation in the number of private vehicles per 100 inhabitants, 2003 (TL2) The largest regional variation in the number of vehicles per inhabitant occurs in Canada (ranging from 32 to 78 per 100 inhabitants), the United States (20 to 64), Greece (20 to 52), and Japan (29 to 59)

Private Vehicle Ownership statistics 2
The number of private vehicles varies by type of region Spearmank correlation between number of private vehicles per 100 population and share of population by regional type, 2003 (TL2)

Private Vehicle Ownership statistics 3
88% of all people drive to work, while only about 5 percent use public transit

Factors Affecting Vehicle Purchase Behavior

Reasons for Usage of Private Vehicles

Restraining Private CarOwnership 1
Possible Strategies: • Ownership restraint consists of controlling the size of the vehicle fleet and in this way restricting the number of vehicles available to use the road system; and  • Usage restraint affects how much, where and when, any given vehicle fleet is used. 

Restraining Private CarOwnership 2
Using Physical Restraint Closure of a road at particular hours to force alternative (longer) routes Color-coding scheme Limit the days of using private cars. Parking control Reducing the supply of parking spaces, restricting the duration or opening hours and regulating use through permits and charges. • Imposing Area/Time-specific Charges Charging users for using a vehicle in a particular area or a particular road. They may not only be location-specific but can be varied by time of day, week or year. Examples of this type of charging are parking charges, toll roads and area tolls (cordon pricing).

Ownership VS Usage Restraint
Objection to ownership restraint Restrains the ownership everywhere whether needed or not Electronic road pricing (ERP) Charge drivers directly for the usage of roads according to the congestion manifesting at the particular time and place, but not when there is no or little congestion

Best aspects of private ownership

Negative aspects of private ownership

Public Transport Defined
• “Public Transport comprises passenger transportation services which are available for use by the general public, as opposed to modes for private use such as automobiles or vehicles for hire.” • Public transportation can consist of buses, subways, trolleys and light rail, commuter trains, van pool services, paratransit services for senior citizens and people with disabilities, ferries, water taxis, or monorails Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public_transport

Public Transport Service
• Urban transport is dominated by people making many short trips multiple times per day; this creates focus on headway and ease of use • Inter-city transport between cities is dominated by rail, coaches and airlines.

Public Transport Operations
Timetables, maps, fare schemes and predefined schedules

Roads, railways, airways or seaways

Ticket revenue, govt. subsidies, advertisement

More as compared to private vehicle

Food & drink, smoking

Public Transport Impacts

Source: 30th Australasian Transport Research Forum

Discussed Aspects

Socio-demographic Characteristics of traveller
The groups who use the car more and public transport less than others are: The under 11s, the working age group (31 to 60 year olds), even the 61 to 70 year olds The workers as well as the unemployed or keeping house Those with vehicles especially those in multi-vehicle households Those in couple with children households Those households with higher incomes The groups who use public transport more than others are: The 11 to 20 year olds The students Those with no licences Those with no vehicles in the household

Trip Purpose
The private vehicle is the most frequently used mode for every trip purpose but its share varies in relation to public transport depending on the reason for travel. Figure shows that car use is highest for workrelated (89%) and serve passenger trips (88%) which by their very nature are probably most captive to this mode. Public transport use, on the other hand, is highest for educational (27%) and commute (20%) trips.

Time of Day
The distribution of travelers by time of day shows that the private vehicle is the most used mode consistently throughout the day. Train and bus use picks up during the morning and late afternoon peaks when congestion puts the greatest pressure on travel time and costs making the car comparatively less attractive during these periods. In comparison during the midday period when there are less traffic pressures and public transport services are not as frequent, car use almost completely dominates among the motorised modes.

Time of Day (continued)

Access and frequency of public transport
Evidence from the study shows that about a third who use the private vehicle for their trip to work do so because public transport is inaccessible or unavailable

Conclusions
For the public transport to be used more, it must be made comfortable and accessible There must be a solid restrain on ownership and use of private vehicle

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