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Strategy of disease prevention and disease surveillance

Strategy of disease prevention and disease surveillance
Prevention and control of disease can be divided into two parts : Strategy and measure of disease prevention. Surveillance of disease.

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Strategy of disease prevention
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Policy of public health work. Modern medicine model. Public health of the whole society.

Global strategy of public health
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Health for all by the year 2000, (HFA) Primary health care, (PHC) Is the aim of WHO and all nations .

The four contents of PHC
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Health education and health promotion. Disease prevention and health care. Basic treatment. Recovery.

Preventive measure of chronic disease

Different measures should be taken according to the natural history of chronic disease to prevent, or interrupt the development and aggravation of disease, which is called three levels of prevention. 。

Primary prevention

Health promotion
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Health education Self health care Protection and surveillance of environment

Health protection

Two pronged strategy of primary prevention

Population strategy: aims to lower the exposure level to risk factors of the whole population. High risk strategy: aims to eliminate the special exposure of population with risk factors of some disease.

Secondary prevention

Measures to avoid or slow down the development of the disease, which refer to early discover, early diagnosis and early treat the disease. Screening

Tertiary prevention

Clinical prevention Aims to reduce the harm of disease, refers to symptom treatment and recovery treatment.

Preventive measure of infectious disease
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Preventive measures oriented to infectious source. Preventive measures oriented to transmission route.

Preventive population.

measures oriented to

susceptible

Preventive measures oriented to infectious source
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Measures oriented to infectious patients. Measures oriented to carriers. Measures oriented to contacter. Measures oriented to infected animal. Territory health quarantine and epidemic area quarantine.

Measures oriented to infectious patients.
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Early discovering Early diagnosing Early reporting Early insulating Early treating

Report of infectious diseases

Types

37 kinds of diseases were divided into three types.

category A infectious disease
B category infectious disease

c category infectious disease

C category infectious disease
Class infectious diseases shall include pulmonary tuberculosis, schistosomiasis, filariasis, echinococcosis, leprosy, influenza, epidemic parotitis, rubella, tetanus neonatorum, acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis and infectious diarrhea other than cholera, dysentery, typhoid and paratyphoid.

Early insulating

Insulating the infectious patient is an effective method that avoids spreading. Insulating interval is depend on the longest communicable period and biological detection. Should be between the shortest incubation period and the maximum incubation period.

Measures oriented to carriers.
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Carrier should be registered and managed. Give them health education; follow-up periodically. Carrier should not take on special occupations as nursery, service industry, et al. Carriers of HIV, HBV and malaria should not donate blood.

Measures to contacted person
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Quarantine Emergency vaccination Medical observation Hold to test Medicine prevention

Territory health quarantine

Plague, cholera and yellow fever are infectious diseases need to quarantined by our nation, the intervals are 6, 5 and 6 days respectively.

Epidemic area quarantine.
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Limit the communication between epidemic area and other areas. Insulate and treat all patients and carriers of epidemic area. Sterilisation Immune susceptible individuals or give them medicine to prevent the disease. After the longest incubation period, if individuals having contacted infectious patients didn’t develop the disease, the quarantine should be cancelled.

Measures to transmission route
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Disinfection, killing insects and mouse. Disinfection
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Preventive disinfection Infectious focus disinfection
current disinfection  terminal disinfection

Frequently preventive measures
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Health education Improvement of health condition

Measures to susceptible population

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Vaccination Medicine prevention Protective measure

Vaccination

Inoculating biological products into human body to develop specific immunity to a certain infectious disease, improve the population immunity and prevent the occurrence and spreading of infectious disease.

Vaccination
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Artificial active immunity Artificial passive immunity Passive and active immunity

Planning immunity

Based on infectious diseases surveillance and analyses of population immunity, according to scientific immune procedure, vaccinate the specific population to control and eliminate the infectious disease.

Vaccination
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Route and dose Contraindication of vaccination Response to vaccination Cold chain

EPI
(expanded program on immunization )
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Was proposed by WHO in the year 1974. Contents:
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Expanding the area of immunization. Expanding the spectrum of immunization.

Surveillance of disease
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Infectious disease Noninfectious disease

Concepts

Active surveillance and passive surveillance Routinely report and sentinel surveillance Actual case and surveillance case Direct index and indirect index Fixed population and dynamic population

Contents and methods
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Collection of data Data sorting and analysis Communication and feedback surveillance information.

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Surveillance system

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Population based surveillance system Hospital based surveillance system Laboratory based surveillance system