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Apr 28, 2013

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LRFD

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LRFD

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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engineer must combine the following:

analysis, engineering judgment,

experience, construction method,

economic design etc. Design cannot be

done if engineer does not know the basic

concept of structural analysis. There are

two consideration in the design of

tension member:

Strength

the tension member must be

adequate to resist the ultimate axial

tensile load.

Stiffness

the tension member must not

fail due to serviceability

requirements

Design of Steel Tension Members

Equations for strength of tension members:

a) For yielding in the gross section:

b) For fracture in the net section:

g y t n t A F P | | =

e u t n t A F P | | =

P

P

Design of Steel Tension Members

Yielding in the gross section:

Max stress F

y

P P

Max stress F

u

Variable Definitions

Resistance factor,

= 0.90 for yielding

= 0.75 for fracture

F

y

= Yield Strength

F

u

= Tensile or Ultimate strength

: t |

Design Requirements

A

g

Gross cross-sectional area

A

e

Effective net area

If tension load is transmitted directly to each of the

cross-sectional elements by fasteners or welds:

A

e

= A

n

A

n

= Net cross-sectional area

(gross-section minus bolt holes)

Design Requirements

If tension load transmitted through some but

not all of the cross-sectional elements:

by fasteners or bolts,

A

e

= A

n

U

by welds,

A

e

= A

g

U or A

e

= AU

TENSION MEMBERS ARE

CONNECTED BY:

Rivets

Bolts

Welds

Advantages of Bolted Connections

Do not require highly skilled workers

Holes can be done in the shop

Less equipment needed

Quality of work can be easily

controlled

Faster construction

Advantages of Welded Connections

Minimize construction noise since no impact

wrenches are used as in Bolted connection

Members can be easily installed

Easily be repaired when dimensions are

unmatched

Joints are very rigid

Shop and construction detailing is much

simplier

Simple Bolted Connections

There are different types of bolted

connections. They can be categorized

based on the type of loading.

Tension member connection and splice. It

subjects the bolts to forces that tend to

shear the shank.

Beam end simple connection. It subjects the

bolts to forces that tend to shear the shank.

Hanger connection. The hanger connection

puts the bolts in tension

68402/61420 Slide # 14

Simple Bolted Connections

The bolts are subjected to shear or tension loading.

In most bolted connection, the bolts are subjected to shear.

Bolts can fail in shear or in tension.

You can calculate the shear strength or the tensile strength of a bolt

Simple connection: If the line of action of the force acting on the

connection passes through the center of gravity of the connection,

then each bolt can be assumed to resist an equal share of the load.

The strength of the simple connection will be equal to the sum of

the strengths of the individual bolts in the connection.

The bolts are subjected to shear or tension loading.

In most bolted connection, the bolts are subjected to shear.

Bolts can fail in shear or in tension.

You can calculate the shear strength or the tensile strength of a

bolt

Simple connection: If the line of action of the force acting on

the connection passes through the center of gravity of

the connection, then each bolt can be assumed to resist

an equal share of the load.

The strength of the simple connection will be equal to the

sum of the strengths of the individual bolts in the

connection.

Bolt Types & Materials

A307 - Unfinished (Ordinary or Common) bolts

low carbon steel A36, F

u

= 413 MPa,

for light structures under static load

A325 - High strength bolts, heat-treated medium

carbon steel, F

u

= 827 MPa,

for structural joints

A490 - High strength bolts, Quenched and

Tempered Alloy steel, F

u

= 1033 MPa

for structural joints

A449 - High strength bolts with diameter > 32mm

anchor bolts, lifting hooks, tie-downs

Common Bolts

ASTM A307 bolts

Common bolts are no longer

common for current structural design

but are still available Common Bolts

n u

R P | s 75 . 0 = |

bolt v n

A f R =

MPa f

v

165 =

HSB Bearing Type Connections

The shear strength of bolts shall be determined as follows

bolt v n

A f R =

75 . 0 = |

n u

R P | s

517 413 A490

413 330 A325

Type X Thread Type N Thread Type

If the level of threads is not known, it is conservative to assume

that the threads are type N.

AI SC Table J 3.2

The table bellow shows the values of f

v

(MPa) for different types of bolts

Bolted Shear Connections

In designing the bolted shear connections the factored design

strength (|R

n

) should be greater than or equal to the factored

load. | R

n

> P

u

So, examining the various possible failure modes and calculate

the corresponding design strengths is a must.

Possible failure modes are:

Shear failure of the bolts

Failure of member being connected due to fracture or yielding or .

Edge tearing or fracture of the connected plate

Tearing or fracture of the connected plate between two bolt holes

Excessive bearing deformation at the bolt hole

Failure Modes of Bolted Connections

Bolt Shearing

Tension Fracture

Plate Bearing

Block Shear

Bolted Shear Connections

Shear failure of bolts

Average shearing stress in the bolt = f

v

= P/A = P/(td

b

2

/4)

P is the load acting on an individual bolt

A is the area of the bolt and db is its diameter

Strength of the bolt = P = f

v

x (td

b

2

/4) where f

v

= shear yield

stress = 0.6F

y

Bolts can be in single shear or double shear as shown above.

When the bolt is in double shear, two cross-sections are effective in

resisting the load. The bolt in double shear will have the twice the shear

strength of a bolt in single shear.

Bolted Shear Connections

Bolted Shear Connections

Failure of connected member

Tension Member can fail due to tension fracture or yielding.

Bearing failure of connected/connecting part due to bearing

from bolt holes

Hole is slightly larger than the fastener and the fastener is loosely placed in

hole

Contact between the fastener and the connected part over approximately

half the circumference of the fastener

As such the stress will be highest at the radial contact point (A). However,

the average stress can be calculated as the applied force divided by the

projected area of contact

Bolted Shear Connections

Average bearing stress f

p

= P/(d

b

t), where P is the force applied to the fastener.

The bearing stress state can be complicated by the presence of nearby bolt or

edge. The bolt spacing and edge distance will have an effect on the bearing

strength.

Bearing stress effects are independent of the bolt type because the bearing

stress acts on the connected plate not the bolt.

A possible failure mode resulting from excessive bearing close to the edge of

the connected element is shear tear-out as shown below. This type of shear

tear-out can also occur between two holes in the direction of the bearing load.

R

n

= 2 x 0.6 F

u

L

c

t = 1.2 F

u

L

c

t

Spacing and Edge-distance requirements

The AISC code gives guidance for edge distance and spacing to avoid tear

out shear

2

h

L L

e c

=

S

e

L

diameter hole the is h mm d h

bolt

6 . 1 + =

NOTE: The actual hole diameter is 1.6 mm bigger than the bolt,

we use another 1.6 mm for tolerance when we calculate net area. Here use 1.6 mm only not 3.2

bolt

d S

3

2

2 >

Bolt spacing is a function of the bolt diameter

Common we assume

The AISC minimum spacing is

e

L

bolt

d S 3 =

AI SC Table J 3.4

Bolt Spacings & Edge Distances

Bolt Spacings

- Painted members or members not subject to corrosion:

2 2/3d Bolt Spacings 24t or 305 mm

(LRFD J3.3) (LRFD J3.5)

- Unpainted members subject to corrosion:

3d Bolt Spacings 14t or 178 mm

Edge Distance

Values in Table J3.4M Edge Distance 12t or 152 mm

(LRFD J3.4) (LRFD J3.5)

d - bolt diameter

t - thickness of thinner plate

Important Notes

L

c

Clear distance

Design Provisions for Bolted Shear

Connections

In a bolted shear connection, the bolts are subjected to shear

and the connecting/connected plates are subjected to bearing

stresses.

Bolt in shear

Bearing stresses in plate

Bearing stresses in plate

T

T

T

T

Bolt in shear

Bearing stresses in plate

Bearing stresses in plate

Bolt in shear

Bearing stresses in plate

Bearing stresses in plate

T

T

T

T

Design Provisions for Bolted Shear

Connections

The shear strength of all bolts = shear strength of one bolt x

number of bolts

The bearing strength of the connecting / connected plates can

be calculated using equations given by AISC specifications.

The tension strength of the connecting / connected plates can

be calculated as discussed in tension members.

Design Provisions for Bolted Shear

Connections

In a simple connection, all bolts share the load equally.

T

T

T/n

T/n

T/n T/n

T/n

T/n

T

T

T/n

T/n

T/n T/n

T/n

T/n

AISC Design Provisions

Chapter J of the AISC Specifications focuses on connections.

Section J3 focuses on bolts and threaded parts

AISC Specification J3.3 indicates that the minimum distance (s)

between the centers of bolt holes is 2.67. A distance of 3d

b

is

preferred.

AISC Specification J3.4 indicates that the minimum edge distance

(L

e

) from the center of the bolt to the edge of the connected

part is given in Table J3.4. Table J3.4 specifies minimum edge

distances for sheared edges, edges of rolled shapes, and gas cut

edges.

AISC Design Provisions

AISC Specification indicates that the maximum edge distance for

bolt holes is 12 times the thickness of the connected part (but

not more than 152 mm). The maximum spacing for bolt holes is

24 times the thickness of the thinner part (but not more than

305 mm).

Specification J3.6 indicates that the design tension or shear

strength of bolts is |F

n

A

b

| = 0.75

Table J3.2, gives the values of F

n

A

b

is the unthreaded area of bolt.

In Table J3.2, there are different types of bolts A325 and A490.

AISC Design Provisions

The shear strength of the bolts depends on whether threads are included or

excluded from the shear planes. If threads are included in the shear planes then

the strength is lower.

We will always assume that threads are included in the shear

plane, therefore less strength to be conservative.

We will look at specifications J3.7 J3.9 later.

AISC Specification J3.10 indicates the bearing strength of plates at bolt holes.

The design bearing strength at bolt holes is |R

n

R

n

= 1.2 L

c

t F

u

2.4 d

b

t F

u

- deformation at the bolt holes is a design

consideration

Common Types of Bolted Connections

TYPES OF BOLT HOLES

Standard

Oversized

Short-slotted

Long-slotted

Connection types

Bearing

Slip-critical

36

Failure Mode of Bolted Shear Connections

Two types of bolted

connector failure are

considered in this

section

Failure of the

connector

Failure of the

connected parts

Failure Mode of Bolted Shear Connections

(cont.)

Connector failure

Single shear connection Single shear plane. P = f

v

A,

where f

v

is the average shearing stress and A is the

connectors cross-sectional area.

Double shear connection Double shear plane. P = 2f

v

A

Failure Mode of Bolted Shear Connections

(cont.)

Failure of the connected parts , separated into two categories.

1. Failure resulting from excessive tension, shear, or bending

in the parts being connected

For a tension member must consider tension on the net area,

tension on the gross area, and block shear

For beam-beam or beam-column connections, must consider block

shear

Gusset plates and framing angles must be checked for P, M, and V

39

Failure Mode of Bolted Shear Connections

(cont.)

2. Failure of the connected part because of bearing

exerted by the fastener (average bearing stress is f

p

=

P/dt)

If the hole is slightly larger than the fastener and the fastener

is assumed to be placed loosely in the hole (rarely the case),

contact between the fastener and the connected part will exist

over approximately 50% of the circumference of the fastener.

The bearing problem is affected by the edge distance and bolt

spacing

40

LRFD Fasteners (cont)

Design bearing strength

1. Usual conditions based on the deformation limit state, according to

LRFD-Formula (J3-1a). This applies for all holes except long-slotted

holes perpendicular to the line of force, where end distance is at least

1.5d, the center-to-center spacing s is at least 3d, and there are two or

more bolts in the line of force.

where = 0.75

d = nominal diameter of bolt at unthreaded area

t = thickness of part against which bolt bears

= tensile strength of connected part against which bolt bears

= distance along line of force from the edge of the connected part to

the center of a standard hole or the center of a short- and long-slotted hole

perpendicular to the line of force.

u

u

F

e

L

) 4 . 2 ( ) 2 . 1 (

u u e n

dtF tF L R u < u = u

LRFD Fasteners (cont)

Design shear strength no threads in shear planes

where = 0.75, the standard value for shear

= tensile strength of the bolt material (120 ksi for A325 bolts;

150 ksi for A490 bolts)

= the number of shear planes participating [usually one

(single shear) or two (double shear) ]

= gross cross-sectional area across the unthreaded shank of the bolt

Design shear strength threads in shear planes

b

b

u n

mA F R ) 50 . 0 ( 75 . 0 = u

u

b

u

F

m

b

A

b

b

u n

mA F R ) 40 . 0 ( 75 . 0 = u

Sequi Examples 7.1 & 7.2

42

LRFD

Fasteners

(cont)

LRFD Fasteners (cont)

Minimum edge distance requirement (AISC J3.4)

LRFD Slip-critical Connections

A connection with high-strength bolts is classified as either a

bearing or slip-critical connection.

Bearing connections - the bolt is brought to a snug-tight

condition so that the surfaces of the connected parts are in firm

contact.

Slippage is acceptable

Shear and bearing on the connector

Slip-critical connections - no slippage is permitted and the

friction force described earlier must not be exceeded.

Slippage is not acceptable (Proper installation and tensioning is key)

Must have sufficient shear an d bearing strength in the event of overload

that causes slip. AISC J3.8 for details.

Spacing, Edge and End Distances

Center to Center (pitch) 24 x thickness of

thinner plate 300mm

Edge distance 12 x thickness of part

150mm

Bolt Shear Strength

F

n

A

b

Table J3.2

F

n

Table J3.2

A

b

Area of bolt

Tabulated on page 7-33, Table 7-10

Bearing Strength at Bolt Holes

J3.10 R

n

= 0.75

R

n

given by equations J3-2

Tabulated on page 7-34,35

Ex. 1.0 - Design Strength

Calculate the design strength of the simple connection shown

below and check whether it is adequate for carrying the

factored load of 300 kN.

1.25

2.50

1.25

1.25

2.50

1.25

65 k

A36

A36

5 x

3/8 in.

in. bolt s

1.25

2.50

1.25

1.25

2.50

1.25

65 k

A36

A36

5 x

3/8 in.

in. bolt s

63 k

10 mm

120x15 mm

20 mm A325-N bolts

30 mm

60 mm

30 mm

30 mm

60 mm

30 mm

300 kN

Solution:

The design shear strength of one bolt in shear

= |F

n

A

b

= 0.75 x 330 x t x 20

2

/4000 = 77.8 kN

| F

n

A

b

= 77.8 kN per bolt

Shear strength of connection = 4 x 77.8 =

311.2 kN

Ex. 1.0 - Design Strength

Minimum edge distance and spacing requirements

See Table J3.4M, minimum edge distance = 26 mm for rolled

edges of plates

The given edge distances (30 mm) > 26 mm. Therefore,

minimum edge distance requirements are satisfied.

Minimum spacing = 2.67 d

b

= 2.67 x 20 = 53.4 mm.

(AISC Specifications J3.3)

Preferred spacing = 3.0 d

b

= 3.0 x 20 = 60 mm.

The given spacing (60 mm) = 60 mm. Therefore, spacing

requirements are satisfied.

Ex. 1.0 - Design Strength

Ex. 1.0 - Design Strength

Bearing strength at bolt holes.

Bearing strength at bolt holes in connected part (120x15 mm plate)

At edges, L

c

= 30 hole diameter/2 = 30 (20 + 1.6)/2 = 19.2

|R

n

= 0.75 x (1.2 L

c

t F

u

) = 0.75 x (1.2 x19.2 x15x400)/1000 = 103.7 kN

But, |R

n

0.75 (2.4 d

b

t F

u

) = 0.75 x (2.4 x 20x15x400)/1000 = 216 kN

Therefore, |R

n

= 103.7 kN at edge holes.

At other holes, s = 60 mm, L

c

= 60 (20 + 1.6) = 38.4 mm.

|R

n

= 0.75 x (1.2 L

c

t F

u

) = 0.75x(1.2 x 38.4 x15 x400)/1000 = 207.4 kN

But, |R

n

0.75 (2.4 d

b

t F

u

) = 216 kN. Therefore |R

n

= 207.4 kN

Ex. 1.0 - Design Strength

At other holes, s = 60 mm, L

c

= 60 (20 +1.6) = 38.4 mm.

|R

n

= 0.75 x (1.2 L

c

t F

u

) = 0.75 x (1.2 x 38.4 x 10x 400)/1000 = 138.2 kN

But, |R

n

0.75 (2.4 d

b

t F

u

) = 144 kN

Therefore, |R

n

= 138.2 kN at other holes

Therefore, bearing strength at holes = 2 x 69.1 + 2 x 138.2 = 414.6 kN

Bearing strength of the connection is the smaller of the bearing strengths = 414.6

kN

Ex. 1.0 - Design Strength

Connection Strength

Shear strength = 311.2 kN

Bearing strength (plate) = 622.2 kN

Bearing strength (gusset) = 414.6 kN

Connection strength (|R

n

) > applied factored loads (Q).

311.2 > 300 Therefore ok.

Only connections is designed here

Need to design tension member and gusset plate

Example problem

2.0 Calculate the tensile capacity of two A36

plate spliced using 20mm dia. A307 bolts as

shown in the figure. Use LRFD design provision

assuming that the Live load is twice the Dead

load. Determine also the distances a and b

Example problem

Tension member

P P

a a 75mm

250mm

P

P

10mm.

10mm.

b

b

Bolt Design Example

Design a pair of splice plates to connect

the two parts of the channel tension

member shown. The forces in the

member are 500kN live load and 280kN

dead load. The bolts in the surrounding

joints are 25mm diameter A325N. All

steel is A36. Slip is not critical.

Bolt Design Example

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