TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT

MINI PROJECT
ABHIROOP SEN ANJANI MANURI

DOMAIN AND TECHNOLOGY
DOMAIN CHOSEN TELECOMMUNICATIONS
CHOICE OF TECHNOLOGY VOIP

CONTENTS
A. THE BASIC CONCEPT B. INVENTION OF THE TELEPHONE C. EVOLUTION OF TECHNOLOGY IN TELECOM D. VOIP TECHNOLOGY E. COSTITUENTS OF VOIP AND ITS FUNCTIONING F. FUTURE OF TELECOM

A. THE BASIC CONCEPT
A basic telecommunication system consists of three primary units that are always present in some form: A transmitter that takes information and converts it to a signal. A transmission medium, also called the "physical channel" that carries the signal. A receiver that takes the signal from the channel and converts it back into usable information.

B. INVENTION OF THE TELEPHONE
• Surprisingly, there were two people in the running to patent the telephone. • In the 1870s, two relatively unheard of inventors of this time, Alexander Graham Bell and the less known Elisha Gary, both independently designed devices that could transmit speech electrically. • Both men rushed their respective designs to the patent office within hours of each other, but Bell patented his telephone first. • Elisha Gray and Alexander Graham Bell entered into a famous legal battle over the invention of the telephone, which as most people know, Bell won.

C. EVOLUTION OF TECHNOLOGY IN TELECOM
 The first telephones were a purely scientific endeavor, with little thought to aesthetics. The entire focus of these first creations was to come up with a replacement for the primitive telegraph.
 The first call was made from Bell to an assistant sitting 15 feet away on March 10, 1876, when Bell said, “Watson, come here, I want you.”

USE OF ELECTRICITY (TRADITIONAL TELEPHONES)
 A telephone converts sound, typically and most efficiently the human voice, into electronic signals suitable for transmission via cables or other transmission media over long distances, and replays such signals simultaneously in audible form to its user.  This is the most common telephone we know(before cell phones) and normally the Government provides the infrastructure of cables to carry these electric signals.

USE OF RADIO WAVES (CAR PHONES)
 When phones went the least bit mobile, the amount of hardware required to accompany them required they be incorporated into a car so the heavy guts of the phone could reside in the trunk.
 This is an additional example of a technology that the next generation will find laughable, despite its revolutionary effect at the time.

VIDEOTELEPHONY
• The development of videotelephony involved the historical development of several technologies which enabled the use of live video in addition to voice telecommunications. The concept of videotelephony was first popularized in the late 1870s • This was first embodied in the device which came to be known as the video telephone, or videophone, and it evolved from intensive research and experimentation in several telecommunication fields, notably electrical telegraphy, telephony, radio, and television. • The development of the crucial video technology first started in the latter half of the 1920s in the United Kingdom and the United States, spurred notably by John Logie Baird and AT&T's Bell Labs.

USE OF RADIO WAVES (MOBILE PHONES)
 To start with, one of the most interesting things about a cell phone is that it is actually a radio - an extremely sophisticated radio, but a radio nonetheless. It is a Duplex device.  It makes use of radio waves and initially used by the military. It progressed to 2G, 3G & 4G(IP)  Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) and Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) are two competing standards in cellular service.  The major difference between the two technologies is how they turn voice data into radio waves and how the carrier connects to the phone

USE OF SATTELITES (SATTELITE PHONES)
 A satellite phone or sat phone is a mobile phone that sends and receives calls using satellites rather than landlines or cellular broadcasting towers.  This phone only requires a clear line of sight to the sky, so it can complete calls from anywhere. It provides solid communication on the seas and in the air.  A disadvantage of a satellite phone is a noticeable delay in conversations.  Satellite minutes are also more expensive than cellular minutes.

USE OF INTERNET PROTOCOL (VOIP)
 Voice over Internet Protocol, is a method for taking analog audio signals, and turning them into digital data that can be transmitted over the Internet.  How is this useful? VoIP can turn a standard Internet connection into a way to place free phone calls.  The practical upshot of this is that by using some of the free VoIP software that is available to make Internet phone calls, you're bypassing the phone company (and its charges) entirely.

D. VOIP TECHNOLOGY
 VOIP which stands for voice over Internet protocol and often pronounced "voyp" — is a new technology that will improve the way we communicate.  VoIP basically means voice transmitted over a digital network. The Internet, however, isn't strictly necessary for VoIP. What is necessary for VoIP technology is the use of the same protocols that the Internet uses.  A protocol is a set of rules used to allow orderly communication.  Thus, voice over Internet protocol means voice that travels by way of the same protocols used on the Internet

E. COSTITUENTS OF VOIP AND

ITS FUNCTIONING
 A VoIP system basically consists of a number of endpoints which may be VoIP phones or computers and an IP network.  It includes a vocoder (voice encoder / decoder) which converts the audio to and from the analogue format into a digital format.  It also compresses the encoded audio, and in the reverse direction it decompresses the reconstituted audio. The data generated is split into packets in the required format by the network interface card which sends them with the relevant protocol into the outside world.  The IP network accepts the packets and provides the medium over which they can be forwarded, routing them to their final destination.

VOIP Protocols
 In order to be able to communicate using a VoIP system, there are two types of protocol that must be used. One is a signalling protocol, and the other is a protocol to facilitate the data exchange.  The signalling protocol is used to control and manage the call. It includes elements such as call set up, clear down, call forwarding and the like. The first protocol to be widely used for VoIP was H323.  The second type of protocol is used to manage the data exchange for the VoIP traffic. The one used is termed RTP (Real Time Protocol) and this can handle both audio and video. RTP handles the data exchange, but in addition to this a codec is required. Where voice is used a vocoder is used (a codec can be used for any form of data including audio, video, etc). The most widely used VoIP vocoder is G711

How does VOIP technology work?
VoIP phone calls can be made in one of three ways:  Analog Telephone Adaptor  VoIP phone  Computer to computer using a Software VoIP Phone

Analog Telephone Adaptor
 The simplest way to make a VoIP call is to use an ATA (analog telephone adaptor), sometimes called a „gateway‟. This device allows you to use your current standard phone.  To make a VoIP call, simply plug your standard handset into the ATA and connect the ATA to your computer or your internet connection.  The ATA takes the analog signal from your standard phone and turns it into a signal that is ready to be sent over the internet.  With some ATAs you may be able to: select whether your outgoing calls use VoIP or the standard telephone connection switch between VoIP and your standard phone connection for incoming calls

VOIP Phone
 A dedicated VOIP handset looks just like a standard phone, but it is connected directly to your router or PC, typically through an Ethernet or USB port.
 The handset already includes all software necessary to send and receive VoIP calls. It offers a fast and cost-effective way to use Voice over Internet Protocol.

Computer to computer using a Software VoIP Phone
 As the term suggests, this involves using software on your PC and an internet connection to contact someone else with compatible software at their computer.
 Apart from the software, your computer needs a microphone, speakers, a suitable sound card and a fast internet connection.

Benefits of VOIP
 One of the main benefits is that VoIP can significantly reduce call costs, especially over long distances. Calls may even be free of charge in many cases, for instance if calls are made to users on the same network.  Another benefit is that you can unplug your telephone handset from your PC or adaptor, travel to a new location (potentially anywhere in the world), plug it into another connection and carry on exactly as if you were at home. This is known as nomadic operation.

VOIP Service Offerings
Apart from standard call services, VoIP providers may also offer:  video calls  conference calls Some services also offer advanced call-handling options. These are based on caller ID information and allow you to decide how to handle calls from a particular number. For example, you may automatically:  re-direct the call to another number  send the call directly to your voice mailbox  reject the call With many VoIP services, you can also check voicemail via the web or attach messages to an e-mail that is sent to your computer or handheld device.

F. FUTURE OF TELECOM
Nanotechnology for Future Telecommunication (5G) Perception of “5G – The Nano Core” is based upon the convergence of existing technologies. The incorporated technologies are. 1. Nanotechnology. 2. Cloud Computing. 3. All IP Network. 4. Flat IP Architecture.

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