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Lewis Chappelear firstname.lastname@example.org Student ID #A00161608 Ph.D. in Education, Specialization in Education Technology
Project Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for EDUC 8841: Diffusion and Integration of Educational Technology
Instructor: Dr. Amar Almasude email@example.com
Apple co-founder Steve Jobs said in a 1983 speech that his company’s strategy is really simple: to put an incredibly great computer in a book that you can carry around with you and learn how to use in 20 minutes.
Who needs a computer the size of a book?
This computer the size of a book needs to have a radio in it so that you don’t have to hook up to anything and you’re in communication with all of these larger databases and other computers at the same time.
Steve Jobs and his research team at Apple had been researching the idea for the iPad for many years before its first announcement on January 27,
Apple’s first tablet computer was the Newton MessagePad 100 introduced in 1993.
The research from the MessagePad led to the creation of the ARM6 core with Acorn Computers.
The PowerBook Duo with Penlite was a tablet-based computer that was a predecessor to the iPad.
Apple reentered the computing markets in 2007 with the iPhone.
The iPhone was smaller than the iPad, but featured a camera and a mobile phone. This device pioneered the multi-touch fingersensitive touchscreen interface of Apple’s IOS mobile operating system.
By late 2009, the iPad’s release had been rumored for several years. Such speculation mostly talked about “Apple’s Tablet”, the “iTablet”, and the “iSlate”.
Steve Jobs introduced the world to the iPad on January 27, 2010.
Steve Jobs later said that Apple had begun developing the iPad before the iPhone.
300,000 iPads were sold on their first day of availability – April 3, 2010.
Within one month, Apple had sold 1,000,000 iPads.
Apple had sold 3,000,000 iPads within
Since then, Apple has introduced the iPad 2, iPad 3 with retina display, iPad 4 with retina display, and the iPad mini.
The iPad has infiltrated most industries including education, business, and healthcare.
Over 100 million iPads are now being used around the world and there is no indication that this number is going to dwindle any time soon.
An individual’s decision about an innovation is not an instantaneous act; it is a process that occurs over time (Rogers, 2003, p. 169). In order for the administration at MHS to consider adopting the iPad as a new technology, the innovation-design process must be described.
What is an iPad and how can it be used as an educational tool?
The iPad can shoot video, take photos, play music, and perform online functions such as webbrowsing and emailing.
Apps for classrooms.
Timeline to create knowledge about the iPad at MHS: May 2013 – 10 minute introduction of the iPad to the staff and administration at MHS at a regularly scheduled staff meeting. June 2013 – 20 minute panel discussion about the iPad. Students and teachers who currently use the iPad will sit on the panel. Administrators, school leaders, department leads, and select parents will attend this meeting. Ongoing – demonstration of apps and resources that the iPad can offer (handouts in mailboxes, demonstrations at meeting, etc.)
MHS can save money if iPads are adopted!
Students are currently loaned at least six textbooks for the school year. Each textbook costs roughly $80.00 plus resources.
The school textbook policy can be used for the iPads. Parents/guardians will be responsible for lost, stolen, or broken iPads. An optional insurance plan can be offered for a minimal
Computer labs will become a thing of the past! This can save hundreds of thousands of dollars over the years.
Students will have access to up-to-date resources, hands-on learning, and social networks. This can improve student engagement and motivation.
Timeline to persuade the MHS administration and staff to adopt the iPad: August 2013 – Presentation to the MHS administration about how the iPad can be a good choice for the school.
September 2013 – Presentation to the MHS staff about how the iPad can be effectively used in the classroom and increase student engagement and motivation.
Ongoing – discussions about how the iPad can be effectively used at MHS and how it can increase academic achievement and save money.
Encourage the MHS administrator to select the iPad as a textbook and computer replacement. Timeline: September 2013 – December 2013
Gain administrative, staff, parent, and student support.
End-of-year budget meeting: Introduce and vote on budget to supply iPads to each student and staff member at MHS.
January – June 2014: Pilot program with the MHS 9th graders only. Teacher professional development, Apple TVs, etc.
August 2014: Full implementation of iPad program. All MHS teachers and students will be loaned an iPad for school use. Ongoing: Professional development for teachers to effectively implement iPad program.
Confirmation will take place when the administration at MHS seeks a reinforcement of the innovationdesign already made (Rogers, 2003, p. 169).
Timeline: January – June 2014: Pilot program. Reflection and discuss will confirm or deny the choice to fully implement the MHS iPad program. September 2014 – June 2015: Full implementation of the iPad program at MHS. Reflection and discussion to revise and/or confirm practices to create the most effective program possible. June 2015: Final evaluation of the fully implemented program at MHS. Adoption of iPads will be either confirmed or denied. August 2015: If iPad program confirmed, then year two of
S-Curve for Adoption of iPad
Diffusion is the process by which an innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among the members of a social system (Rogers, 2003, p. 11).
The S-curve is innovation-specific and describes the diffusion of an innovation through the specific members of a specific social system (p. 275).
The S-shaped curve describes only cases of successful innovation in which adoption occurs among
The Diffusion Process S-Curve
Source: Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusion of innovations (5th ed.). New York, NY: Free
How has the iPad diffused among potential adopters?
Adopter Categorization on the Basis of Innovation for the iPad
Innovators: A few teachers and students
Earler Adopters: iPad Pilot Program students and teachers Early Majority: Engineering and Design students (9-11) Late Majority: Most students and teachers Laggards: Older teachers, low performing students
iPad adoption on the S-Curve
At MHS, we are currently in the early adopter phase. Most students and teachers do not use the iPad or similar device at all. We have some early adopter students and teachers who have been a part of an iPad pilot program since August 2012. In January 2013 we received enough iPads through a grant to give all 100 of our Engineering and Design Academy 9th graders iPads. They will give them back when they graduate in 2016. Next year, all 9th – 11th grade Engineering and Design students will be given iPads to use in and out of school. This will include approximately 270 students – 10% of our school population. This group will be members of our early majority adopters on the S-Curve.
Key Change Agents
The key change agents will be the 9th – 11th grade Engineering and Design Academy students and teachers who will be using iPads in all of their classes. This group is part of a specially funded program that is intended to inspire innovative instructional practices.
This group is comprised of students and teachers who are representative of all of the students at MHS.
Seven Roles of the Change Agents
S To develop a need for change
S To establish an information exchange relationship
S To diagnose problems S To create an intent to change in the client S To translate an intent into action S To stabilize adoption and prevent discontinuance S To achieve a terminal relationship
Rogers, 2003, pp. 369-370
To develop a need for change…
The pilot group of Engineering and Design Academy students will be given the change to “play around” with their iPads and use them creatively to suggest new ways to use them inside and outside the classrooms. These students were selected to be a part of this change agent group because they are technically savvy, enjoy using computers, and are excited to show how iPads can be used effectively in school.
To establish an information exchange relationship…
The pilot students have already started to work with the MHS teachers during professional development time to show how they use their iPads in school. They are sharing their experiences with others and have inspired many other students and teachers to bring in their own iPads to use at school. In response to this sharing of information, MHS has installed a school-wide Wi-Fi system so that everyone can connect.
To diagnose problems…
This pilot group of teachers and students who are acting as change agents at MHS are trying out the iPads and are confronting many obstacles. These challenges are being documented, and the solutions are being shared with others. With a small group of iPad users, the bugs are being identified and extinguished. This will make the larger iPad implementation much easier.
To create an intent to change in the client…
The change agents will demonstrate the benefits and advantages of using iPads as integral parts of an educational experience at MHS. These students and teachers will serve as models for a better educational environment and show how
To translate an intent into action…
Change agents will motivate others to adopt the innovation!
To stabilize adoption and prevent discontinuance…
Change agent students and teachers will be given support, professional development, and resources to learn how to effectively use their iPads at school. This help create a group of adopters who are comfortable using this innovation and accustomed to using it
To achieve a terminal relationship…
The end goal is to develop self-renewing behavior on the part of the clients. The change agents seeks to move the clients from a position of reliance on the the change agent to one of self-reliance (Rogers, 2003, p. 370).
Who will be the laggards?
The laggards at MHS will most likely be:
- Teachers over the age
- Low performing
- Students with discipline
How do we get the laggards to adopt the innovation?
S Provide increased support and training
(inside and outside the classroom)
S Give them time to adopt – it doesn’t
have to happen overnight!
S Provide mentors who will assist with any
challenges or problems
S Provide some sort of incentive to adopt -
such as recognition, an iTunes gift card, or an invitation to a special event.
Perceived attributes that will help iPad use at MHS meet critical mass…
S Relative Advantage S Compatibility
S Triability S Observability
In order for iPad use to reach a critical mass at MHS, the students and teachers must believe that its use is better than what we have right now. It must improve academic achievement, provide easier access to information and resources, and provide a way for students and teachers to organize and share their work.
Students and teachers must believe that the iPad is relatively easy to use and understand in order to reach critical mass.
Students and teachers must feel like they are able to try out the iPad before making a commitment to adopt it. This will help making them feel comfortable to experiment with it, make mistakes, and seek help and support.
A decentralized approach…
S Wide sharing of power and control
S Peer diffusion of innovations through horizontal networks
S Experimentation by non-experts S Local units decide diffusion of innovation S Problem-centered approach S High degree of local adaptation
Rogers, 2003, p. 396
A decentralized approach gives students and teachers the flexibility to decide how they want to use their iPads inside and outside of school. The capabilities of the iPad are constantly changing, and a decentralized approach allows for tinkering and triability of different apps and tools to meet the needs of an everchanging technical world. A decentralized approach also gives different groups at school the ability to use their iPads in a way that best meets their needs. A one-size-fits-all approach to iPad use is not practical or
We are about to reach a critical mass of iPad users at MHS!
S Highly-respected students and teachers at MHS have
already started using iPads as integral parts of their educational experience.
S iPads will be used with all 9th-11th grade Engineering and
Design Academy students next school year. This intact group is likely to be more innovative than other groups, thus creating an environment that will influence others to use the iPad and reach critical mass.
S Incentive for early adopters is that they get to keep their
iPad until they graduate! This is a condition to inspire
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