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What is is Psychology? Psychology?

What
Derived from two Greek terms psyche, or soul, and logos, or discourse Literally a study of the soul At first, soul has a religious implication A form of motion, an inner flame, and function of bodily processes
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The word "psychology" is the combination of two terms. Psyche: Mind Logos: Knowledge or study Definition: The scientific study of behavior and mental processes.

Nature of Psychology
It possesses a well- organized theory which is supported by the relevant psychological laws and principles. It has its applied aspects in the form of various branches of applied psychology like industrial, legal, clinical and educational psychology. Subjective ideas and opinions are not considered significant in the study of behaviour in psychology. It emphasizes the search for truth by advocating objectivity, reliability and validity in the assessment of behaviour. The methods and techniques employed in the study of behavior in psychology are quite scientific. Steps like the analysis of behaviour, formulation of hypotheses, objective observations or controlled experimentation, deduction, verification and generalization of the results etc. provide the solid base for the scientific method and approach in psychology

Nature of Psychology
It believes that every behaviour has its roots, and factors causing, influencing or nurturing it. The result or the study of behaviour are always open to verification under similar conditions by other experimenters and observers. These results may be accepted, modified or altered in the light of the latest data and findings The established facts, principles and laws of behaviour in Psychology enjoy universal applicability in practical life, in other bodies of knowledge and future researches in its own sphere. An appropriate description and qualification of behaviour is possible through psychology. We make dependable predictions about the organism in the light of its studied behaviour.

Objectives of Psychology

The objectives of psychology are:


1. To understand human behavior; 2. To predict human behavior by means of observation and experiment; 3. To influence or alter the behavior of the individual or group in desirable ways so that the designed goal can be achieved.
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Branches of Psychology
General Psychology explains the underlying principles of human behavior study of how and why people behave this way or that way Structural and functional mechanisms of the human body

Branches of Psychology
Comparative Psychology treats on the behavior and mental processes of the different species also known as animal psychology Activities of both man and animal are compared and differentiated, particularly in relation to genetic and evolutionary theories

Branches of Psychology
Developmental Psychology concerns itself with the study of human behavior in all its aspects of growth and development Also known as Genetic Psychology Involves the development of an individual in terms of stages
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Branches of Psychology
Stages of Human Development:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
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Prenatal Neonatal Infancy Childhood Adolescence Adulthood Senescence old age

Branches of Psychology
Child Psychology scientific study of human behavior from its post-natal beginnings up to early adolescence Deals with the stages of growth and maturation Effects of environmental influences upon individual patterns of development Psychological and social interactions between child and the society into which he is borne and reared

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Branches of Psychology
Adolescent Psychology study of human behavior from puberty to later life, approx. 12-20 y/o Involves the physical and mental maturation of an individual, as well as the attainment of emotional and social maturity

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Branches of Psychology

Senescent Psychology
Scientific study of human behavior in old age

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Branches of Psychology
Consumer Psychology concerned with the investigation of the varied facets of marketing and buying behavior Effects of advertising Studies of mass media Other problems arising from the relationship between buyer and seller
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Branches of Psychology
Abnormal Psychology scientific study of human and the etiology or cause of personal defects, or humans behavior which deviates from the average reaction, hence abnormal

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Branches of Psychology
Personality Psychology scientific interpretation of mental phenomena Emphasizes internal drives and motives as the cause of behavior Also referred to as Dynamic psychology Non-deviant individual case

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Branches of Psychology
Psychiatry psychology applied in medicine Concerned with the treatment of mental diseases
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Branches of Psychology
Business Psychology study of the principles of psychology as applied to business Deals particularly with the behavior of consumers Methods are employed to gain more customers and impress prospective buyers

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Branches of Psychology
Social Psychology study of the behavior of groups of individuals in their relationship to other groups Cognitive Psychology concerned with the mental processes involved in acquiring and using knowledge; artificial intelligence

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Branches of Psychology
Forensic Psychology application of the principles of human behavior to law, or any legal proceedings Relatively new but fast growing Also consulted for rehabilitation of convicted criminals Also known as Legal Psychology

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Branches of Psychology
Community Psychology promotion of health at the community level Prevention and treatment of psychological problems through evaluation and improvement of community organizations

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Areas of Specialization in Psychology


Clinical Psychology largest area of specialization Treatment and diagnosis of emotional and behavioral disorders Practitioners are not medical doctors Employed by probation offices, prisons, and institutions of the mentally retarded and physically handicapped

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Industrial and Organizational Psychology


Also known as: IO psychology, industrialorganizational psychology, industrial psychology, work psychology, organizational psychology, personnel psychology
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I/O P.is the scientific study of employees, workplaces, and organizations. Industrialorganizational psychologists contribute to an organization's success by improving the performance and well-being of its people. An IO psychologist researches and identifies how behaviours and attitudes can be improved through hiring practices, training programs, and feedback systems. IO psychology can also be viewed as the equivalent of the economics concept of human capital
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What is HRM? Human Resource Management (HRM) is the management function that deals with the following aspects of an organization, with regards to company employees: Recruitment Placement Promotion Training and Development Change Management Employee Retention

Personnel recruitment

Personnel recruitment is the process of identifying qualified candidates in the workforce and getting them to apply for jobs within an organization. Personnel recruitment processes include developing job announcements, placing ads, defining key qualifications for applicants, and screening out unqualified applicants.

Orientation and Placement- Once screening takes place, the appointed candidates are made familiar to the work units and work environment through the orientation programmes. placement takes place by putting right man on the right job.

Training and Development- Training is a part of incentives given to the workers in order to develop and grow them within the concern. Training is generally given according to the nature of activities and scope of expansion in it. Along with it, the workers are developed by providing them extra benefits of indepth knowledge of their functional areas. Development also includes giving them key and important jobsas a test or examination in order to analyse their performances

Promotion and transfer- Promotion is said to be a non- monetary incentive in which the worker is shifted from a higher job demanding bigger responsibilities as well as shifting the workers and transferring them to different work units and branches of the same organization.
What is Employee Retention ? Employee retention refers to the various policies and practices which let the employees stick to an organization for a longer period of time Change management is a systematic approach to dealing with change, both from the perspective of an organization and on the individual level. A somewhat ambiguous term, change management has at least three different aspects, including: adapting to change, controlling change, and effecting change. A proactive approach to dealing with change is at the core of all three aspects. For an organization, change management means defining and implementing procedures and/or technologies to deal with changes in the business environment and to profit from changing opportunities.