STEPPER MOTOR

Presented by: 1) Supriya Rakshit 2) Monika Soni

Contents
1. Introduction 2. Comparison Between Servo & Stepper Motor 3. Types Of Stepper Motor
a. Variable Reluctance Stepper Motor b. Permanent Magnet Stepper Motor c. Hybrid Stepper Motor

4. Applications 5. Advantages & Disadvantages 6. Simulation in Matlab

1. Introduction • A stepper motor is a “pulse-driven” motor that changes the angular position of the rotor in “steps”. Rotor Stator Outside Casing Coils 1 Stator Rotor N 2 2 S 1 Internal components of a Stepper Motor .

• A stepper (or. stepping) motor is an electromechanical device which converts electrical pulses into discrete mechanical movements. . • Stepper motors work on the principle of electromagnetism. There is a soft iron or magnetic rotor shaft surrounded by the electromagnetic stators. This way the stators are energized in a sequence to rotate the stepper motor. When the stators are energized the rotor moves to align itself along with the stator (in case of a permanent magnet type stepper) or moves to have a minimum gap with the stator (in case of a variable reluctance stepper).Cont…. The rotor and stator have poles which may be teethed or not depending upon the type of stepper.

2. • Stepping motors can be used in simple open-loop control systems. these are generally adequate for systems that operate at low accelerations with static loads. • For high accelerations with variable loads. Servo motors require some form of analog feedback whereas stepper motors are often open loop. all rotor information is lost. • However. but closed loop control may be essential for high accelerations. Compare With a Servo • Stepper motors are similar to servo motors as we can perform position control with both. and we require closed loop for accurate control • Servo motors are not subject to this problem .

3. Types Of Servo Motor PERMENANT MAGNET MOTOR VARIABLE RELUCTANCE MOTOR STEPPER MOTOR HYBRID MOTOR .

Cont…. relatively high torque • Variable Reluctance – Does not have permanent magnet – Low torque • Hybrid – multi-toothed stator poles and a permanent magnet rotor – High static and dynamic torque . • Permanent Magnet – Employ permanent magnet – Low speed.

Canstack rotor that is used in permanent magnet stepper motors. .PERMANENT MAGNET MOTOR Cutaway diagram of a typical permanent magnet stepper motor.

Cont…. it develops electromagnetic poles. This way energizing the stators in a fixed sequence rotates the stepper motor by fixed angles. The magnetic rotor aligns along the magnetic field of the stator. The other stator is then energized in the sequence so that the rotor moves and aligns itself to the new magnetic field. • When a stator is energized. • The resolution of a permanent magnet stepper can be increased by increasing number of poles in the rotor or increasing the number of phases. . • The rotor and stator poles of a permanent magnet stepper are not teethed. Instead the rotor have alternative north and south poles parallel to the axis of the rotor shaft.

When the stator coil is energized the rotor moves to have a minimum gap between the stator and its teeth. .VARIABLE RELUCTANCE STEPPER MOTORS • The variable reluctance stepper has a toothed non-magnetic soft iron rotor.

Cont…. This way energizing stators in a fixed sequence completes the rotation of the step motor. Now when the next stator is energized. • The resolution of a variable reluctance stepper can be increased by increasing the number of teeth in the rotor and by increasing the number of phases. • The teeth of the rotor are designed so that when they are aligned with one stator they get misaligned with the next stator. . the rotor moves to align its teeth with the next stator..

HYBRID MOTOR • A hybrid stepper is a combination of both permanent magnet and the variable reluctance. . It has a magnetic teethed rotor which better guides magnetic flux to preferred location in the air gap.

One for north poles and second for the south poles. • The magnetic rotor has two cups.Cont…. . Check out the insight of a Hybrid Stepper Motor. The rotor cups are designed so that that the north and south poles arrange in alternative manner. • The Hybrid motor rotates on same principle of energizing the stator coils in a sequence.

APPLICATIONS • Stepper motors are also used for cruise control. military antenna positioners. automated sensing devices .4.

. multi-axis stepper motor microscopic or nanoscopic motion control of automated devices.Cont…. respirators. • 1.Step motors are used inside medical scanners. • 2. and chromatograph auto-injectors. dispensing pumps.samplers. fluid pumps. Also found inside digital dental photography. and blood analysis machinery.

. scanners.Cont…. bar-code printers. data storage tape drives.. • Stepper motors in cameras for automatic digital camera focus and zoom functions. • Stepper motors are incorporated inside PC based scanning equipment. printers. optical disk drive head driving mechanism.

• Very reliable since there are no contact brushes in the motor. Therefore the life of the step motor is simply dependent on the life of the bearing. STEPPER MOTOR ADVANTAGEC • The rotation angle of the motor is proportional to the input pulse. . • Precise positioning and repeatability of movement since good stepper motors have an accuracy of 3 to 5% of a step and this error is non-cumulative from one step to the next. • The motor has full torque at standstill (if the windings are energized). • Excellent response to starting/stopping/reversing.5.

• It is possible to achieve very low speed synchronous rotation with a load that is directly coupled to the shaft.Cont…. • The stepper motors response to digital input pulses provides open-loop control. • A wide range of rotational speeds can be realized as the speed is proportional to the frequency of the input pulses. making the motor simpler and less costly to control.. .

C. motors • High torque output achieved at low speeds . STEPPER MOTOR disadvantage • Require a dedicated control circuit • Use more current than D.5.

6. SIMULATION cIRCUIT .

Output Waveforms Phase Current of A .

Cont…. Phase Voltage .

Cont…. Torque .

Cont…. Angular Speed .

Cont…. Angular Position .

Thank You .

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