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LEADERSHIP THEORIES

INTRODUCTION :a. Definition :-Leadership


defined as the ability to influence a person or a group towards the achievement of goals

b. Qualities :- i) Competent
ii) Humility iii) Openness iv) Creativity v) Inspiring

Personality theories :1. Great man theory of leadership


2. Trait theory of leadership

1. Great man theory of leadership :a. This theory introduced by Thomas Carlyle in 1840 b. Assumption of this theory is Leader are born and not made c. Example:- Shivaji Maharaj

2. Trait theory of leadership :a. This theory introduced by Gordon Allport in 1936 b. Assumption of this theory is "Leader need not always be born, but can be made also

c. Some of the qualities :i. ii. iii. iv. Intelligence Ambition and energy Personality knowledge

Behavioral theory :a. Assumption1 of this theory is leader are not completely in born, but also can be acquired from learning and experience b. Assumption2 of this theory is Specific behavior differentiates leaders from non leader c. This theory conduct two research 1. Ohio Studies at Ohio state University, USA 2. Michigan Studies at University of Michigan during 1945-47

OHIO STUDIES:LEADERSHIP
HIGH HIGH CONSIDERATION AND LOW STRUCTURE HIGH CONSIDERATION AND HIGH STRUCTURE

CONSIDERATION (RELATIONSHIP BEHAVIOUR)

LOW CONSIDERATION AND LOW STRUCTURE

LOW CONSIDERATION AND HIGH STRUCTURE

INITIATING STRUCTURE (TASK BEHAVIOUR) LOW HIGH

UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN STUDIES :-

Employee Oriented Job Oriented

Rensis Likert

LIKERTS MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS :His systems are :System 1 Exploitative Authoritative System 2 Benevolent Authoritative System 3 Consultative Authoritative System 4 Participative - Democratic

THE MANAGERIAL GRID THEORY :-

Robert Blake

Jane Mouton

THE MANAGERIAL GRID THEORY :9 8 7 6 5 CONCERN FOR THE 4 PEOPLE 3 2 1


HIGH 1.9 (country club) 9.9 (TEAM)

5.5 (MIDDLE OF THE ROAD)

1.1 (IMPROVERISHED)

9.1 (TASK)

1
LOW

9
HIGH

CONCERN FOR PRODUCTION

SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP :Situational Factors :a. Force in the leader

b. Force in group
c. Other situational force d. Leadership continuum

HERSEY AND BLANCHARDS SITUATIONAL THEORY :(HIGH) PARTICIPATION SELLING

RELATIONSHIP BEHAVIOUR

TELLING

DELEGATION

(LOW) (LOW) TASK BEHAVIOUR (HIGH)

PATH GOAL THEORY :a. The path goal theory originally developed by Martin Evans in the year 1970. b. The path goal theory founded on the belief that it is the Leaders job to assist followers in attaining their goals and to provide necessary direction or support to ensure that their goals are compatible with the overall objective the group or organization.

Path-Goal Theory :-

Leadership Behaviors :a. Directive leadership :- leader gives instructions, expectations, time lines, rewards norms, clarify the rules and regulation as applicable and monitor their performance b. Supportive Leadership :- leader is friendly and approachable, attends to the well being of subordinates, and treats everyone as equals c. Participative Leadership :- leader invites subordinates to give ideas, share opinions and integrates their suggestions into the decision making process d. Achievement-Oriented Leadership :- leader challenges subordinates to perform at the highest level possible. Leader has high standards of excellence and seeks continuous improvement.

How Does Path-Goal Theory Work?


a.

b.

c.

The leaders job is to help subordinates reach their goals by directing, guiding, and coaching them along the way Leaders must evaluate task and subordinate characteristics and adapt leadership style to these The theory suggests which style is most appropriate for specific characteristics

Transformational Leadership :a. Transformational theory developed by James MacGregor Burns(1978)


b. According to Burns, transforming leadership is a process in which "leaders and followers help each other to advance to a higher level of morale and motivation".

ADDITIVE EFFECT OF TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP

TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP FACTORS THE FOUR IS :a. Idealized Influence - describes leaders who act as strong role models for followers. Followers identify with these leaders and want very much to emulate them. b. Inspirational Motivation - leaders who communicate high expectations to followers and inspire them through motivation to become committed to and a part of the shared vision. c. Intellectual Stimulation - leadership that stimulates followers to be creative and innovative and to challenge their own beliefs and values as well as those of the leader. d. Individual consideration - leaders who provide a supportive climate in which they listen carefully to the individual needs of the followers.

Transformational Theory :TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADER HAVE THE FOLLOWING BEHAVIOR :-

Model of integrity and fairness


Known for setting clear goals Have high expectation Encourage the followers Provide support and recognize the followers Stir the emotions of the people

Get people to look beyond their self-interest

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