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# 10.

## PIPINGS/VALVES and PRESSURE VESSELS

Piping Standard

Schedule number Pipes were originally classified on the basis of wall thickness as standard (extra strong, and double extra strong). Because of modern industrial demands for more exact spec, pipes are now specified according to wall thickness by a standard formula for schedule number designated by the American Standards Association. Schedule number is defined by ASS as: = 1000 Ps/Ss where Ps = safe working pressure Ss = safe working fiber stress

Piping Standard
Schedule number Ten schedule numbers are in use at present. These are 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160 For pipe diameters up to 10 in, schedule 40 corresponds to the former standard pipe and schedule 80 corresponds to the former extra strong pipe.

Piping Standard
Schedule number How they came up with the formula? Bursting pressure of a thin walled cylinder may be estimated from the following equation: Pb = 2STtm/Dm where: Pb = bursting pressure ST = tensile strength tm = minimum wall thickeness Dm = mean diameter

Piping Standard
Schedule number A safe working pressure Ps can be evaluated from equation if the tensile strength is replaced by a safe working fiber stress Ss

Ps = 2Sstm/Dm

Piping Standard

Nominal pipe diameter Pipe sizes are based on the approximate diameter and are reported as nominal pipe sizes. Although the wall thickness varies depending on the schedule number, the outside diameter of any pipe having a given nominal size is constant and independent of the schedule number. This permits the use of standard fittings and treading tools on pipes of different schedule numbers

Piping Standard

Tubing Copper tubing, brass tubing are used extensively in industrial operations. Other metals, such as nicklel and stainless steel, are also available in the form of tubing. Although pipe specifications are based on standard nominal sizes, tubing specs are based on the actual outside diameter with a designated wall thickness. Conventional system, such as the Birmingham wire gauge (BWG) are used to indicate the wall thickness.

Piping Standard

Fitting and other piping auxiliaries Fittings, flanges, valves, flow meters, steam traps and many other auxiliaries are often rated on the basis of the safe operating pressure as: 25 psi low pressure 125 psi - standard 250 psi extra heavy 300 to 10,000 - hydraulic

## Piping: Code and Standards

The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and the American Petroleum Institute (API) have established dimensional standards for most widely used piping components ANSI B31 - List of those standards can be found in the ANSI B31 code section - Section also lists specifications for pipe and fitting materials and testing methods of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) - American Welding Society (AWS) specification - Standard of the manufacturers Standardization Society of the Valve and Fitting Industry (MSS)

## Piping: Code and Standards

The design of piping system applied to this project is listed as ASME B31.3 ASME stands for American Society of Mechanical Engineer ASME 31.3 is actually a section of ANSI B31 ASME (ANSI) 31.3 is a Standard Number and designation is Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refinery Piping ASME (ANSI) 31.1 scope and application: - For all piping within the property limits of the facilities engaged in the processing or handling of chemical, petroleum or related product unless specifically excluded by the code Information on latest issue can be obtain for ASME. 345 East 47th st. New York NY 10017