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Electromagnetism

Christopher R Prior

ASTeC Intense Beams Group
Rutherford Appleton Laboratory
Fellow and Tutor in Mathematics
Trinity College, Oxford
2
Contents
• Review of Maxwell’s equations and Lorentz Force Law
• Motion of a charged particle under constant Electromagnetic
fields
• Relativistic transformations of fields
• Electromagnetic energy conservation
• Electromagnetic waves
– Waves in vacuo
– Waves in conducting medium
• Waves in a uniform conducting guide
– Simple example TE
01
mode
– Propagation constant, cut-off frequency
– Group velocity, phase velocity
– Illustrations
3
Reading
• J.D. Jackson: Classical Electrodynamics
• H.D. Young and R.A. Freedman: University Physics
(with Modern Physics)
• P.C. Clemmow: Electromagnetic Theory
• Feynmann Lectures on Physics
• W.K.H. Panofsky and M.N. Phillips: Classical
Electricity and Magnetism
• G.L. Pollack and D.R. Stump: Electromagnetism
4
Basic Equations from Vector
Calculus
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
÷
c
c
c
c
÷
c
c
c
c
÷
c
c
= . V
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= · V
=
y
F
x
F
x
F
z
F
z
F
y
F
F
z
F
y
F
x
F
F
F F F F
1 2 3 1 2 3
3 2 1
3 2 1
, , : curl
: divergence
, , , vector a For



( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
c
c
c
c
= V
z
φ
y
φ
x
φ
φ
x,y,z,t φ
, , : gradient
, function scalar a For
Gradient is normal to surfaces
¢=constant
5
Basic Vector Calculus
F F F
F
G F F G G F
  

     
2
) ( ) (
0 , 0
) (
V ÷ · V V = . V . V
= . V · V = V . V
. V · ÷ . V · = . · V
¢
}} }
· = · . V
S C
r d F S d F

  
dS n S d


=
Oriented
boundary C
n

Stokes’ Theorem Divergence or Gauss’
Theorem
}} }}}
· = · V
S V
S d F dV F
  
Closed surface S, volume V,
outward pointing normal
What is Electromagnetism?
• The study of Maxwell’s equations, devised in 1863 to
represent the relationships between electric and magnetic
fields in the presence of electric charges and currents,
whether steady or rapidly fluctuating, in a vacuum or in
matter.

• The equations represent one of the most elegant and
concise way to describe the fundamentals of electricity and
magnetism. They pull together in a consistent way earlier
results known from the work of Gauss, Faraday, Ampère,
Biot, Savart and others.

• Remarkably, Maxwell’s equations are perfectly consistent
with the transformations of special relativity.
Maxwell’s Equations
Relate Electric and Magnetic fields generated by
charge and current distributions.
t
D
j H
t
B
E
B
D
c
c
+ = . V
c
c
÷ = . V
= · V
= · V







0
µ
1 , , In vacuum
2
0 0 0 0
= = = c H B E D µ c µ c
   
E = electric field
D = electric displacement
H = magnetic field
B = magnetic flux density
µ= charge density
j = current density
µ
0
(permeability of free space) = 4t 10
-7

c
0
(permittivity of free space) = 8.854 10
-12

c (speed of light) = 2.99792458 10
8
m/s
8
Equivalent to Gauss’ Flux Theorem:


The flux of electric field out of a closed region is proportional to
the total electric charge Q enclosed within the surface.
A point charge q generates an electric field





Maxwell’s 1
st
Equation
0 0 0
1
c
µ
c c
µ Q
dV S d E dV E E
V S V
= = · = · V · = · V
}}} }} }}}
   
0
2
0
3
0
4
4
c tc
tc
q
r
dS q
S d E
r
r
q
E
sphere sphere
= = ·
=
}} }}
 


0
c
µ
= · V E

Area integral gives a measure of the net charge
enclosed; divergence of the electric field gives the density
of the sources.
Gauss’ law for magnetism:


The net magnetic flux out of any closed
surface is zero. Surround a magnetic
dipole with a closed surface. The magnetic
flux directed inward towards the south pole
will equal the flux outward from the north
pole.
If there were a magnetic monopole source,
this would give a non-zero integral.
Maxwell’s 2
nd
Equation
0 = · V B

}}
= · · = · V 0 0 S d B B
  
Gauss’ law for magnetism is then a statement that
There are no magnetic monopoles
Equivalent to Faraday’s Law of Induction:





(for a fixed circuit C)
The electromotive force round a
circuit is proportional to the rate of
change of flux of magnetic
field, through the circuit.
Maxwell’s 3
rd
Equation
t
B
E
c
c
÷ = . V


dt
d
S d B
dt
d
l d E
S d
t
B
S d E
C S
S S
u
÷ = · ÷ = · ·
·
c
c
÷ = · . V
} }}
}} }}
  


 
}
· = l d E
 
c
N S
Faraday’s Law is the basis for electric
generators. It also forms the basis for
inductors and transformers.
}}
· = u S d B
 
Maxwell’s 4
th
Equation
t
E
c
j B
c
c
+ = . V



2
0
1
µ
Originates from Ampère’s (Circuital) Law :



Satisfied by the field for a steady line current (Biot-Savart Law,
1820):
I S d j S d B l d B
C S S
} }} }}
= · = · . V = ·
0 0
µ µ


   
r
I
B
r
r l d I
B
t
µ
t
µ
u
2
4
0
3
0
=
.
=
}
current line straight a For



j B


0
µ = . V
Ampère
Biot
12
Need for Displacement
Current
• Faraday: vary B-field, generate E-field
• Maxwell: varying E-field should then produce a B-field, but not covered by
Ampère’s Law.
Surface 1
Surface 2
Closed loop
Current I
 Apply Ampère to surface 1 (flat disk): line integral
of B = µ
0
I
 Applied to surface 2, line integral is zero since no
current penetrates the deformed surface.
 In capacitor, , so

 Displacement current density is

t
E
j
d
c
c
=


0
c
dt
dE
A
dt
dQ
I
0
c = =
A ε
Q
E
0
=
( )
t
E
j j j B
d
c
c
+ = + = . V

  

0 0 0 0
c µ µ µ
13
Consistency with
Charge Conservation
Charge conservation:
Total current flowing out of a region
equals the rate of decrease of charge
within the volume.

From Maxwell’s equations:
Take divergence of (modified) Ampère’s
equation

0 =
c
c
+ · V ·
c
c
÷ = · V ·
÷ = ·
}}} }}}
}}} }}
t
j
dV
t
dV j
dV
dt
d
S d j
µ
µ
µ




( )
t
j
t
j
E
t c
j B
c
c
+ · V = ¬
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+ · V = ¬
· V
c
c
+ · V = . V · V
µ
c
µ
µ c µ
µ


 
0
0
1
0
0 0 0
2
0
Charge conservation is implicit in Maxwell’s Equations
14
Maxwell’s
Equations in Vacuum
In vacuum


Source-free equations:



Source equations

Equivalent integral forms (useful
for simple geometries)
2
0 0 0 0
1
, ,
c
H B E D = = = µ c µ c
   
0
0
=
c
c
+ . V
= · V
t
B
E
B



j
t
E
c
B
E




0
2
0
1
µ
c
µ
=
c
c
÷ . V
= · V
}} }} }
}} }
}}
}} }}}
· + · = ·
u
÷ = · ÷ = ·
= ·
= ·
S d E
dt
d
c
S d j l d B
dt
d
S d B
dt
d
l d E
S d B
dV S d E
   
 
   
 
 
2
0
0
1
0
1
µ
µ
c
Example: Calculate E from B
¹
´
¦
>
<
=
0
0 0
0
sin
r r
r r t B
B
z
e
}} }
· ÷ = · dS B
dt
d
l d E
  
t r B E
t B r t B r
dt
d
rE r r
e e
e e t e t t
u
u
cos
2
1
cos sin 2
0
0
2
0
2
0
÷ = ¬
÷ = ÷ = <
t
r
B r
E
t B r t B r
dt
d
rE r r
e
e
e e t e t t
u
u
cos
2
cos sin 2
0
2
0
0
2
0 0
2
0 0
÷ = ¬
÷ = ÷ = >
Also from
t
B
E
c
c
÷ = . V


dt
E
c
j B

 
c
+ = . V
2
0
1
µ
then gives current density necessary
to sustain the fields
r
z
16
Lorentz Force Law
• Supplement to Maxwell’s equations, gives force on a charged
particle moving in an electromagnetic field:

• For continuous distributions, have a force density

• Relativistic equation of motion

– 4-vector form:

– 3-vector component:
( ) B v E q f


 
. + =
B j E f
d
   
. + = µ
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
·
¬ =
dt
p d
dt
dE
c
f
c
f v
d
dP
F




,
1
, ¸ ¸
t
( ) ( ) B v E q f v m
dt
d


 

. + = = ¸
0
17
Motion of charged particles in constant
magnetic fields
1. Dot product with v:





( )
( ) ( ) ( )
constant is constant is 0 So
1 But
0
2 2
2
0
v
dt
d
dt
d
v
dt
d
v c v γ
B v v
m
q
v
dt
d
v

  

   
¬ ¬ =
= · ¬ ÷ =
= . · = ·
¸
¸
¸
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
¸
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) B v q v m
dt
d
B v E q f v m
dt
d

 


 

. = ÷ . + = = ¸ ¸
0 0
No acceleration
with a magnetic
field
( )
( ) constant , 0
0
//
0
= = · ¬
= . · = ·
v v B
dt
d
B v B
m
q
v
dt
d
B







¸
2. Dot product with B:

constant also
constant and constant
//
±
¬ v
v v
 
Motion in constant magnetic field
( ) ¸
µ
¸
¸ µ
¸
0
0
0
2
0
frequency angular at
radius with motion circular
m m
m
qB v
ω
qB
v m
ρ
B v
m
q v
B v
m
q
dt
v d
= = =
= ¬
= ¬
. =
±
±
±
±



Constant magnetic field gives
uniform spiral about B with
constant energy.
rigidity Magnetic
0
q
p
q
v m
B = =
¸
µ
19
Motion in constant Electric Field
Solution of
( ) E
m
q
v
dt
d


0
= ¸
Constant E-field gives uniform acceleration in straight line
( ) ( ) ( ) E q v m
dt
d
B v E q f v m
dt
d




 

= ÷ . + = = ¸ ¸
0 0
2
0
2
2
0
1 1
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ = ¬
|
.
|

\
|
+ = ¬ = t
m
qE
c
v
t
m
qE
v ¸
¸
¸ ¸ is
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ = ¬ = 1 1
2
0
2
0
c m
qEt
qE
c m
x
v
dt
dx
¸
¸
c m qE t
m
qE
0
2
0
for
2
1
<< ~
qEx Energy gain is
• According to observer O in frame F, particle has velocity v, fields are E and
B and Lorentz force is

• In Frame F', particle is at rest and force is
• Assume measurements give same charge and force, so


• Point charge q at rest in F:

• See a current in F', giving a field

• Suggests
Relativistic Transformations of E and B
( ) B v E q f


 
. + =
E q f
' '
=
'
 
B v E E q q



. + =
' '
= and
0 ,
4
3
0
= = B
r
r q
E



tc
E v
c r
r v q
B


 

. ÷ =
.
÷ = '
2 3
0
1
4t
µ
E v
c
B B


 
. ÷ =
'
2
1
( )
// //
2
// //
,
,
B B
c
E v
B B
E E B v E E
 



  


=
'
|
|
.
|

\
|
.
÷ =
'
=
'
. + =
'
± ±
± ±
¸
¸
Exact:
21
Potentials
• Magnetic vector potential:

• Electric scalar potential:




• Lorentz Gauge:
A B A B
   
. V = - · = · V that such 0
0
1
2
= · V +
c
c
A
t c

|
_ | | V + ÷ + ÷ A A f(t)
 
,
( )
t
A
E
t
A
E
t
A
E
t
A
A
t t
B
E
c
c
÷ ÷V = ÷V =
c
c
+ - ·
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+ . V ·
c
c
. ÷V = . V
c
c
÷ =
c
c
÷ = . V




 



| | | so , with
0
Use freedom to set
22
Electromagnetic 4-Vectors
Α ,
1
,
1
0
1
4
2
· V =
|
.
|

\
|
·
|
.
|

\
|
÷V
c
c
= = · V +
c
c
A
c t c
A
t c
 
|
|
Lorentz
Gauge
4-gradient V
4

4-potential A
Current
4-vector
¸ µ µ µ ¸ µ µ
µ
0 0 0
where ) , ( ) , ( = = = = ¬
=
j c v c V J
v j




Continuity
equation
( ) 0 , ,
1
4
= · V +
c
c
= ·
|
.
|

\
|
÷V
c
c
= · V j
t
j c
t c
J
 
µ
µ
Charge-current
transformations
( )
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
'
÷ =
'
2
,
c
j v
v j j
x
x x
µ ¸ µ µ ¸
23
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
=
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

z
y
x
z
y
x
A
A
A
c
c
v
c
v
A
A
A
c
|
¸
¸
¸
¸
|
1 0 0 0
0 1 0 0
0 0
0 0
'
'
'
'
Relativistic Transformations
• 4-potential vector:

• Lorentz transformation




• Fields:
|
.
|

\
|
= A
c
A

,
1
|
( ) B v E E E E
c
E v
B B B B


   


   
. + =
'
=
'
|
|
.
|

\
|
.
÷ =
'
=
'
± ± ± ±
¸ ¸
// //
2
// //
( ) vt x x y y
y
A
x
A
B A B
x
y
z
÷ = = '
' c
' c
÷
' c
' c
= ' ¬ ' . V' = ' ¸ ' , and
 
|
.
|

\
|
÷ = ' = '
' c
' c
÷
' c
' c
÷ = ' ¬
' c
' c
÷ ' V' ÷ = '
2
, and
c
vx
t t z z
t
A
z
E
t
A
E
z
z
¸
|
|


Example: Electromagnetic Field of a Single
Particle
• Charged particle moving along x-axis of Frame F



• P has

• In F', fields are only electrostatic (B=0), given by
t
c
vx
t t t v b r x b vt x
p
p P
¸ ¸ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ = + = = ' ÷ =
2
2 2 2
' , ' ' so ), , 0 , ' ( '
 
Origins coincide
at t=t'=0
Observer P
z
b
charge q x
Frame F
v
Frame F’
z’
x’
3 3 3
'
' , 0 ' ,
'
'
' '
'
'
r
qb
E E
r
qvt
E x
r
q
E
z y x P
= = ÷ = ¬ =


t v x t v x x
P P P
' ÷ = ' ' + ' = = so ) ( 0 ¸
Transform to laboratory frame F:








( )
( )
2
3
2 2 2 2
2
3
2 2 2 2
'
0
'
t v b
b q
E E
E
t v b
vt q
E E
z z
y
x x
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
+
= =
=
+
÷ = =
0
'
2
= =
÷ = ÷ =
z x
z z y
B B
E
c
E
c
v
B
| ¸
3 3
'
' , 0 ' ,
'
'
'
r
qb
E E
r
qvt
E
z y x
= = ÷ =
( ) B v E E E E
c
E v
B B B B


   


   
. + = ' = '
|
|
.
|

\
|
.
÷ = ' = '
± ±
± ±
¸
¸
// //
2
// //
3
r
r v
q B
 

.
·
At non-relativistic energies, ¸ ≈ 1, restoring the Biot-Savart
law:

26
Electromagnetic Energy
• Rate of doing work on unit volume of a system is


• Substitute for j from Maxwell’s equations and re-arrange into the form



( ) E j E v B j E v f v
d










· ÷ = · ÷ = . + · ÷ = · ÷ µ µ
( ) H B D E
t
S
H E S
t
D
E
t
B
H S
t
D
E E H H E E
t
D
H E j
  


 





 
 
 

  
· + ·
c
c
+ · V =
. =
c
c
· +
c
c
· + · V =
c
c
· + . V · ÷ . · V = ·
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
÷ . V ÷ = · ÷
2
1
where
Poynting vector
27
( ) ( ) H E D E H B
t
E j
       
. · V +
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
· + ·
c
c
= · ÷
2
1
( )
}} }}}
· . + · + · = S d H E dV H B D E
dt
d
dt
dW
      
2
1
electric +
magnetic energy
densities of the
fields
Poynting vector
gives flux of e/m
energy across
boundaries
Integrated over a volume, have energy conservation law: rate of
doing work on system equals rate of increase of stored
electromagnetic energy+ rate of energy flow across boundary.
Review of Waves
• 1D wave equation is with general
solution

• Simple plane wave:


2
2
2 2
2
1
t
u
v x
u
c
c
=
c
c
) ( ) ( ) , ( x vt g x vt f t x u + + ÷ =
( ) ( ) x k t x k t


· ÷ ÷ e e sin : 3D sin : 1D
k

t
ì
2
= Wavelength is
Frequency is
t
e
v
2
=
Superposition of plane waves. While
shape is relatively undistorted, pulse
travels with the group velocity
Phase and group velocities
k t
x
v
x k t
p
e
e
=
A
A
= ·
= A ÷ A 0
| |
}
·
· ÷
÷
dk e k A
kx t k i ) (
) (
e
dk
d
v
g
e
=
Plane wave has constant
phase at peaks
( ) x k t ÷ e sin
2 t e = ÷ x k t
30
Wave packet structure
• Phase velocities of individual plane waves making
up the wave packet are different,
• The wave packet will then disperse with time
Electromagnetic waves
• Maxwell’s equations predict the existence of electromagnetic waves, later
discovered by Hertz.
• No charges, no currents:




0 0 = · V = · V
c
c
÷ = . V
c
c
= . V
B D
t
B
E
t
D
H
 




( )
( )
2
2
2
2
t
E
t
D
B
t
t
B
E
c
c
÷ =
c
c
÷ =
. V
c
c
÷ =
c
c
. ÷V = . V . V
 



µc µ
( ) ( )
E
E E E

  
2
2
÷V =
V ÷ · V V = . V . V
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
: equation wave 3D
t
E
z
E
y
E
x
E
E
c
c
=
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= V
   

µc
Nature of Electromagnetic Waves
• A general plane wave with angular frequency e travelling in the
direction of the wave vector k has the form


• Phase = 2t × number of waves and so is a Lorentz
invariant.
• Apply Maxwell’s equations
)] ( exp[ )] ( exp[
0 0
x k t i B B x k t i E E


 


 
· ÷ = · ÷ = e e
e i
t
k i
÷
c
c
÷ ÷ V

B E k B E
B k E k B E
  

 
     
e = . ÷ ÷ = . V
· = = · ÷ · V = = · V 0 0
Waves are transverse to the direction of propagation,
and and are mutually perpendicular
B E
 
, k

x k t


· ÷ e
33
Plane
Electromagnetic Wave
Plane Electromagnetic Waves
E
c
B k
t
E
c
B
  


2 2
1 e
÷ = . ÷
c
c
= . V
e
e
e
2
that deduce
with Combined
kc
k
B
E
B E k
= =
= .


  
c
k
= ¬ 
e
is in vacuum wave of speed
t
e
v
t
ì
2
Frequency
k
2
Wavelength
=
= 
Reminder: The fact that is an
invariant tells us that

is a Lorentz 4-vector, the 4-Frequency vector.
Deduce frequency transforms as


x k t


· ÷ e
|
.
|

\
|
= A k
c

,
e
( )
v c
v c
k v
+
÷
= · ÷ =
'
e e ¸ e


Waves in a Conducting Medium
• (Ohm’s Law) For a medium of conductivity o,
• Modified Maxwell:

• Put

E j
 
o =
t
E
E
t
E
j H
c
c
+ =
c
c
+ = . V



 
c o c
E i E H k i
  

c e o + = . ÷
conduction
current
displacement
current
)] ( exp[ )] ( exp[
0 0
x k t i B B x k t i E E

  

  
· ÷ = · ÷ = e e
ec
o
= D
4
0
8 -
12
0
7
10 57 . 2 1 . 2 , 10 3 : Teflon
10 , 10 8 . 5 : Copper
÷
× = ¬ = × =
= ¬ = × =
D
D
c c o
c c o
Dissipation
factor
Attenuation in a Good Conductor
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) 0 since
with Combine
2
2
= · + ÷ = ¬
+ ÷ ÷ = ÷ · ¬
+ ÷ ÷ = . = . . ¬
= . ¬
c
c
÷ = . V
E k i k
E i E k k E k
E i H k E k k
H E k
t
B
E
 
    
     
  


c e o µ e
c e o µ e
c e o µ e µ e
µ e
E i E H k i
  

c e o + = . ÷
For a good conductor D >> 1, ( ) i k i k ÷ ~ ¬ ÷ ~ >> 1
2
,
2
µo e
µo e ec o
( )
depth - skin the is
2
where
1
1
, exp exp is form Wave
µo e
o
o o o
e
=
÷ =
|
.
|

\
|
÷
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
÷ i k
x x
t i
copper.mov water.mov
Charge Density in a Conducting Material
• Inside a conductor (Ohm’s law)
• Continuity equation is



• Solution is
E j


o =
µ
c
o µ
o
µ
µ
+
c
c
= = · V +
c
c
·
= · V +
c
c
t
E
t
j
t
0
0


c o
µ µ
t
e
÷
=
0
So charge density decays exponentially with time. For a very good
conductor, charges flow instantly to the surface to form a surface charge
density and (for time varying fields) a surface current. Inside a perfect
conductor (o÷·) E=H=0
Maxwell’s Equations in a Uniform
Perfectly Conducting Guide
z
y
x
Hollow metallic cylinder with perfectly
conducting boundary surfaces
Maxwell’s equations with time dependence exp(iet) are:
( ) ( )
                        




  






0
2 2
2
2
= + V
÷ =
. V =
. V . V ÷ · V V = V
¬
=
c
c
= . V
÷ =
c
c
÷ = . V
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
`
¹
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
H
E
E
H i
E E E
E i
t
D
H
H i
t
B
E
µc e
cµ e
µ e
c e
µ e
Assume
) (
) (
) , ( ) , , , (
) , ( ) , , , (
z t i
z t i
e y x H t z y x H
e y x E t z y x E
¸ e
¸ e
÷
÷
=
=
 
 
Then
| | 0 ) (
2 2 2
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+ + V
H
E
t


¸ cµ e
¸ is the propagation constant
Can solve for the fields completely
in terms of E
z
and H
z
39
Special cases
• Transverse magnetic (TM modes):
– H
z
=0 everywhere, E
z
=0 on cylindrical boundary

• Transverse electric (TE modes):
– E
z
=0 everywhere, on cylindrical boundary

• Transverse electromagnetic (TEM modes):
– E
z
=H
z
=0 everywhere
– requires
0 =
c
c
n
H
z
cµ e ¸ cµ e ¸ i ± = = + or 0
2 2
40
A simple model: “Parallel Plate Waveguide”
Transport between two infinite conducting plates (TE
01
mode):
2 2 2 2
2
2
2
t
) (
,
satisfies ) ( where ) ( ) 0 , 1 , 0 (
¸ cµ e
¸ e
+ = ÷ = = V
=
÷
K E K
dx
E d
E
x E e x E E
z t i

Kx A E
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
cos
sin
i.e.
To satisfy boundary conditions, E=0 on x=0 and x=a, so
integer , , sin n
a
n
K K Kx A E
n
t
= = =
Propagation constant is

e
e
e t
cµ e ¸
n
c
c
n
K
a
n
K =
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ = ÷ = where 1
2
2 2
z
x
y
41
Cut-off frequency, e
c
 e<e
c
gives real solution for ¸, so
attenuation only. No wave propagates: cut-
off modes.
 e>e
c
gives purely imaginary solution for ¸,
and a wave propagates without attenuation.



 For a given frequency e only a finite number
of modes can propagate.


t
e
t
e
e t
¸
¸ e
a
n
e
a
x n
A E
a
n
c
z t i
c
= =
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
÷
, sin , 1
2

t
e

t
e e
a
n
a
n
c
< ¬ = >
For given frequency, convenient to
choose a s.t. only n=1 mode
occurs.
( )
2
1
2
2
2
1
2 2
1 ,
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ = ÷ = =
e
e
cµ e e e cµ ¸
c
c
k ik
42
Propagated Electromagnetic Fields
From
( )
( )
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
÷
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
=
÷
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
¬ . V =
c
c
÷ = . V
kz t
a
x n
a
n A
H
H
kz t
a
x n Ak
H
E
i
H
A
t
B
E
z
y
x
e
t t
µ e
e
t
µ e
µ e
sin cos
0
cos sin
real, is assuming ,
 


z
x
43
Phase and group velocities in the simple
wave guide
( ) cµ e e e cµ < ÷ =
2
1
2 2
c
k
Wave number:
wavelength space free the ,
2 2
÷ > =
cµ e
t t
ì
k
Wavelength:
velocity space - free than larger
,
1

e
> =
k
v
p
Phase velocity:
( )
velocity space - free than smaller
1
2 2 2

ecµ
e
e e cµ < = = ¬ ÷ =
k
dk
d
v k
g c
Group velocity:
44
Calculation of Wave Properties
• If a=3 cm, cut-off frequency of lowest order mode is


• At 7 GHz, only the n=1 mode propagates and

GHz 5
03 . 0 2
10 3
2
1
2
8
~
×
×
~ = =

t
e
a
f
c
c
( ) ( )
c
k
v
c
k
v
k
k
g
p
c
< × = =
> × ~ =
~ =
~ × × ÷ ~ ÷ =
÷
÷
÷
1 8
1 8
1 8 9
2 1
2 2
2
1
2 2
ms 10 1 . 2
ms 10 3 . 4
cm 6
2
m 103 10 3 / 10 5 7 2
ecµ
e
t
ì
t e e cµ

t
e
a
n
c
=
45
Waveguide animations
• TE1 mode above cut-off ppwg_1-1.mov
• TE1 mode, smaller e ppwg_1-2.mov
• TE1 mode at cut-off ppwg_1-3.mov
• TE1 mode below cut-off ppwg_1-4.mov
• TE1 mode, variable e ppwg_1_vf.mov
• TE2 mode above cut-off ppwg_2-1.mov
• TE2 mode, smaller ppwg_2-2.mov
• TE2 mode at cut-off ppwg_2-3.mov
• TE2 mode below cut-off ppwg_2-4.mov
46
cµ e
t
eµ eµ
t
µ µ
c c
2
2
2 2
2
2 2
2
0
2
2
0
2
since
8
1
4
1
energy Magnetic
8
1
4
1
energy Electric
= + =
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
= =
}
}
a
n
k W
k
a
n
a A dx H W
a A dx E W
e
a
m
a
e


Flow of EM energy along the simple
guide
( )
( ) kz t
a
x n
A
a
n
H H E
k
H
kz t
a
x n
A E E E
z y y x
y z x
÷ ÷ = = ÷ =
÷ = = =
e
t

t

e
t
sin cos , 0 ,
cos sin , 0
Fields (e>e
c
) are:
Time-averaged energy:
Total e/m energy
density


a A W
2
4
1
c =
47
Poynting Vector
Poynting vector is ( )
x y z y
H E H E H E S ÷ = . = , 0 ,
  
Time-averaged:
( )
a
x n kA
S
t

2
2
sin 1 , 0 , 0
2
1
=

Integrate over x:

2
4
1 akA
S
z
=
So energy is transported at a rate:
g
m e
z
v
k
W W
S
= =
+ ecµ
Electromagnetic energy is transported down the waveguide
with the group velocity
Total e/m energy
density


a A W
2
4
1
c =
48