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The Increasing Diversity of the Workforce and the Environment
Diversity
– Diversity refers to human characteristics that make people different from one another – Dissimilarities/differences among people in age, gender, race, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, socioeconomic background, and capabilities/disabilities
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In India, the main diversity sources/categories are:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Gender Religion Place of birth Race Caste – specifically, whether individuals belong to one of the traditionally dominant "Forward Castes," one of the traditionally excluded "Scheduled Castes" or "Scheduled Tribes," or the large "Other Backward Castes" grouping. 6. Age 7. Nationality 8. People with disabilities
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Management of Diversity refers to a set of activities involved in integrating non traditional employees into the workforce & using their diversity to firm‟s competitive advantage 2. Ford motor company & Avon‟s global workforce 5-4 .Diversity Concerns / Why Manage Diversity? 1. Effectively managing diversity can improve organizational effectiveness. Helps in securing loyalty of the best employees 5. team work 4. E. There is substantial evidence that diverse individuals continue to experience unfair treatment 6. Its absence results in overt or subtle discrimination 7. The ethical imperative for Equal Opportunity 3. productivity.g.

Glass ceiling alludes to the invisible barriers that prevents minorities and women from being promoted to top corporate positions – Preferential Hiring: Employment programs required by federal statutes and regulations designed to remedy discriminatory practices in hiring minority group members. positive steps designed to eliminate existing and continuing discrimination. and age. sex. sex or national origin" into consideration in order to benefit an underrepresented group. usually as a means to counter the effects of a history of discrimination. creed. religion. and to create systems and procedures to prevent future discrimination.e. to remedy lingering effects of past discrimination. i. color. 5-5 . colour. The focus of such policies ranges from employment and education to public contracting and health programs. Factors considered are race. commonly based on population percentages of minority groups in a particular area. – Affirmative Action refers to policies that take factors including "race..

workforce is 46% percent female • Women hold only 16% of corporate officer positions • India accounts for the world’s largest share of working women.S. only 15% of which are well educated • Male dominated corporate culture • Exclusionary networks: Old Boys‟ Network 5-6 .Workforce Diversity: Gender • U.

Workforce Diversity: Capabilities and Disabilities Social acceptance of disable people is very low. Educating the organization about disabilities and AIDS 5-7 . Following points need to be noted: 1. Providing reasonable accommodations for individuals with disabilities 3. Promoting a non discriminatory workplace environment 4. A clear policy which specifies arrangements that the organisation is willing to make for disabled employees 2.

Inculcating a feeling of mutual respect for others religion 5. Scheduling of critical meetings 2. Cross cultural training 5-8 . Posting holy days for different religions on the company calendar 4. Providing flexible time off for holy days 3.Workforce Diversity: Religion Accommodation for Religious Beliefs 1.

Generation gap makes things difficult between old & young workers 5-9 . Older workers are considered as less motivated. 2. resistant to change & dead wood.Workforce Diversity: Age 1. Research proves otherwise 3.

Sociological background B. Socioeconomic background C. Economic diversity D. Social class 5-10 .Question? What refers to a combination of social class and income-related factors? A.

Workforce Diversity: Socioeconomic Background • Socioeconomic background – refers to a combination of social class and incomerelated factors • Socioeconomic diversity requires that managers be sensitive and responsive to the needs and concerns of individuals who might not be as well off as others 5-11 .

Top-management commitment and rewards for the support of diversity are critical ingredients for the success of diversity management initiatives 5-12 .Critical Managerial Roles 1.Managers have more influence than other employees 2. it legitimizes diversity efforts of others 3.When managers commit to diversity.

Effective management of diversity hinges on two factors – Minorities start out at a slight disadvantage due to the ways in which they are perceived by others in the organization – Research suggests slight differences in treatment can cumulate and result in major disparities over time 5-13 .Critical Managerial Roles 4.

5-14 . job titles. interesting job assignments. promotions.The Ethical Imperative to Manage Diversity Effectively 5.Distributive Justice – A moral principle calling for the distribution of pay raises. and other organizational resources to be based on meaningful contribution that individuals have made and not personal characteristics over which they have no control. office space.

5-15 .The Ethical Imperative to Manage Diversity Effectively 6.Procedural Justice – A moral principle calling for the use of fair procedures to determine how to distribute outcomes to organizational members.

Procedural Justice Exists when managers: 1) carefully appraise a subordinate‟s performance 2) take into account any environmental obstacles to high performance 3) ignore irrelevant personal characteristics 5-16 .

Critical Managerial Roles Insert Table 5.2 5-17 .

2. Diverse employees are more attuned to the needs of diverse customers.Managing Diversity Effectively Makes Good Business Sense What a Diversity of Employees Provides 1. Diverse employees can provide a wider range of creative ideas. A variety of points of view and approaches to problems and opportunities can improve managerial decision making and problem solving. Diversity can increase the retention of valued organizational members. 3. 4. 5. Diversity is expected/required by other firms 5-18 .

and touch? A. Imperception C. hear. Intuition D. Selective listening 5-19 . Perception B.Question? What is the process through which people interpret what they see.

smell.Perception Perception – The process through which people select. touch. organize. 5-20 . hear. and interpret what they see. and taste to give meaning and order to the world around them.

Perception • When perceptions are inaccurate managers are likely to make bad decisions and take inappropriate actions 5-21 .

Perception Bad decisions include: 1) not hiring qualified people 2) failing to promote top-performing subordinates 3) promoting poorly performing managers because they have the same “diversity profile” 5-22 .

their traits. event. behaviors. attitudes.Perception Factors that Influence Managerial Perception – Schema • An abstract knowledge structure stored in memory that allows people to organize and interpret information about a person. or situation Preconceived beliefs or ideas about the nature of men and women. and preferences 5-23 – Gender Schema • .

Perception Perception as a Determinant of Unfair Treatment – Stereotype • Simplistic and often inaccurate beliefs about the typical characteristics of particular groups of people – Bias • The systematic tendency to use information about others in ways that result in inaccurate perceptions 5-24 .

Bias • Similar-to-me effect – perceive others who are similar to ourselves more positively than we perceive people who are different • Social status effect – perceive individuals with high social status more positively than those with low social status • Salience effect – focus attention on individuals who are conspicuously different 5-25 .

Perception Overt Discrimination – Knowingly and willingly denying diverse individuals access to opportunities and outcomes in an organization – Unethical and illegal – Violation of the principles of distributive and procedural justice – Subjects firm to lawsuits 5-26 .

attitudes. and values and learning about other points of view • Develop an atmosphere in which people feel free to share their differing perspectives • Improve understanding of others who are different 5-27 .Diversity Awareness Programs • Provide members with accurate information about diversity • Uncover personal biases and stereotypes • Assess personal beliefs.

PoB. religion. race. immigration. age. armed forces veteran status and sexual orientation Relatively older Demographic differences Legal framework Youngest nation weak Robust & aggressive Preferential hiring yes rare Affirmative action Yes. nationality religion. marital status. but not as strong as in USA yes . caste USA gender. disability.Basis Scope / Definition India Basically gender. race.

4. 5.Challenges In Managing Employee Diversity 1. Genuinely valuing employee diversity Balancing individual & group needs Resistance to change & resentment Group cohesiveness Segmented communication networks Open communication Retaining valued performers Managing competition for opportunities . 6. 3. 8. 2. 7.

Think before promoting stereotypes .Tips for Managing Diversity 1. Diversity Training Programs / Cross Cultural Training 2. Avoid „white male bashing‟ 9. Accommodation of family needs 5. diversity audits 8. Mentoring 3. Alternative work patterns 6. Apprenticeship 7. Support groups 4.

For Discussion • To what extent should employer be responsible for providing day care to children of employees? • Doug Dokolosky. s former IBM executive who specializes in coaching women says that “to reach the top requires sacrifice & long hours. If that is your ambition forget balancing work & family.” comment 5-31 .