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Comparative Digestive on Vertebrates

1. After this study, the students can distinguish and determine the digestivus anatomy among


Why Do Animals Digest?
Food not ingested in suitable state

Physical nature of food determined by:

gathering apparatus for uptake type of digestive system

vitamins Excretion – elimination of waste products   Via bile (toxins. P) . starch.true protein. microbes etc) Via rectum (Ca. FA.Primary Functions of the Digestive Tract   Transport food – peristaltic contractions Digestion   Mechanical breakdown Chemical breakdown Passive diffusion and active transport  Absorption    Synthesis . Mg.

Regions of Alimentary Canal  Foregut functions  Ingestion and storage of feeds Mechanical. excretion of feces . chemical & enzymatic digestion of feed Nutrient absorption  Midgut functions    Hindgut functions   Water & ion re-absorption Formation.1. storage.

2. Associated Structures     Pancreas Contribute to small Liver intestinal digestion Gallbladder Salivary glands .

shrews. and dermopterans (colugos)  Simple stomach. insectivores (bats. non-sacculated colon .Primitive Gastrointestinal Tract  Found in monotremes (egg-laying mammals). large intestine simple. little or no division between small intestines and large intestines. presence of cecum. moles).

compartmentalization.May be simple or become sacculated to compartmentalize functions for prolonged storage of feed and utilization of bacterial fermentation (langurs and ruminants)  May also become voluminous for storage of large amounts of feed (vampire bats)  Large intestine .varies substantially in length. and complexity among species .Species-Dependent Nutritional Adaptations  Includes involvement of:    Teeth Jaws and jaw musculature Alimentary canal  Stomach .

bison Ability to chew cud at frequent intervals distinguishes true ruminant from other foregut fermenters   Pregastric fermentation  Kangaroo. sheep.Ruminants  2. elk. colobine monkey are not true ruminants  Four compartment stomach     Reticulum Rumen Omasum Abomasum . deer.8 billion domesticated ruminants  Cattle.

Ruminants vary in size and habitat .

Classification of Ruminants by Feeding Preference  Classes of ruminants  Concentrate selectors  Intermediate feeders  Roughage grazers .

sunis Eat highly lignified plant tissues to extract cell solubles Deer.Concentrate Selecting Species  Properties      Evolved early Small rumens Poorly developed omasums Large livers Limited ability to digest fiber Fruit and forage selectors   Classes   Very selective feeders Duikers. kudus  Tree and shrub browsers   . giraffes.

elands Sheep.Intermediate Feeding Species  Properties  Seasonally adaptive  Feeding preference  Prefer browsing  Moose. impalas  Prefer grazing  . goats.

topis Camels.Roughage Grazing Species  Properties     Most recently evolved Larger rumens and longer retention times Less selective Digests fermentable cell wall carbohydrates Fresh grass grazers   Classes  Buffalo. antelope. gnus Hartebeests. cattle. oryxes  Roughage grazers   Dry region grazers  .


Structures in Mouth     Lips Teeth Tongue Salivary glands .

Mouth  Functions     Grasp food Taste Masticate food Mix with saliva .

beak. head. increase surface area and allow enzymes to act on molecules   Carnivores only to reduce the size of the particle to a size small enough to swallow Herbivores must chew continuously (4050.000 times a day) to increase surface area . claws. teeth and lips To crush the food. mouth.Digestion in the Mouth  Prehension   Bringing the food to the mouth  Mastication or chewing  Upper limbs.

sheep. sheep Horse. cow. tapir Anteater. rhinoceros  Snout   Tongue   Lips  .Prehension   Seizing and conveying feed to mouth Mechanisms vary with behavior and diet  Forelimbs  Primates. raccoon Elephant.

Prehension  Domestic mammals use lips. teeth and tongue   Relative importance varies by species Horses   lips when eating from manger teeth when grazing Use long rough tongue to grasp forage  Cows and sheep have limited use of lips   Pigs use snout to root in ground and pointed lower lip to convey feed into mouth   Birds use beak and tongue Drinking varies as well   Most mammals use suction Dogs and cats use tongue to form ladle .

The Importance of Prehension in Diet Formulation  White Rhino (―wijd‖ = wide)   Black Rhino   Squared off upper lip used to ―crop‖ grass Grazes on savannah  Prehensile upper lip for browsing Consumes bushes and shrubs in forest .

Mastication   Physical reduction of feed Especially important in non-ruminant herbivores Adaptations with teeth     Carnivores Herbivores Edentates (sloths. armadilloes. anteater)  Relative toothlessness .

molar occlusal surfaces. & masseter Solution for digestive problems is to provide a place in digestive tract for anaerobic bacteria & protozoans (microflora) to colonize . ingesting.Morphological Adaptations for Herbivory    All related to finding. masticating. and digesting plant cell walls Dental adaptations for herbivory include changes to incisors.

Monogastric Teeth  Function:   Mechanically reduce particle size Increase surface area Incisors are used for cutting Canine (fangs. tusks) are tearing teeth Premolars and molars (cheek teeth) grind the food Four types:    . eye teeth.

Ruminant Mouth .Teeth Function:  Reduce particle size Upper dental pad Lower incisors Premolars Molars Anatomy:     .


Teeth Specializations


Canine teeth highly developed and used for tearing Molars are pointed for bone crushing

Teeth Specializations


Grinding teeth patterns on posterior teeth (molars) Piercing and ripping cusps on anterior teeth (incisors) Tongue - used to move feed to teeth

selective eaters all differ in tongue mobility and cleft palate  Ruminants   . molars allow only lateral movements Different classes . have dental pad. jaws move circularly (vertical and lateral) No upper incisors. molars slightly angled.roughage eaters. transition types.Jaw & Teeth Specializations  Non-ruminant herbivores (horse)  Incisors for nipping.

relatively immobile in nonselective grazing species to very mobile (prehensile) in selective grazing or concentrate selecting species Chew in a lateral (grinding) motion on one side of mouth at a time   Needed to increase surface area of feed particles Feed chewed primarily during rumination in grazing species .Ruminant Mouth   Lips range from short.

but carnivores and many omnivores have almost no lateral movement of jaws) .develops maximum force on anterior portion of jaw (largest muscle in carnivores and smallest muscle in herbivores) Masseter and medial pterogoid .Jaw Muscles and Mastication    Temporalis muscle .maximum force for crushing and grinding Lateral pterogoid .allows lateral movement which is important for grinding (highly important in herbivores.

Monogastric Tongue Function:   Comprised of three muscles Maneuvers food in the mouth  Moves feed to teeth for grinding and to the back of the mouth for swallowing  Can distinguish between feed and toxins by papillae or taste buds .

Ruminant Mouth - Tongue

Drinking, chewing and forming boluses Prehension of feed

Covered with rough, hook-like papillae that assist in grasping feed Important in nonselective grazing species More numerous than monogastric species More numerous on nonselective grazing species Believed that taste is primarily used for food avoidance by grazing species while concentrate selecting species select on the basis of smell

Taste buds
  

Monogastric Salivary Glands
Types of Glands:
Zygomatic Parotid Sublingual Mandibular

Functions of Saliva
  

Moisten feed (salt and water) Lubrication (aids swallowing) Starch and(or) lipid digestion (amylase and(or) lipase)

water . enzymes. mucin plus enzymes (mixed). mucin plus enzymes (mixed).Salivary Glands Gland Parotid Submaxillary Type of secretion Serous Mucous or mixed Main constituents Water. ions Mucin (mucous). water Sublingual Mucous or mixed Mucin (mucous).

Monogastric Salivary Glands  Flow rate affected by:  Parasympathetic nervous system   Increased tone = Increased flow Increased flow = Increased dilution Increased tone = Decreased flow Decreased flow = Increased concentration  Sympathetic nervous system   .

forming bolus  ruminants   Provides N.Ruminant Mouth . P. S and Na for rumen microoganisms Buffering compounds to maintain rumen pH and mucin to prevent bloat .Saliva  From at least three paired glands  Submaxillary. sublingual. swallowing. parotid (50% of secretions) No digestive enzymes in the saliva of mature  Aids in mastication.

no enzymes) 3-10 liters/d 10-12 liters/d 130-180 liters/d  Amount of secretion     .Salivation  Quantity and composition of saliva varies considerably between species  Quantity related to level of chewing activity Dogs Sheep Horse Cattle minimal (lubrication.

Deglutition (Swallowing)   Reflex initiated by presence of food in pharnyx Propulsion of food to stomach by esophageal peristalsis .

esophagus joins stomach at an oblique angle and cardiac sphincter (the valve between the stomach and esophagus) only allows one-way flow  MOST horses cannot belch out gas or vomit  Dog:  Striated muscles throughout allow GREAT control of digesta movement both directions .Monogastric Esophagus  Horse/Pig:    Striated muscles for first 2/3 Smooth muscles for last 1/3 In horse.

Ruminant Esophagus   Involved in rumination Different from monogastric esophagus  Striated muscle along the entire length   Provides greater strength Allows some voluntary control  Funnel shaped  Contains three sphincters active in rumination and eructation .

vomiting .Esophagus  Species adaptations  Ability to control peristaltic contractions ◆ ◆ ◆ Reverse peristalsis Amount and location of skeletal muscle Regurgitation vs.

◆ Birds with crop gorge when food is available. and slowly digest it later .Foregut in Birds  Crop  Bottom of the esophagus forms a sac called crop ◆ Stores undigested food. store it in crop.

Stomach  Monogastric  One compartment  Varies in size by species  Ruminant  Four compartments     Reticulum Rumen Omasum Abomasum .

Gastric Digestion  Functions  Reservoir for controlled release of digesta to small intestine  Horse has small capacity – requires increased number of smaller sized meals    Mixing food Mechanical breakdown of feed Hydrolytic digestion by acid and enzymes  Mainly protein    Kill bacteria Secrete intrinsic factor: needed for vitamin B12 absorption Hormone production .

Stomach Regions  Esophageal  Non-glandular Secretes mucus Parietal cells Chief cells Mucus  Cardiac   Fundic    Pyloric  .

Gastric Pits    Formed by numerous folds in the epithelium Glands empty into the gastric pit Many types of glands may empty into one gastric pit .

Gastric Glands Gland Cardia Pylorus or Antrum Fundus Chief cells Parietal cells Type of secretion Mucous Mucous Enzyme Acid Main constituents Mucin Mucin Pepsinogen Pepsin HCl. intrinsic factor acid .

Stomach Secretions  HCl     Decreases pH (~2-3) Denatures protein Kills bacteria Activates pepsinogen  Pepsinogen   Activated form is pepsin Hydrolyzes protein Clots milk  Mucus  Protects lining from acid and enzymes  No ―autodigestion‖  Lubricant  Rennin (abomasum)   Lipase  Some species .

Gastric Motility and Emptying  Motility aids mixing. mechanical and hydrolytic reduction of feed to chyme  acid pulp  Emptying is stimulated by distension of antral wall and presence of liquid chyme .

Control of Gastric Secretions and Gastric Motility    Cephalic phase Gastric phase Intestinal phase .

enzyme secretion Small increase in HCl secretion .Cephalic Phase  Vagal reflex    Parasympathetic innervation Increases gastric motility.

Gastric Phase   Local reflex. depends on presence of feed in stomach Mainly mediated by gastrin  Increases HCl secretion .

pH. nutrients (fat) Cholecystokinin (CCK) is released by the small intestine  Decreases HCl secretion and gastric motility .Intestinal Phase   Stimulated by duodenal distension. osmolarity.

Gastrointestinal Hormones  Gastrin    Origin: Stomach. Slows stomach motility and acid production  Secretin    . increases stomach motility Origin: Duodenum Stimulus: Acid Function: Stimulates pancreatic secretions. Abomasum Stimulus: Food in stomach Function: Stimulates HCl & pepsinogen secretion.

Gastrointestinal Hormones  Cholecystokinin (CCK)    Origin: Duodenum Stimulus: Fat & protein in duodenum Function: Stimulates bile and pancreatic secretions  Also regulates appetite and feed intake  Gastric Inhibitory Protein (GIP)    Origin: Duodenum Stimulus: Fats and bile Function: Inhibit stomach motility and secretion of acid and enzymes .

Ruminant Stomach Anatomy:     Reticulum Rumen Omasum Abomasum .

functionally they are distinctly different .Reticulorumen Although structurally they appear as a single continuous compartment.

wire) .Reticulum  Honeycomb lining  No secretions    Formation of food bolus Regurgitation initiated here Collects hardware (nails.

protein Increase surface area Passive diffusion  Papillae lining   Absorption of VFA  . fungi Produce VFA.Rumen  Digestion and fermentation vat   40-50 gallons No secretions  Contains anaerobic microbes (25-50 billion bacteria/mL fluid)   Also protozoa.

Omasum  Laminae/manyply lining   Muscular folds No secretions   Reduces particle size Absorption of water  ~60% removed ~2/3 of VFAs entering or 10% of total produced Prevents buffering of the abomasum  Absorption of VFAs   .

5     Denatures proteins Kills bacteria and pathogens Dissolves minerals Gastric digestion . fundic. and pyloric) Digestive secretions  Proteolytic enzymes and HCl  pH decreases from 6 to 2.four gallons in a cow   Three regions (cardiac.Abomasum  True gastric stomach .

vitamins & minerals Some bacterial presence  Fermentation  Jejunum   Ileum   The pH of the small intestine increases towards 7.0 as food moves from the duodenum to the ileum .Small Intestine  Composed of 3 segments (proximal to distal)  Duodenum   Releases bile and pancreatic secretions Active site of digestion Active site of nutrient absorption Active site of nutrient absorption  Most water.

Intestinal Epithelial Cell Brush border .

Specialized Cells Lining Villi Nutrients Mucus  Absorptive epithelial cell   Contain brush border on lumen/apical side Brush border:   Enzymes Nutrient transport molecules  Goblet cell  Secretes mucus .

. Secretin. etc.Specialized Cells Lining Villi Anti-microbial compounds  Endocrine cell  Secrete hormones into bloodstream or local cells Secretory granules with anti-microbial properties  Paneth cell  CCK.

Small Intestine – Absorptive Surface     Villi Enterocyte Brush border Cell migration from crypts to tips of villus  2-3 days .

Structure        Lumen Mucosa Villi Crypts Lacteal Enterocyte Brush border .Small Intestine .

Intestinal Wall Villi Mucosa .

Enhanced Surface Area for Increased Nutrient Absorption Intestinal villi .

Increased Surface Area in Small Intestine for Absorption Structure Plicae circularis Description Regular ridges in small intestine Finger-like projections on mucosal (inner) surface 1 um projections on surface of epithelium Increase in surface area 3x Villi 10x Microvilli Brush Border 20x .

Nutrient Absorption in the Small Intestine  Principal site of absorption of amino acids. most absorption occurs in the proximal (upper) part of the small intestine but some absorption occurs in all segments  Duodenum. minerals and lipids  Glucose and other sugars in monogastrics  Generally. vitamins. jejunum and ileum Within 30 minutes of entering SI  Digestion and absorption within SI is rapid  .

Nutrient Absorption  Variety of mechanisms     Diffusion Facilitated diffusion Active transport Pinocytosis or endocytosis Solubility of the nutrient (fat vs. water) Concentration or electrical gradient Size of the molecule to be absorbed  Dependent upon    .

Diffusion   Water and small lipid molecules pass freely through membrane Move down concentration gradient to equalize concentrations .

Facilitated Diffusion
1) Carrier loads particle on outside of cell 2) Carrier releases particle on inside of cell 3) Reverse
Allows equalization of concentrations across membrane

Active Transport
1) Carrier loads particle on outside of cell 2) Carrier releases particle on inside of cell 3) Carrier returns to outside to pick up another particle

Active Transport

Unidirectional movement Transports nutrients against concentration gradient

Pinocytosis or Endocytosis    Substance contacts cell membrane Membrane wraps around or engulfs substance into sac Sac formed separates from the membrane and moves into cell .

Transporters .

Secretions Entering SI    Intestinal mucus Brush border enzymes Pancreatic juices  Secreted from within SI Enters from ducts into SI Produced & stored in pancreas Produced in liver Stored in gallbladder Horse has no gallbladder    Bile    Direct bile secretion into duodenum Cannot store bile—continuous intake of food .

Intestinal Mucus  Secreted by glands in wall of duodenum  Brunner’s glands  Acts as lubricant and buffer to protect duodenal wall .

Primary Enzymes for Carbohydrates Nutrient Starch. glycogen. dextrin Maltose Lactose Enzyme Amylase Origin Saliva & pancreas SI SI Product Maltose & Glucose Glucose Glucose & galactose Glucose & fructose Maltase Lactase Sucrose Sucrase SI .

Primary Enzymes for Proteins Nutrient Milk protein Enzyme Rennin Origin Gastric mucosa Product Curd Proteins Polypeptides Pepsin Trypsin Chymotrypsin Carboxypeptidase Aminopeptidase Gastric mucosa Pancreas Pancreas Pancreas Small intestine Polypeptide Peptides Peptides Peptides & amino acids Peptides .

Primary Enzymes for Lipids Nutrient Lipids Enzyme Lipase & colipase Origin Pancreas Product Monoglycerides & free fatty acids .

Bile  Green. viscous liquid  Alkaline ph (neutralize acidic chyme) Stored in gall bladder (except in horses)  Secreted by liver via bile duct to duodenum    Functions to emulsify fats Composition    Bile salts (glycocholic and taurocholic acids) Bile pigments (bilirubin and biliverdin) Cholesterol   95% reabsorbed and returned to liver NOT AN ENZYME .

Lipids Large Lipid Droplet Small Action of bile salts Lipid emulsion Bile salts & pancreatic lipase and colipase Water soluble micelles .Nutrient Digestion .

and protein digestion  Contains        HCO3Trypsinogen ProChymotrypsinogen enzymes Procarboxypeptidase Amylase Lipase Nuclease . starch.Pancreatic Juice    Clear. watery juice Enters duodenum via pancreatic duct Aids in fat.

Importance of Pancreas for Digestion  Produces enzymes responsible for    50% of carbohydrate digestion 50% of protein digestion 90% of lipid digestion  Produces sodium bicarbonate for neutralization of chyme in duodenum .

Activation of Pancreatic Enzymes  Enterokinase   Secreted from crypts in duodenum Trypsinogen trypsin Trypsinogen trypsin Chymotrypsinogen chymotrypsin Procarboxypeptidase carboxypeptidase  Trypsin then converts:    .

Overview of Digestive Enzymes  Stomach   Pepsinogen Chymosin (rennin) Trypsinogen Chymotrypsinogen Procarboxypeptidase Amylase Lipase Nuclease  Brush Border (SI)        Pancreas       Sucrase Maltase Lactase Aminopeptidase Dipeptidase Enterokinase .

Ruminant Small Intestine   Similar in structure and function to monogastric Differences are subtle but important  Limited ability to digest starches and sugars  Little to none presented except in exceptional circumstances (high-grain feeding) .

7 .4 Jejunum Ileum 4–7 7-8  Rate of pH increase through small intestine is slower than monogastrics   Better for peptic activity May limit pancreatic protease and amylolytic activity .Small Intestine Digesta pH Functions Enzymes pH change Flow rate regulation Enzymes Absorption Absorption Limited fermentation Duodenum 2.

2-7.8 Enzymes    Amylase Lipase Proteases    Trypsinogen converted to trypsin Chymotrypsinogen converted to chymotrypsin Procarboxypeptidase converted to carboxypeptidase  Nucleases .Pancreatic Secretions   Secretion pH is 7.

less than 50% of starch reaching small intestine is digested .Activity of Pancreatic Enzymes   Concentration of enzymes in pancreatic juice comparable to monogastrics Activity is lower and may be affected by:    Less juice secreted/kg BW Low digesta pH High rate of passage  Limited activity particularly a problem for intestinal digestion of starch escaping ruminal digestion  For ruminants fed high grain diets.

Bile   Secreted with pancreatic juice in the common bile duct of sheep Secreted in the bile duct of cattle .

Large Intestine  Composed of three segments    Cecum Colon Rectum Fermentative digestion    Function  No enzyme secretion Relies on microbes or secretions washed out of the SI   Absorption of remaining water. volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from microbial fermentation and minerals Digesta storage Degree of development is species dependent .

then microbial cell proteins are not available to the animal  Contains a microbial population similar to the rumen  Cellulolytic & hemicelluloytic bacteria Fecal loss .Monogastric Cecum   Located at junction of small and large intestine Function similar to rumen in ruminants  Microbial activity and digestion of feeds   Since cecum is located AFTER major site of nutrient absorption (small intestine).

Monogastric Large Intestine  Function:    Absorption of liquid Mass movements move fecal matter to anus Usually only a few times a day  Associated with defecation .

H2. formate. CH4 .Bacteria    Cellulolytic – digest cellulose (forages) Amylolytic – digest starches and sugars (concentrates or grains) Other types:  Proteolytic  Clostridium   Organic acid utilizers Methanogens  Produce CO2.

but primarily used as energy source for large intestinal mucosa cells .Ruminant Large Intestine  Fermentative digestion   Bacteria similar to rumen. but no protozoa Digestion in colon may account for as much as:    27% of cellulose digestion 40% of hemicellulose digestion 10% of starch digestion  Only important in conditions that increase the amount of fermentative carbohydrate entering the large intestine   Increased rate of passage of forages High grain diets   May account for as much as 17% of total VFA absorption VFAs are efficiently absorbed.

Ruminant Large Intestine  Absorption of ammonia-N   May account for as much as 30 to 40% of the net transport of N into body fluid Absorbed N may be used for:   Synthesis of nonessential amino acids Recycling of N to the rumen  Important on low protein diets  Regulated by:   Increased by increasing N concentration of diet Decreased by increasing the amount of carbohydrate fermented in the large intestine   Mineral absorption Water absorption  90% of water entering the LI is absorbed .

Rectum  Muscular area of large intestine used for storage of feces and ultimately for defecation  Feces includes sloughed cells. undigested food and microbial matter .

Digestive Adaptations to Varying Feed Sources  Gastric capacity and structure  Capacity is greatest in pregastric fermentors  Stomach acts as reservoir   Small stomach in carnivores is related to high nutrient density of the diet Distribution and composition of epithelial lining varies between species and dietary adaptations .

Digestive Adaptations to Varying Feed Sources  Intestinal length and functions  Small intestine  Less variable among species than stomach and hind gut. but generally shorter in carnivores than in herbivores Importance of hind gut fermentation dictates variation in structure and size Some hind gut fermentation occurs in most species  Large intestine   .

Adaptations of the Digestive Tracts Stomach Small Intestine Cecum Large Intestine Rule Size = Function .

maltase.Adaptations of Digestive Enzymes     Young animals produce little sucrase. maltase . amylase Ruminants produce no sucrase Adult pigs lack lactase Activity changes with age   Lactase Sucrase.

Utilizing Cellulose  Advantages    Ultra-abundant in the environment Easily obtained – no need to ―hunt‖ plants Plant cell walls & fiber high in energy  Disadvantages   Indigestible by mammalian digestive enzymes Cellulase is found only in bacteria & some protozoans .

Fermentative Digestion   All mammals have some fermentative capacity that allows for utilization of ingested fiber The comparative importance of fermentation is related to the fraction of total digesta contained in fermentative compartments of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract .


alkaloids  More effective use of fermentation endproducts  Volatile fatty acids. B vitamins  Allows wild animals to eat and run .Advantages of Pregastric Fermentation  Make better use of alternative nutrients   Cellulose Nonprotein nitrogen  Ability to detoxify some poisonous compounds  Oxalates. microbial protein. cyanide.

Disadvantages of Pregastric Fermentation  Fermentation is inefficient  Energy   Loss % of total caloric value Methane 5-8 Heat of fermentation 5-6 Relative efficiency is dependent on the diet NDF  Protein  Some ammonia resulting from microbial degradation will be absorbed and excreted  20% of the nitrogen in microbes is in the form of nucleic acids .

Disadvantages of Pregastric Fermentation   Ruminants are susceptible to ketosis Ruminants are susceptible to toxins produced by rumen microbes      Nitrates to nitrites Urea to ammonia Nonstructural carbohydrates to lactic acid Tryptophan to 3-methyl indole Isoflavonoid estrogens to estrogen coumestans .

antelope.Pregastric Fermenters Class Ruminants Species Cattle. hippo Hoatzin Grazing and selective herbivores Folivore . sheep Deer. including folivores and frugivores Selective herbivores Kangaroo. camel Nonruminants Colobine monkey. vole Dietary habit Grazing herbivores Selective herbivores. hamster.

cat and dog)  Horse has some expanded cecal fermentation in addition to greatly expanded colonic fermentation  Degree of colonic sacculation is related to importance of fiber digestion and fermentative capacity . rabbits and other small herbivores Often associated with coprophagy  Colonic fermentors  Includes true herbivores (e. omnivores (e..g. and carnivores (e..g..Postgastric Fermentors  Cecal fermentors   Mainly rodents. pig and human). horse).g.

human Unsacculated Panda Dog. zebra New World monkeys Pig.Postgastric Fermenters Class Cecal digesters Species Capybara Rabbit Rat. cat . horse. mouse Dietary habit Grazer Selective herbivores Omnivores Grazers Folivores Omnivores Herbivores Carnivore Colonic digesters Sacculated Elephant.

Hindgut Fermentation  Foregut     More efficient per unit volume of food Slower digestive process Animal may starve with a full belly Size restricted More efficient relative to time Faster turnover  Hindgut   .Foregut vs.



Graniv..Feeding Habits of Mammals & Taxonomic Distribution Feeding Habit       Number of Orders 10 5 4 2 10 7 Percent of Species 40 4 12 <1 33 10 Herbivory Frugivory. Nectivory Carnivory Planktonivory? (Krill feeders) Insectivory Omnivory .

Classification of Animals by Preferred Ingested Feedstuffs  Carnivore – consume animal products   dogs. black bear. tigers. human . elephant. sharks. giraffe. cats komodo dragon. goats. eagles. American bison  Herbivore – consume plant products    Omnivore – plant and(or) animal products   pigs opossum. raccoon. polar bear cattle. sheep. blue jays. green iguana. horses giant panda. ostrich. gorilla.

feeds on aphids Apivore .feeds on insects Larvivore .feeds on liquid animal secretions of decaying animal matter .feeds on caterpillars Insectivore .feeds on bees Erucivore .feeds on larvae Myrmevore .feeds on pupae Ranivore .feeds on flies Piscivore .Specialized Carnivores Aphidivore .feeds on frogs Sanguivore .feeds on blood Zoosuccivore .feeds on ants Mucivore .feeds on fish Pupivore .

and sap Folivore .feeds on nectar Nucivore .feeds on wood Mellivore .feeds on roots .feeds on (tree) sap Radicivore .e.feeds on grasses and broad leaf plants Exudativore . flowering plants) Frugivore .feeds on foliage (leaves or trees) Forbivore .feeds on forbs (i.feeds on grasses Granivore .feeds on honey Nectarivore .feeds on gums secreted by some plants Lignivore .Specialized Herbivores Ambivore .feeds on fruit Graminivore .feeds on grains Gumivore .feeds on gums.feeds on nuts (agouti) Phytisuccivore . resins.

Classification by Type of Digestion or Site of Digestion   Monogastrics or non-ruminants Ruminants OR   Pre-gastric fermentation (cranial) Post-gastric fermentation (caudal) .

mink. elephant or rat Sacculated stomach .Monogastric Animals   Single. simple stomach structure Mostly carnivores and omnivores    Very simple . cat and dog Cecal digestion .kangaroo .

sheep.cattle. llamas. vicunas . goats Pseudo-ruminants .Ruminant Animals  Ruminant – herbivores possessing multiple digestive tract compartments for feed breakdown before feed reaches the ―true‖ stomach   True ruminants .camels. alpacas.

A .

GIT Capacity .6:1  Omnivores   stomach = SI = LI (33%) GIT surface/body surface: intermediate Ruminants    Herbivores  stomach (70%) > SI (20%) > LI (10%) GIT surface/body surface: 3:1 stomach (10%) < SI (30%) < LI (60%) GIT surface/body surface: 2:1  Non-ruminants   .Volume  Carnivores   stomach (70%) > SI = LI (15%) GIT surface/body surface: 0.

Dog  Monogastric carnivore with limited post-gastric fermentation    Simple stomach.GIT Classifications . not capable of effective utilization of forage-based (high fiber) diets Unable to digest some of the substances in grains. fruits and vegetables Similar to cat .

fruits and vegetables Similar to human .Pig  Monogastric omnivore with limited post-gastric fermentation    Simple stomach.GIT Classifications . not capable of effective utilization of forage-based (high fiber) diets Unable to digest some of the substances in grains.

5 gal) Small intestine (60’. 2. 2 gal) Esophagus Mouth Cecum (10”.5 gal) . 0.Pig _________________________________________ Stomach (2 gal) Large Intestine (16’.

Human Digestive Tract .

Rat .

capable of utilization of foragebased (high fiber) diets Able to digest some of the substances in grains.Kangaroo  Monogastric omnivore with limited pre-gastric fermentation   Sacculated stomach.GIT Classifications . fruits and vegetables .

Horse  Monogastric herbivore with extensive postgastric fermentation   Simple stomach incapable of utilization of foragebased (high fiber) diets Extensive fermentation after primary sites of digestion and absorption .GIT Classifications .

8 gal) Mouth Stomach (3. 12 gal) Esophagus Large Colon (12’.5 gal) . 3 gal) Small intestine (70’. 19 gal) Cecum (4’.Horse _________________________________________ Small Colon (12’.

Sheep  Ruminant herbivore with extensive pre-gastric fermentation    Highly developed sacculated stomach capable of extensive and effective utilization of forage-based (high fiber) diets Extensive fermentation before primary sites of digestion and absorption Similar to cattle and goats .GIT Classifications .

Cow _________________________________________ Large intestine (33’.5 gal) Small intestine (150’. 3 gal) Esophagus Rumen (paunch) (43 gal) Mouth Abomasum (glandular) (5 gal) Omasum (4 gal) Reticulum (honeycomb) (2. 16 gal) . 8 gal) Cecum (3’.

GIT Classifications  Avian is modified monogastric       Beaks replace lips and teeth Crop (enlarged area of esophagus) stores and softens feed prior to entering stomach Proventriculus – glandular stomach Gizzard – muscular part of stomach Branched cecum –postgastric fermentation Cloaca – both fecal and urinary waste  Uric acid rather than urea (insoluble) .

rigid tongue Poorly developed salivary glands Saliva contains amylase  Beak is adapted for prehension and mastication .Avians (Poultry) Mouth    No teeth.

Avians (Poultry) Esophagus  Enlarged area called crop    Ingesta holding and moistening Location for breakdown of carbohydrate by amylase Fermentation Release of HCl and pepsin (gastric juices) Ingesta passes through very quickly (14 seconds) Proventriculus (stomach)   .

Avians (Poultry) Gizzard (ventriculus)  Muscular area with a hardened lining reduces particle size    Muscular contractions every 20-30 seconds Includes action of grit HCl and pepsin secreted in proventriculus Small intestine   Similar to other monogastrics No Lacteals .

Avians (Poultry) Ceca and large intestine   Contain two ceca instead of one as in other monogastrics Large intestine is very short (2-4 in) and empties into cloaca where fecal material will be voided via the vent    Water resorption Fiber fermentation by bacteria H2O soluble vitamin synthesis by bacteria .

Chicken Beak Esophagus Crop (2”) Small Intestine (55”) Proventriculus Gizzard (2”) Pancreas Ceca (7”) Large Intestine (4”) Cloaca .

Feeding Behaviors  Impact feed choices  Neophobia (avoidance of new feed sources)   Contact testing (based on taste and other sensory information collected in mouth) prior to swallowing Early introduction of a variety of feeds limits this problem    Chimpanzees select feeds based on easily digestible carbohydrate content (sugars and starches) rather than fat or protein content Grazers and browser select early growth grasses and plants vs. grazers consume concentrates first and then forages in ration based on particle size (basis for creating ―total mixed rations‖) . mature growth In confinement feeding situations.

and over-consumption of feed)    Hiding feed in bear exhibit encourages search and gather behaviors. limiting intake and reducing the stress of captivity Predator behavior towards ―prey‖ meals vs.Feeding Behaviors  Impact feed intake (avoiding under. ―bowl‖ meals Grazing animals prefer to eat forage at ground level rather than in elevated feed bunks .