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DENSE WAVE DIVISION MULTIPLEXING

Wavelength Multiplexing
MULTIPLE FIBER

OPTICAL MULTIPLEXERS

SINGLE FIBER

Wave Length Multiplexing
Multiplexing

multiple wavelengths over a

single fiber
Two

Major Types

– CWDM – Coarse Wave Length Division Multiplexing • Channel Spacing – 20 nanometers
– DWDM – Dense Wave Length Division Multiplexing • Channel Spacing – 8 nanometers

WDM Categories Wrapperless Systems – Protocol Independent Wrapper Systems – Framed optical channel – Various low-level transmission functions • Error checking • Performance monitoring • Forward Error Correction (FEC) – Management channel to support OAM&P – Optical bitstream interpretable by higher-level protocols .

New Service Offerings .

Emerging Scenario .

TDM Vs WDM .

TDM Vs WDM .

5 Gb/s/fiber pair $20...DWDM The The Shrinking Shrinking Continent Continent 1993 LA OC-48 .Advantage . 400km between regenerators NY $1.. 40km between regenerators NY 2.000 per DS1 (excluding fiber costs) 40x Increase in bandwidth 10x Increase in regen spacing 20x decreased in cost Technology Technology is is conquering conquering distance distance .000 per DS1 (excluding fiber costs) 1998 LA 100 Gb/s/fiber pair 100Gb/s with DWDM ..

DWDM Evolution .

WAVELENGTH WINDOWS .

ITU-T WAVELENGTH GRID .

Frequency Utilization for Fiber Application Window First Second Third Fourth Fifth Fifth Label -S C L --DWDM/MAN2 Range(nm) 820-900 1280-1350 1530-1565 1565-1620 1350-1450 1450-1528 Fiber type MF SMF NZDSF NZDSF SMF AllwaveTM DWDM NZDSF Applications LAN-Type Single- DWDM1 1 DWDM may also include single wavelength application 2 Currently. . EDFAs do not perform below the range of 1530 nm.

WAVELENGTH MULTIPLEXING .

Wavelength Multiplexing .

Multiple Lambdas Delhi Cal Bombay Nagpur X-Connect Chennai .

Optical Amplifier .

OPTICAL ADD-DROP MULTIPLEXERS .

…. 2. 2. N N N ..….. 2. N Fiber Fiber OADM 1.Drop-ADD Wavelength N 1.....…. N OA OA 1.

N Optical Demultiplexer Drop-Add wavelength 1 1 1 Optical Multiplexer . 2.Optical Switch Optical 2 X 2 Switch Fiber Fiber 1.. 2.…....…. N 1.

De-MUX = Laser Diode = Receiver .. 2.….. 2. N N Opt.…. MUX Opt.. N 2 OA Channel N N 1..A Typical DWDM Link Channel 1 Channel 2 1 2 OADM 1 Fiber OA 1.

DWDM Ring Network
STM

IP

OADM 1, 2,….., N

HUB
1, 2,….., N OADM

OADM 1, 2,….., N 1, 2,….., N

O/E
STM IP

k

k

j

j

DWDM Application

PLL

Detectors
TCP/IP

TCP/IP ATM STM
PHY

O/E O/E O/E Receive Direction Photonic Regime OPT. Demux
1, 2,….., N

ATM

Single-Mode Fiber

STM

Electronic Regime

DWDM RING - Example

Optical Transmission Problems Attenuation – Light Absorption – Raleigh Scattering – Bending Losses Dispersion – Chromatic Dispersion – Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD) .

Non-Linearity Generation of spurious harmonic and sum frequencies Unexpected loss effects Inherent characteristic of electromagnetic energy passing through a physical medium Effects – Scattering – Refractive Index Phenomena .

Non Linearity Effects Scattering Phenomena – Stimulated Brillouin Backscattering – Stimulated Raman Scattering Refractive Index Phenomena – Self phase modulation – Cross phase modulation – Four-wave mixing .

Wavelength Conversion • Reuse of same wavelength in different parts of the same network (different fibers)  – Multi-Hop Networks Small no of wavelength channels employed by the network . Wavelength Routed Networks • Wavelength selective switching sub-system a.Network Classification  – Single-Hop Networks Data stream travels from source to destination as a light stream – No conversion at any of the intermediate nodes – Types 1. Wavelength Path Switching – Dynamic signal switching from one path to another b. Broadcast-And-Select Networks • • Star topology with passive star coupler device Used in LAN/MAN 2.

Basics .FIBER OPTICS .

Journey through the “Optical Tunnel” .

TOTAL INTERNAL REFLECTION Snell’s Law: n1*sin1 = n2*sin 2 .

Transmit-Receive Overview .

fundamentals of emission .Transmitter .

Source composition .

Light Source comparison .

Transmitter & Receiver Functions .

Transmitter Simple Block Diagram .

Transmitter Basic Specifications .

Laser/ LED Drivers .

LASER Temperature Compensation .

Receiver Basic Specifications .

Receiver Block Diagram .

Lucent. Cerent (Cisco).0 dB/KM 0.Dense Wave Division Multiplexing  DWDM – Standard support 1000 colors of light.6 .4 1. Nortel.3 1.Ciena. only 160 colors supported today – Key players . Siemens.3 Wavelength (mm) 1. Sycamore – Supports PoS – packet over Sonet to Wavelength – Supports LAMBDA routing Attenuation 1. Marconi.5 1.

What is an Optical Wave? An optical wave is a transponder-based service which provides unprotected. Wave 1 Wave 1 Wave 2 Wave 2 Wave 3 Wave 3 Wave 4 Wave 4 . customized bandwidth primarily for data traffic and allows data carriers requiring low restoration rates to provide protection switching using their own equipment.

Customized Bandwidth OC-3/STM1 OC-12/STM4 OC-48 STM16 Delhi OC-24/STM8 OC-N Cal Bombay Nagpur X-Connect Chennai .

Propagation mode .

Single Mode Fiber .

Multi Mode Fiber Number of Modes: M = V2/2 .

Graded Index Fiber .

M = (a/(a+2))*(v2/2) where a is Profile parameter .Propagation in Graded Index Fiber Number of Modes.

Energy Distribution in SM Fiber .

Attenuation in Optical Fiber .

Power expressed in dbm It’s simple to relate to attenuation if Power is also expressed in terms of db. So if mW is the reference: Where mW is the reference: Power in dbm = 10log10(P/mW) Power in dbm = 10log10(P/mW) .

Dispersion –BW Losses .

Dispersions in MM & SM Fiber .

Dispersion in Step Indexed Fiber .

Graded Index Fiber – less dispersion .

Chromatic Dispersion LED: Typical spectral width 75-125 nm LASER: Typical spectral width 2-5 nm .

Material Dispersion .

Wave guide Dispersion .

Polarization .

Bending Losses .