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introduction about transportation model in operation research

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The transportation model deals with a special class of linear programming problem in which the objective is to. Transport a homogeneous commodity from various origins or factories to different destinations or markets at a total minimum cost. .

NON-NEGATIVITY CONSTRAINT. .Minimize Z = c11 x11 + c12 x12 + c13 x13 + c14 x14 + c21 x21 + c22 x22 + c23 x23 + c24 x24 + c31 x31 + c32 x32 + c33 x33 + c34 x34 subject to a condition: a11 x11 +a12 x12 + a13 x13 + a14 x14 ≤ b1 (because the sum must be less than or equal to the available capacity) a21 x21 + a22 x22 + a23 x23 + a24 x24 ≤ b2 a31 x31 + a32 x32 + a33 x33 + a34 x34 ≤ b3 a11 x11 + a21 x21 + a31 x31 ≥ d1 a12 x12 + a22 x22 + a32 x32 ≥ d2 a13 x13 + a23 x23 + a33 x33 ≥ d3 a14 x14 + a24 x24 + a34 x34 ≥ d4 and All xij and xji are ≥ 0 where i = 1.2.3. (This is because we cannot supply negative elements).4.3 and j = 1.2.

3. 4. . It has an objective function.The above problem has got the following properties: • • • • 1. But a special type of linear programming problem. 2. It has a non-negativity constraint. It has structural constraints. The relationship between the variables and the constraints are linear. Hence the transportation model is also a linear programming problem. We know very well that these are the properties of a linear programming problem.

3. 4. Both can be solved by simplex method.negativity constraints. In transportation model it is laborious. Both have objective function. Both have linear objective function. Both have non .COMPARISON BETWEEN TRANSPORTATION MODEL AND GENERAL LINEAR PROGRAMMING MODEL Similarities 1. 2. .

Differences 1. The values of structural coefficients (i. xij) are not restricted to any value in general linear programming model. which is manufactured by the factories and demanded by the market points. all the constraints are related to one particular resource or commodity. the structural constraints are built up is homogeneous in transportation model. where as the general linear programming problem is solved by simplex method.e.Transportation model is basically a minimization model. That is one of the constraint may relate to machine hours and next one may relate to man-hours etc. 4. 3. where as general linear programming model may be of maximization type or minimization type. for which. The transportation problem is solved by transportation algorithm. where as it is restricted to values either 0 or 1 in transportation problem. 2. where as in general linear programming model they are different. In transportation problem. . The resources.

(b) Least .) give optimality test to check whether the solution is optimal or not. Once they are equal.APPROACH TO SOLUTION TO A TRANSPORTATION PROBLEM BY USING TRANSPORTATION ALGORITHM The steps used in getting a solution to a transportation problem is Initial Basic Feasible Solution Step1.row minimum. .west corner method.cost cell method. If not by opening a Dummy row or Dummy column balance the problem. Balancing means check whether sum of availability constraints must be equals to sum of requirement constraints.column minimum method) (c) Vogel's Approximation Method. The cost coefficients of dummy cells are zero. That is Σbi = Σd j . generally known as VAM. After getting the basic feasible solution (b.s.f. go to step two. Step2 A .Basic feasible solution can be obtained by three methods. they are (a) North . (Or Inspection method Or Matrix minimum . Balancing the given problem.

. where 'm' is the number of rows and 'n' is the number of columns. 2. . It should satisfy non negativity constraint. 3. Total number of allocations must be equal to (m + n – 1). The allocation made must satisfy the rim requirements. i.Properties of a Basic feasible Solution 1.e. it must satisfy availability constraints and requirement constraints.

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