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Earth Fault protection

Power Transmission and Distribution

©

Siemens AG 2006

7SA522 High Resistance Earth Fault Protection: Features  Earth (zero sequence) current protection. Blocking or Unblocking  Operation with weak infeed trip and echo  Instantaneous trip after switch-onto-fault Siemens AG 2006 Power Transmission and Distribution © Page 2 TLQ 2004 Distance Protection -Earth Fault Protection .005 A to 100 x In  Elimination of higher harmonics with special digital filters  Inrush-stabilisation with I0/100Hz  Teleprotection: Directional comparison. 4 stages  1 and 3 pole tripping with special phase selectors  3 definite-time stages  1 inverse-time stage: IEC. logarithmic inverse or ANSI characteristic this stage can also be used as a 4th definite-time stage  Directional determination with 3V0 and/or Ipol of an earthed power transformer  Directional determination with V2 and I2 (negative sequence)  Sensitive 3I0-measurement with a pick-up range: 0.

Example: Single phase fault with infeed from 2 sides IL1 IL2 IL3 Zf IE Page 3 TLQ 2004 Distance Protection -Earth Fault Protection Siemens AG 2006 Power Transmission and Distribution © .

Seq. B I2A Neg. Seq.Symmetrical Component representation: L1-E Fault I1A I1B A Pos. U0A I0B U0B Page 4 TLQ 2004 Distance Protection -Earth Fault Protection Siemens AG 2006 Power Transmission and Distribution © . U2A I2B U2B 3x RFault I0A Zero Seq.

I2L not needed for numerical relays.Polarizing Options for Directional Earth Fault Relays *) I0P *) U0P U2P I0L. U0P may also be internally calculated Page 5 TLQ 2004 Distance Protection -Earth Fault Protection Siemens AG 2006 Power Transmission and Distribution © .

Directional Characteristic (U0 and IY) Page 6 TLQ 2004 Distance Protection -Earth Fault Protection Siemens AG 2006 Power Transmission and Distribution © .

SOTF EF IE> Echo EF Fault Det. Teleprotection P P Direc. Time Stage P Direc. 3I0p P 3I0p = & P3146 AddTdelay T(3I0/IN) & EFp Trip T >EFp block Inverse Time Stage = Input signal (binary input) P = Parameter = Output Signal (alarm. Time Stage 3I0> Def.7SA522 High Resistance Earth Fault Protection: functional diagram Earth fault direction Inrushstabilisation >EF Trip rel. command) Page 7 TLQ 2004 Distance Protection -Earth Fault Protection Siemens AG 2006 Power Transmission and Distribution © . 3I0>>> 3I0>>> = & & T EF>>> Trip >EF>>> block 3I0>>> Def. Time Stage 3I0>> Def.

7SA522 .Directional earth fault protection: Settings General settings: Settings for direction: Settings of the stages: Page 8 TLQ 2004 Distance Protection -Earth Fault Protection Siemens AG 2006 Power Transmission and Distribution © .

Principle of phase selection logic with U and I .2 INOM & IL3E < 1.7 UNOM UL3E > 0.2 INOM If selection with U / I is not successful (U too large or I too small) then symmetrical component method is used Page 9 TLQ 2004 Distance Protection -Earth Fault Protection Siemens AG 2006 Power Transmission and Distribution © .7 UNOM OR Select L1-E with U / I IL1E > 2 INOM IL2E < 1.Example L1-E UL1E < 0.6 UNOM & UL2E > 0.

180° 180° .. 300° Faulty Phase L1-E L3-E L2-E I2 = a*I0 L3-E L1-E I2 = I0 L2-E I2 = a2*I0 Page 10 TLQ 2004 Distance Protection -Earth Fault Protection Siemens AG 2006 Power Transmission and Distribution © ...Phase Selection Logic . 60° 60° .Sequence Components Angle difference I2/I0 -60° .

1 V secondary) and limit relay high resistance earth fault sensitivity  Zero or negative sequence sources to be available behind relay location  Minimum settings at least > 3 times VT and CT inaccuracies  Current setting above line unsymmetry (M0 = Z01/Z0 or M2 = Z21/Z1) (series compensated lines require higher current setting due to possibility of unsymmetrical gap flashover)  Separate current threshold setting for tele-protection : 3I0<Min Teleprot Inhibits echo send / releases block signal send Must be set to consider capacitive charging currents  Teed load on line may reduce I2 at relay location  Teed earthed transformer may reduce I0 at relay location  DEF should be blocked during 1-pole ARC dead time  Pick-up threshold biasing by Iph > to avoid false operation with CT saturation Page 11 TLQ 2004 Distance Protection -Earth Fault Protection Siemens AG 2006 Power Transmission and Distribution © .DEF protection. Critical application issues  U0P or U2P may fall below critical value (approx.

& TS 1 transm. transm 1 TS & E/F.Earth fault protection Directional comparison teleprotection scheme A B E/F.7SA522 . rec. TS *Three-terminal schemes are supported as well Page 12 TLQ 2004 Distance Protection -Earth Fault Protection Siemens AG 2006 Power Transmission and Distribution © . frwd. & trip trip & rec. frwd.