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BEAMS
SHEAR AND MOMENT
2
Beam Shear
+ Shear and Moment
Diagrams
+ Vertical shear:
tendency for one part
of a beam to move
vertically with respect
to an adjacent part

3
Beam Shear
+Magnitude (V) = sum of vertical forces on
either side of the section
can be determined at any section along the
length of the beam
+Upward forces (reactions) = positive
+Downward forces (loads) = negative

+Vertical Shear = reactions loads
(to the left of the section)
4
Beam Shear
+Why?
+necessary to know the maximum value of
the shear
necessary to locate where the shear changes
from positive to negative
where the shear passes through zero
+Use of shear diagrams give a graphical
representation of vertical shear throughout
the length of a beam
5
Beam Shear
+ Simple beam
Span = 20 feet
2 concentrated loads

+ Construct shear
diagram
6
Beam Shear Example 1
1) Determine the reactions




Solving equation (3):





Solving equation (2):




Figure 6.7a =>
( )( )
( )( )
( )( )

+ = = . +
+ = = | +
= | +
) ' 20 ( ) ' 16 1200 ( ) ' 6 8000 ( 0 3
1200 8000 0 2
0 1
2
. .
1
2
. .
1
R M
R R F
F
lb lb
lb lb
y
x
( ) | = =
+ =


.
.
. .
2
. . . .
2
360 , 3
20
200 , 67
200 , 19 000 , 48 ' 20
lb
ft
ft lb
ft lb ft lb
R
R
( ) | =
+ =
.
1
. . .
1
840 , 5
360 , 3 200 , 1 000 , 8
lb
lb lb lb
R
R
7
Beam Shear Example 1 (pg. 64)
+ Determine the shear at various
points along the beam






.
) 18 (
.
) 8 (
.
) 1 (
360 , 3 200 , 1 000 , 8 480 , 5
160 , 2 000 , 8 480 , 5
480 , 5 0 480 , 5
lb
x
lb
x
lb
x
V
V
V
= =
= =
+ = =
=
=
=
8
Beam Shear Example 1
+ Conclusions
max. vertical shear = 5,840 lb.
max. vertical shear occurs at greater
reaction and equals the greater reaction
(for simple spans)
shear changes sign under 8,000 lb. load
where max. bending occurs





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Beam Shear Example 2
+ Simple beam
Span = 20 feet
1 concentrated load
1 uniformly distr. load

+ Construct shear diagram,
designate maximum shear,
locate where shear passes
through zero
10
Beam Shear Example 2
+ Determine the reactions





Solving equation (3):





Solving equation (2):

( )( )
( )( )
( )( )

+ = = . +
+ = = | +
= | +
) ' 24 ( ) ' 16 6000 ( )] ' 6 )( ' 12 000 , 1 [( 0 3
000 , 6 ) ' 12 000 , 1 ( 0 2
0 1
2
. .
1
2
. .
1
R M
R R F
F
lb ft lb
lb ft lb
y
x
( ) | = =
+ =


.
.
. .
2
. . . .
2
000 , 7
24
000 , 168
000 , 96 000 , 72 ' 24
lb
ft
ft lb
ft lb ft lb
R
R
( ) | =
+ =
.
1
. . .
1
000 , 11
000 , 7 000 , 6 000 , 12
lb
lb lb lb
R
R
11
Shear and Moment Diagrams


12
Beam Shear Example 2
+ Determine the shear at various
points along the beam










( ) | |
( ) | |
.
) 24 (
.
) 16 (
.
) 16 (
.
) 12 (
.
) 2 (
.
) 1 (
000 , 7 000 , 6 000 , 1 12 000 , 11
000 , 7 000 , 6 000 , 1 12 000 , 11
000 , 1 ) 000 , 1 12 ( 000 , 11
000 , 1 ) 000 , 1 12 ( 000 , 11
000 , 9 ) 000 , 1 2 ( 000 , 11
000 , 10 ) 000 , 1 1 ( 000 , 11
lb
x
lb
x
lb
x
lb
x
lb
x
lb
x
V
V
V
V
V
V
= + =
= + =
= =
= =
= =
= =
=
+ =
=
=
=
=
13
Beam Shear Example 2
+ Conclusions
max. vertical shear = 11,000 lb.
at left reaction
shear passes through zero at some
point between the left end and the
end of the distributed load
x = exact location from R
1

at this location, V = 0




feet x
x V
11
) 000 , 1 ( 000 , 11 0
=
= =
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Beam Shear Example 3
+ Simple beam with
overhanging ends
Span = 32 feet
3 concentrated loads
1 uniformly distr. load
acting over the entire beam

+ Construct shear diagram,
designate maximum shear,
locate where shear passes
through zero
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Beam Shear Example 3
( )( )
( )( )
( )( ) ( ) ( ) | |
( )( ) ( ) ( ) | | ) ' 20 ( 4
2
32
) ' 32 500 ( ) ' 28 000 , 2 ( ) ' 6 000 , 12 ( ) ' 4 000 , 4 ( 0 4
) ' 20 ( 8
2
32
) ' 32 500 ( ) ' 24 000 , 4 ( ) ' 14 000 , 12 ( ) ' 8 000 , 2 ( 0 3
) ' 32 500 ( 000 , 4 000 , 12 000 , 2 0 2
0 1
1
. . . . .
2
2
. . . . .
1
2
. . .
1
.
R M
R M
R R F
F
ft lb lb lb lb
ft lb lb lb lb
ft lb lb lb lb
y
x
+ = = . +
+ + + = = . +
+ + = = | +
= | +

( ) | = =
+ + + =


.
.
. .
2
. . . . . . . .
2
800 , 18
20
000 , 376
000 , 128 000 , 96 000 , 168 000 , 16 ' 20
lb
ft
ft lb
ft lb ft lb ft lb ft lb
R
R
( ) | = =
+ + + =


.
. .
1
. . . . . . . .
1
200 , 15
' 20
000 , 304
000 , 192 000 , 56 000 , 72 000 , 16 ' 20
lb
ft lb
ft lb ft lb ft lb ft lb
R
R
16
Determine the reactions







Solving equation (3):





Solving equation (4):





17
Beam Shear Example 3
+ Determine the shear at various
points along the beam









( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
. . . . . . .
) 32 (
. . . . . . .
) 28 (
. . . . . .
) 28 (
. . . . . .
) 22 (
. . . . .
) 22 (
. . . . .
) 8 (
. . . .
) 8 (
000 , 4 ' 32 500 000 , 12 000 , 2 800 , 18 200 , 15
000 , 6 ' 28 500 000 , 12 000 , 2 800 , 18 200 , 15
800 , 12 ' 28 500 000 , 12 000 , 2 200 , 15
800 , 9 ' 22 500 000 , 12 000 , 2 200 , 15
200 , 2 ' 22 500 000 , 2 200 , 15
200 , 9 ' 8 500 000 , 2 200 , 15
000 , 6 ' 8 500 000 , 2 0
lb ft lb lb lb lb lb
x
lb ft lb lb lb lb lb
x
lb ft lb lb lb lb
x
lb ft lb lb lb lb
x
lb ft lb lb lb
x
lb ft lb lb lb
x
lb ft lb lb
x
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
= + =
= + =
= =
= =
= =
= =
= =
=
+ =
=
+ =
=
+ =
=
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Beam Shear Example 3
+ Conclusions
max. vertical shear = 12,800
lb.
disregard +/- notations
shear passes through zero at
three points
R
1
, R
2
, and under the 12,000lb.
load
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Bending Moment
+ Bending moment: tendency of a beam to bend due
to forces acting on it

+ Magnitude (M) = sum of moments of forces on
either side of the section
can be determined at any section along the length of the
beam

+ Bending Moment = moments of reactions
moments of loads
(to the left of the section)

20
Bending Moment
21
Bending Moment Example 1
+ Simple beam
span = 20 feet
2 concentrated loads
shear diagram from
earlier

+ Construct moment
diagram


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Bending Moment Example 1
1) Compute moments at
critical locations
under 8,000 lb. load &
1,200 lb. load






( )
( )
. . . .
) ' 16 (
. . .
) ' 6 (
440 , 13 ) ' 10 000 , 8 ( ) ' 16 840 , 5 (
040 , 35 0 ) ' 6 840 , 5 (
ft lb lb lb
x
ft lb lb
x
M
M

=
= = . +
= = . +
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Bending Moment Example 2
+ Simple beam
Span = 20 feet
1 concentrated load
1 uniformly distr. Load
Shear diagram

+ Construct moment
diagram
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Bending Moment Example 2
1) Compute moments at
critical locations
When x = 11 ft. and under
6,000 lb. load






( ) ( )( ) | |
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) | |
. . .
) ' 16 (
. . .
) ' 11 (
000 , 56 4
2
12
12 000 , 1 ) ' 16 000 , 11 (
500 , 60
2
11
11 000 , 1 ) ' 11 000 , 11 (
ft lb ft lb lb
x
ft lb ft lb lb
x
M
M

=
= + = . +
= = . +
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Negative Bending Moment
+Previously, simple beams subjected to positive
bending moments only
moment diagrams on one side of the base line
concave upward (compression on top)
+Overhanging ends create negative moments
concave downward (compression on bottom)

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Negative Bending Moment
+ deflected shape has
inflection point
bending moment = 0

+ See example

27
Negative Bending Moment -
Example
Simple beam with
overhanging end on right
side
Span = 20
Overhang = 6
Uniformly distributed load
acting over entire span

Construct the shear and
moment diagram

Figure 6.12
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Negative Bending Moment -
Example
( )( )
( )( )
( )( ) ( ) | |

= = . +
+ = = | +
= | +
) ' 20 (
2
26
) ' 26 600 ( 0 3
) ' 26 600 ( 0 2
0 1
2
.
1
2
.
1
R M
R R F
F
ft lb
ft lb
y
x
1) Determine the
reactions



- Solving equation (3):





- Solving equation (4):



( ) | = =
=

.
.
. .
2
. .
2
140 , 10
20
800 , 202
800 , 202 ' 20
lb
ft
ft lb
ft lb
R
R
( ) | =
=
.
1
. .
1
460 , 5
140 , 10 600 , 15
lb
lb lb
R
R
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Negative Bending Moment -
Example
2) Determine the shear at
various points along
the beam and draw
the shear diagram








.
) 20 (
.
) 20 (
.
) 10 (
.
) 1 (
600 , 3 ) 600 20 ( 140 , 10 460 , 5
540 , 6 ) 600 20 ( 460 , 5
540 ) 600 10 ( 460 , 5
860 , 4 ) 600 1 ( 460 , 5
lb
x
lb
x
lb
x
lb
x
V
V
V
V
= + =
= =
= =
= =
+ =
=
=
=
30
Negative Bending Moment -
Example
3) Determine where the
shear is at a
maximum and where
it crosses zero
max shear occurs at the right
reaction = 6,540 lb.







feet x
x V
1 . 9
) 600 ( 460 , 5 0
=
= =
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Negative Bending Moment -
Example
4) Determine the
moments that the
critical shear points
found in step 3) and
draw the moment
diagram







( )( ) | |
( )( ) | |
. . .
) 20 (
. . .
) 1 . 9 (
800 , 10
2
20
' 20 600 ) ' 20 460 , 5 (
843 , 24
2
1 . 9
' 1 . 9 600 ) ' 1 . 9 460 , 5 (
ft lb ft lb lb
x
ft lb ft lb lb
x
M
M

=
= =
= =
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Negative Bending Moment -
Example
4) Find the location of the inflection
point (zero moment) and max.
bending moment








+ since x cannot =0, then we use x=18.2
+ Max. bending moment =24,843 lb.-ft.






( )( ) | |
f eet f eet x
x
x x x x M
x
x M
x
x x M
ft lb
2 . 18 ; 0
600
460 , 5 5460
) 300 ( 2
) 0 )( 300 ( 4 ) 460 , 5 ( 460 , 5
460 , 5 300 300 460 , 5 0
2
600 460 , 5 0
2
600 ) 460 , 5 ( 0
2
2 2
2
=


=
+ = = =
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
= =
33
Rules of Thumb/Review
+ shear is dependent on the loads and reactions
when a reaction occurs; the shear jumps up by the
amount of the reaction
when a load occurs; the shear jumps down by the
amount of the load
+ point loads create straight lines on shear diagrams
+ uniformly distributed loads create sloping lines of
shear diagrams
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Rules of Thumb/Review
+ moment is dependent upon the shear diagram
the area under the shear diagram = change in the
moment (i.e. A
shear diagram
= M)
+ straight lines on shear diagrams create sloping
lines on moment diagrams
+ sloping lines on shear diagrams create curves on
moment diagrams
+ positive shear = increasing slope
+ negative shear = decreasing slope

35
Typical Loadings
+ In beam design, only
need to know:
reactions
max. shear
max. bending moment
max. deflection