AERODYNAMIC DESIGN – AS5210

GROUP – M5

MI -5

Historical survey
RC Aircraft
Model No.
Catalina

Wing span
Flying
Fuselage
Motor
(mm)
weight (gm) length (mm)
(Brushless)
1800
2700
1097 35-XX outrunner

EP-Cessna 206
F.K. 10
Cessna 182 (EPO)
P-40 War hawk

1080
950
1410
1700

1190
1100
1100
3500

980
760
1030
1500

1750 KV
3536/1000 KV
3647/700 KV
50-60 out runner/250 KV

V- tail V35
Hobby

1280
2280

1348
4650

1000 3720/980 kV
2015 70 CC gasoline engine

P-47
Thunderbolt
J3 Cub

1600

3000

1416 4258/400 KV

1400

700

950 36-48
Outrunner/700 KV

Our Aircraft Specification
MI5
Range(Km)
Thrust(N)

1000-1500 2000-3000
0.8-1.0
To be determined

1000-1500

To be decided

Endurance(min)
Propeller

15-20
Twin blade propeller

300 Ws/Wo 0.8 0.444 1170 0 1000 2000 3000 Wo 4000 5000 .1 0 1171.445 Wo(gm) Calculated 1298.324 1298.3 0.8 0.7 4000 6000 Ws/Wo vs Wo 0.1 0 W0 = WPL + WProp system + WE 0 2000 WPL = Wcamera + Wantena Wo(gm) Wpp/Wo 2500(first initial guess) 0.4 Ws/Wo WProp system = Wmotor + Wpropeller + WBattery Wo 0.3 0.5 0.4 Wpp/Wo W0 = 0.First Weight Estimation WPL WPP WE 1− − W0 W0 Wpp/Wo vs Wo 0.444 1171.300 0.6 0.5 WPP = The weight of the power plant WPL = The weight of the payload WE = The empty weight W0 = Take off gross weight = 2 − 3 Kg 0.2 0.7 0.2 0.

1 -5.1821m 60 50 40 30 for Wo = 1170gm = 11.52 Slope = 0.46 1.938x + 42. 𝑉𝑐𝑟𝑢𝑖𝑠𝑒 . MI5 should fly at low altitudes and low velocity. Wing Design and Second Weight Estimation Selection of airfoil is the most important design aspect of an airplane.10 1.4 36.3 10 N/m2 𝑅𝑒 = 𝜌𝑎𝑖𝑟 .7 47 42 40.16 .8 30 40 stalling angle range of 13 .5 -5.495 N • 20 W/S = 53.6 14.8 27.16 1.328 80 W/S (N/m2 ) • • • 70 The flying altitude is chosen : 25m Designed cruising speed : 10 m/sec Aspect ratio (AR) : 6.5 Span = b = S × AR = 1.51 1.41 1. Low value for the stall speed and high maximum lift coefficient (high L/Dmax value).36 1.6 14.7 14.8 Leading edge radius (%c) 2.15 CLmax 1.59 2.59 1.184 m chord = 0. • • • W/S vs Wo 90 y = 0.𝐶 𝜇𝑎𝑖𝑟 = 124417 0 0 10 Airfoil NACA 0014 NACA 2410 NACA 2412 NACA 6412 NACA 6414 20 Wo (N) Zero lift Angle of Attack 0 -2.1 -2.8 14.44 𝐿/𝐷𝑚𝑎𝑥 αstall 14.Airfoil.

6 0.2 1 1 0.6 10 15 20 0.2 0 5 -0.4 -0.1 (Vcruise ) : 10 m/s.6 Drag Coefficient Cd 0.4 0.02 -0.8 0.02 0 -0.265 c Zero Lift angle : 2.2 0 -10 -5 -0.4 1.0 Cl vs Cd 1.2 0 0.6 0.04 0.01 0.06 0.03 -0.6 Aerodynamic centre : 0. Wing Design and Second Weight Estimation cont… Clmax : 1.02 0.04 0.4 1.2 0 -0.04 NACA 2410 1. 0.4  -0.Airfoil.6 1.8 Lift Coefficient Cl Lift Coefficient Cl vs 0.4 0.6 1.2 1.05 .41 αstall : 14.08 0.

Airfoil.573 10 = 25.615 m/s Wing Characteristics Aspect ratio Wing span Chord Taper Leading edge sweep Wing incidence : 6.83 k= 1 = 0.06121𝐶𝑙2 L/Dmax = 15.0163 + 0.184 m : 18.75 m/s : 1 Km : 15-20 min : 25 m : 100m Psteady = Tsteady × V = W/(Cl /Cd ) × 𝑉 = 0.73 Watt W = 0.21 cm : No taper : No sweep : 1 VStall = W S 1/2 1 ρC 2 Lmax Vcruise VLoiter Climb angle Climb rate Range Endurance Altitude Ceiling : 10 m/s : 10 m/s : 10 : 1. Wing Design and Second Weight Estimation cont… 𝐶𝑑 = 𝐶𝑑𝑜 + 𝑘𝐶𝑙2 = = 0.06121 π(e = Oswald′ s eff factor = 0.8286 × 10 = 8.8) AR 𝐶𝑑𝑜 = 𝑘𝐶𝑙2 Cd = 0.577N L/Dmax .286 Watt Dmin = Pclimb = Tclimb × V =(W sinθ𝑐𝑙𝑖𝑚𝑏 + 𝐷𝑚𝑖𝑛 ) × 𝑉 = 2.5 : 1.0326 Performance Characteristics Vstall : 7.

2V Size : 115mm x 35.5 0. Wing Design and Second Weight Estimation cont… Wo(gm) Structural Weight / Gross Weight (Ws/Wo) – vs – Gross Weight (Wo) 0.444 0.8 1466.43 1494 1000 2000 3000 Wo in gm Wo(gm) Calculated 0.444 1429.3 y = 1E-06x + 0.8 1466.1 0 0 Ws/Wo 1170 1429.2 0.8mm Net Weight : 428g Avionic 8g Servo (AV8A) Wire length : 18cm Weight : 8 gm Motor specification: Odin 2730 KV1300rpm Weight : 25 gm Thrust : 440 gm Propeller specification: Prop .Airfoil.434 0.4 Ws/Wo Battery specification KingMax3000mah 35C 22.444 0.43 1494 1494 4000 5000 .5mm x 52.11 x 6 cm 0.443 0.6 0.

Wing Loading And Thrust to Weight Ratio n = load factor = 1.41 + 𝑊 ) 𝑠 j2 ( g 𝜌∞𝐶𝐿𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝜇𝑟 1.81×1.41×0.152 × W s 9.5600 m 50 m Ground Roll (Sg) = 30.326 m Flare (Sf) Sf = R sin θf = 1.4 (W/S)Landing= 37.04085 m Approach (Sa) Sa = (1−hf ) sin θa =18.22×1.15 θa = 30 2𝑊 𝜌𝑆𝐶𝐿𝑚𝑎𝑥 2× + W s 1.47 N/m2 1m hf = R (1-cos θa ) = 0.3 Landing θf ~ θa Sg = j N Sg = 3×1.22×1.114 m .

81 Wing Surface Area = = = 𝟎.222×102 W s Climb 3CD0 = kCL2 = 36.494 × 9 × .1133.55 N/m2 W s cruise Bank Angle.53 N/m2 = 34. ( T W W ) = 0. = 31.23 N/m2 W s Turning = ( T )± W T 2 4n2 CDo ) − W πeAR 2n2 qπeAR ( W s minimum = π × e × 6.53 Span = b = S × AR = 𝟏.5 × 0. 𝟐𝟑𝟕𝟒 𝐦 AR D .Wing Loading And Thrust to Weight Ratio cont… W s cruise 1 2 × 2 = × ρ × Vcruise × π × e × AR × CDo = 0.53 N/m2 Wo 1. 𝟒𝟔𝟒 𝐦𝟐 W/S 31. 𝟕𝟒 𝐦 chord = b = 𝟎. n = secϕ = 2 T L n = ( ) ( )max.5×1. ϕ = 60o Load Factor.0163 = 31.

𝟎𝟔𝟑𝟏𝟕 15.0163 31.1408 hOB = 1m W Ground Run (Sg) = 15.83 max qCDo W s = + n2 qπAR W s T W Takeoff θOB = cos-1(1 – hOB/R) = 12.1579 = 0.22×102 ×π×6.5×1.Wing Loading And Thrust to Weight Ratio cont… T W climb = sinθ + qCDo + W ( ) s W s ( 1 ) qπARe = sin100 + 0.015 m 25 m .5×0.53 + 31.2368 T = 3.5×1.47 N T W cruise T W Turn = = 1 L D 1 = 𝟎.22×102 ×0.65o = 0.53 0.98 m 1.80 = 0.21 s Sg= T gρ∞ CLmax ( W ) Take off(Sa) Sa = R sin(θOB) = 9.

64mm ≈ 7mm h3 26.870m h = 26.7mm t (thickness of Spar) Z Y ςallowable = Ixx Spar C = 0.56 mm = ςallow 4.1 Mpamedium density = = 4.003 gm .267m X ςcompressive Yield Strength of Balsa Wood 12.267 = 8.45 * 0.73 Weight of Spar (mspar) = 52.Initial Sizing and Layout Wing Spar Lift Distribution Load (L) = W/S * C = 31.03Mpa Factor of safety from literature 3 Mroot × Zmax 3181 N − mm × 13.35 mm t × h3 4 = = = 10537.405 N/m Spar made of Balsa Wood (160 Kg/m3) Z b/2 = 0.03 N/mm2 12 Thickness of the Spar t = Ixx × 12 10537.56 × 12 = = 6.

Initial Sizing and Layout cont… Wing Ribs Balsa Wood Z Area = 4887.76 gm Thickness = 1mm mWing= 245.80 gm .7mm 267 mm Weight of 20 Ribs (mRib) = 156.571mm2 Number of Ribs = 20 Thickness of the Rib = 10mm = 0.4 gm Skin Foam (41 Kg/m3) Area = 944021mm2 Weight of the Skin (mwing skin) = 37.01m X 26.

Initial Sizing and Layout cont… Component Thumb Rule Horizontal Tail 25 – 30 % Wing Surface Area Vertical Tail 35 % of Stabilizer Area Fuselage Length 75 % of Wing Span Nose Length 25 % of the fuselage length Wing trailing edge to stabilizer 40 % of the fuselage length Horizontal tail mskin.45 mm2 mhor tail= 66.91 = 19. hor tail= 11. hor tail= 10 nos X 3. Ver tail= 5 nos X 3.61 gm mRibs.91 = 39. Ver tail= 5.31 g. hor tail= 15. Ver tail= 4.06 gm mRibs.55 gm mspar.1 gm mspar. Vertical tail mskin.60 gm Spar X – n Area = 93.11 gm .50 gm mver tail= 29.

Initial Sizing and Layout cont… Fuselage 5mm 35mm 60mm 5mm Fuselage Length = 1304 mm mmain fuselage= 229.5gms mfuselage = 260.8 245.1 mm 60mm Structural components Fuselage Wing Horizontal tail Vertical tail Power plant Payload Servo controller + receiver Structural attachments .8 66.31gms Weight(g) 260.11 453 100 16 30 23 mstructure= 602. . Landing gear mNose fuselage= 31.31 29.2gm.8 gm 35mm Nose Fuselage Length = 326.glue etc.

Initial Aircraft Modelling .

Initial Aircraft Modelling cont… .

Initial Aircraft Modelling cont… .

Initial Aircraft Modelling cont… .

Initial Aircraft Modelling cont… .

16/746)1/4 D=10.774 1.196 19.956 24.547 1.06 88.66 79.757 0.66 79.78 inches Pitch ‘p’ = 7 inches APC 10x7 Thin Electric Propeller POWER CONDITIONS TAKE OFF VELOCITY (M/S) Advance Ratio J =V/(n*D) THRUST T= Ct × ρ × × D4 n2 P = Cp × ρ × n3 × D5 (WATTS) EFFICIENCY ηp =JxCt/Cp SPEED COEFFICIENT Cs =J/(Cp)0.957 CLIMB 10 0.16.522 TURNING .89 0.14 0.139 25.78 72.Propeller Design and Initial sizing Diameter = 22*(HP)1/4 P= 43.547 1.479 2.02 14.02 CRUISE 10 0.56 1.16 watt D=22*(43.2 (N) 8.956 24.56 1.78 1.

00958 + 0.033 t 4 c deq = 4 Amax (X−n) π 1.34 × M 0.(component Skin fric coeff) 1.01276 + 0.wing = 3.10 × 10−3 Cf.28 = 0.5 CD0.19 × 10−3 Cf = × FormFactorcomponent × Scomponent wettesd area Sref (wing area) FFfuselage = 1 + FFwing = 1 + 0.parasite = 0.39 × 10−3 Cf.Ver stab = 4.fuselage = 1.6 x/c max 6 L deq × 3 t c + L deq 400 + 100 = 1.002704 + 0.328 (Re)1/2 Cf.01276 CD = 0.Drag Polar Estimation CD0 = Cf.18 cos Λ 0.000479 = 0.Hor stab = 4.8631 FFwing = FFHor stab = FFVer Stab 103932.0612 CL 2 .38 × 10−3 Cf.00958 mm2 Total CDO = CDO PARA + CDO MISC + CDO L&P CDO = 0.

3 0.7 32.65 26.0612 CL 2 -0.25 0.22 22.15 0.44 .05 0 CD -2 -1.806 3.Drag Polar Estimation cont… CD Drag Polar 0.1 0.876 9.25 34.58 2.47 2.01276 + 0.5 -1 = 0.5 0 CL 0.365 1.5 2 Thrust adequacy Thrust required (N) Maneuver Cruise Climb (θ = 10 ) Turning (n = ) Take-off As per First T/W estimate Power required (W) New Values As per First T/W estimate New Values 0.314 0.725 8.5 1 1.53 2.59 19.925 3.06 33.2 0.

04 33.50 518.64 1253.40 56.G (mm) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Z C.10 1243.G = 56.68 Y C.97 652.73 53.G (mm) 425.35 mm Z X Y Components Wing Fuselage Hor Tail Ver Tail Propeller Landing Gear Battery Aircraft Weight (gms) 284 289 96 15 22 23 427 1156 X C.45 264.35 .G = 5.68 mm YC.76 82.95 592.CENTER OF GRAVITY LOCATION Xcg = mi x i mi Zcg = mi z i mi Ycg = mi Yi mi XC.69 357.80 31.4e-5 mm ZC.36 89.G = 518.G (mm) 76.94 20.

719 = 1.0738 per radian Clαh = 5.25 X np = 0.7073 = 0.0508 per degree = 0.0134 per radian 𝜕αh 𝜕α =1− Xacw = 𝜕∈ 𝜕α Xacw C = 0.7818 per radian S 𝜕α CLα Xacw − Cmαfus + ηh S h CLαh h Xach 𝜕α w = S 𝜕α CLα + ηh S h CLαh h 𝜕α w ηh = ηhT =0 Cmα fuslage = K f Wf2 Lf CSw (wing surface area) × Tcruise 1+ q × Ap = 0.9 × 1 + 0.9343mm .85787 Xacw = 66.Stability and Trim Analysis X np Clα =4.1 61 × 0.75mm Xach = 906.

436α + 1.5 -1 -1.Total = 6.0604α − 4.5 Wing angle of attack (α) 6 8 10 12 .654δf Cmcg = −2.5 0 Cm-cg -4 -2 0 2 4 -0.053 1 Chart Title 0.Stability and Trim Analysis cont… Cmcg = CLα α Xcg − Xacw + Cmw + Cmfus + Cmw δf − ηh δf Sh C X − Xcg Sw Lh ach • δf is elevator deflection • For static trim condition the total pitching moment must be equal to zero. CL.411δf − 0.

02007 + 0.00529 Front Wheel Strut 0.876 x 10 -5 Total CDlg Slgi Swing CD = 0.01276+0.706 x 10-5 Rear Wheels Strut 3.0612CL2 0.Zero lift drag of landing gear n=3 CD0lg = Landing gear weight = 23 gm Component i=1 CDo Front Wheel 0.00129 Rear Wheels 6.00668 CD= 0.0612CL2 .

3×Vmax = 21.41 N/m2 S Take off W = 39.92 N/m2 S cruise W = 187. 𝟔𝟖 𝑺 𝒍𝒂𝒏𝒅𝒊𝒏𝒈 W = 34.03136×V2 3 VC = 21.0.V-n Diagram 2×W = 5.6 m/s ρ × s × CL max Vstall = V – n diagram 3. 𝟒𝟎𝟕 climb takeoff = 0.5 19 V (m/s) = 0.5 n = .42 m/s .max × S 0.42 N/m2 S Turning 2.86 N/m2 S climb W = 62.5 0 -1 A 4 9 14 -0.5 T W 2 n 1.5×ρ×S×Vmax3+K×W2/(0.5×ρ×V2×S) / W = 0.5 VB = 1 2 × nmax = 3 × W ρ × CL.8 m/s T W T W 0.5 n = (Clmax×0.0403 24 D P= Cd0×0.5 𝑻 𝑾 = 9.3093 = 0.069 cruise 𝒕𝒖𝒓𝒏 N/ 𝒎𝟐 = 𝟎.5×ρ×S×Vmax) VC = 1.00132×V2 -1 -1.42 m/s C B 𝑾 = 𝟐𝟒.

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