How Cells Release Stored Energy

Chapter 8

8.1 Main Types of Energy-Releasing Pathways
Anaerobic pathways
• Evolved first • Don’t require oxygen • Start with glycolysis in cytoplasm • Completed in cytoplasm

Aerobic pathways
• Evolved later • Require oxygen • Start with glycolysis in cytoplasm • Completed in mitochondria

Summary Equation for Aerobic Respiration

C6H1206 + 6O2
glucose oxygen

6CO2 + 6H20
carbon dioxide water

CYTOPLASM 2 ATP glucose Glycolysis e.+ oxygen water 32 ATP Typical Energy Yield: 36 ATP Figure 8.+ H + 2 CO2 4 CO2 Overview of Aerobic Krebs Respiration Cycle 2 NADH 8 NADH e.+ H + e+ H+ 2 FADH2 2 ATP e- Electron Transfer Phosphorylation H+ e.+ H+ 2 NADH 4 ATP (2 ATP net) 2 pyruvate e.3 Page 135 .

The Role of Coenzymes • NAD+ and FAD accept electrons and hydrogen • Become NADH and FADH2 • Deliver electrons and hydrogen to the electron transfer chain .

8.2 GLYCOLYSIS Glucose • A simple sugar (C6H12O6) • Atoms held together by covalent bonds In-text figure Page 136 .

Glycolysis Occurs in Two Stages • Energy-requiring steps – ATP energy activates glucose and its six-carbon derivatives • Energy-releasing steps – The products of the first part are split into three- carbon pyruvate molecules – ATP and NADH form .

Energy-Requiring Steps glucose ATP ADP P glucose-6-phosphate Energy-Requiring Steps of Glycolysis 2 ATP invested P fructose-6-phosphate ATP ADP P P fructose1.4(2) Page 137 .6-bisphosphate P PGAL P PGAL Figure 8.

3-bisphosphoglycerate ADP Releasing ATP P 3-phosphoglycerate Steps P 2-phosphoglycerate P PEP H2 O PEP ADP ATP pyruvate ADP ATP pyruvate Figure 8.3-bisphosphoglycerate ADP ATP P 3-phosphoglycerate P 2-phosphoglycerate H2 O P P P Energy1.P NAD+ Pi PGAL P NADH NAD+ Pi PGAL NADH P P 1.4 Page 137 .

Glycolysis: Net Energy Yield Energy requiring steps: 2 ATP invested Energy releasing steps: 2 NADH formed 4 ATP formed Net yield is 2 ATP and 2 NADH .

8.3 Second Stage Reactions • Preparatory reactions – Pyruvate is oxidized into two-carbon acetyl units and carbon dioxide – NAD+ is reduced • Krebs cycle – The acetyl units are oxidized to carbon dioxide – NAD+ and FAD are reduced .

Preparatory Reactions pyruvate NAD+ NADH acetyl-CoA coenzyme A (CoA) O O carbon dioxide CoA .

6 Page 139 ATP ADP + phosphate group .Krebs Cycle NADH NAD+ =CoA acetyl-CoA CoA oxaloacetate citrate H2O H2O malate H2O FADH2 FAD succinate fumarate NAD+ isocitrate O O NADH a-ketoglutarate NAD+ NADH CoA O O succinyl-CoA Figure 8.

The Krebs Cycle Overall Reactants • • • • Acetyl-CoA 3 NAD+ FAD ADP and Pi Overall Products • • • • • Coenzyme A 2 CO2 3 NADH FADH2 ATP .

Results of the Second Stage • All of the carbon molecules in pyruvate end up in carbon dioxide • Coenzymes are reduced (they pick up electrons and hydrogen) • One molecule of ATP forms • Four-carbon oxaloacetate regenerates .

Coenzyme Reductions during First Two Stages • Glycolysis • Preparatory reactions • Krebs cycle 2 NADH 2 NADH 2 FADH2 + 6 NADH 2 FADH2 + 10 NADH • Total .

8.4 Electron Transfer Phosphorylation • Occurs in the mitochondria • Coenzymes deliver electrons to electron transfer chains • Electron transfer sets up H+ ion gradients • Flow of H+ down gradients powers ATP formation .

Creating an H+ Gradient OUTER COMPARTMENT NADH INNER COMPARTMENT .

Making ATP: Chemiosmotic Model ATP INNER COMPARTMENT ADP + Pi .

then combines with H+ to form water .Importance of Oxygen • Electron transport phosphorylation requires the presence of oxygen • Oxygen withdraws spent electrons from the electron transfer chain.

Summary of Energy Harvest (per molecule of glucose) • Glycolysis – 2 ATP formed by substrate-level phosphorylation • Krebs cycle and preparatory reactions – 2 ATP formed by substrate-level phosphorylation • Electron transport phosphorylation – 32 ATP formed .

Energy Harvest Varies • NADH formed in cytoplasm cannot enter mitochondrion • It delivers electrons to mitochondrial membrane • Membrane proteins shuttle electrons to NAD+ or FAD inside mitochondrion • Electrons given to FAD yield less ATP than those given to NAD+ .

5 kcal are conserved in each ATP • When 36 ATP form. 270 kcal (36 X 7.Efficiency of Aerobic Respiration • 686 kcal of energy are released • 7.5) are captured in ATP • Efficiency is 270 / 686 X 100 = 39 percent • Most energy is lost as heat .

8.5 Anaerobic Pathways • Do not use oxygen • Produce less ATP than aerobic pathways • Two types – Fermentation pathways – Anaerobic electron transport .

Fermentation Pathways • Begin with glycolysis • Do not break glucose down completely to carbon dioxide and water • Yield only the 2 ATP from glycolysis • Steps that follow glycolysis serve only to regenerate NAD+ .

Lactate Fermentation GLYCOLYSIS C6H12O6 2 ATP energy input 2 ADP 2 2 NAD+ NADH 4 ATP energy output 2 pyruvate 2 ATP net LACTATE FORMATION electrons. hydrogen from NADH 2 lactate .

GLYCOLYSIS Alcoholic Fermentation C6H12O6 2 ATP energy input 2 ADP 2 NAD+ 2 4 ATP 2 pyruvate NADH energy output 2 ATP net ETHANOL FORMATION 2 H2O 2 CO2 2 acetaldehyde electrons. hydrogen from NADH 2 ethanol .

Anaerobic Electron Transport • Carried out by certain bacteria • Electron transfer chain is in bacterial plasma membrane • Final electron acceptor is compound from environment (such as nitrate). not oxygen • ATP yield is low .

11 Page 145 KREBS CYCLE .6 ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES Figure 8.FOOD fats fatty acids glycogen complex carbohydrates proteins amino acids NH3 urea carbon backbones glycerol simple sugars glucose-6-phosphate GLYCOLYSIS PGAL pyruvate acetyl-CoA 8.

Evolution of Metabolic Pathways • When life originated. atmosphere had little oxygen • Earliest organisms used anaerobic pathways • Later. noncyclic pathway of photosynthesis increased atmospheric oxygen • Cells arose that used oxygen as final acceptor in electron transport .

8.7 Processes Are Linked sunlight energy PHOTOSYNTHESIS water + carbon dioxide AEROBIC RESPIRATION sugar molecules oxygen In-text figure Page 146 .

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