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:

Manish Bhutani

Assistant Professor,

Deptt. Of Civil Engg.

DAVIET, Jalandhar

2

Learning out Come

• REVIEW

• TYPES OF TANKS

• DESIGN OF RECTANGULAR WATER TANK

RESTING ON GROUND WITH RIGID BASE

3

INTRODUCTION

4

• Storage tanks are built for storing water, liquid

petroleum, petroleum products and similar

liquids

• Designed as crack free structures to eliminate

any leakage

• Permeability of concrete is directly

proportional to water cement ratio.

• Cement content ranging from 330 Kg/m

3

to 530

Kg/m

3

is recommended in order to keep

shrinkage low.

INTRODUCTION

5

Use of high strength deformed bars of grade

Fe415 are recommended for the construction of

liquid retaining structures.

Correct placing of reinforcement, use of small

sized and use of deformed bars lead to a

diffused distribution of cracks.

A crack width of 0.1mm has been accepted as

permissible value in liquid retaining

structures.

INTRODUCTION

6

Code of Practice for the storage of Liquids-

IS3370 (Part I to IV)

Fractured strength of concrete is computed

using the formula given in clause 6.2.2 of IS 456

-2000 ie., fcr=0.7\f

ck

MPa.

Allowable stresses in reinforcing steel as per

IS 3370 are

o

st

= 115 MPa for Mild steel (Fe250) and

o

st

= 150 MPa for HYSD bars(Fe415)

INTRODUCTION

7

In order to minimize cracking due to

shrinkage and temperature, minimum

reinforcement is recommended as:

For thickness s 100 mm = 0.3 %

For thickness > 450 mm = 0.2%

For thickness between 100 mm to 450

mm = varies linearly from 0.3% to 0.2%

For concrete thickness > 225 mm, two layers

of reinforcement be placed, one near water

face and other away from water face.

INTRODUCTION

8

Cover to reinforcement is greater of

i) 25 mm,

ii) Diameter of main bar

For tension on outer face:

ost=140 MPa for Mild steel and

ost=230 MPa for HYSD bars

For concrete thickness > 225 mm, two layers

of reinforcement be placed, one near water

face and other away from water face.

TYPES OF WATER TANK

9

11

RESTING ON GROUND

12

UNDERGROUND

13

ELEVATED

14

CIRCULAR

15

RECTANGULAR

16

SPHERICAL

17

INTZ

18

CONICAL BOTTOM

19

Circular Tanks Resting On Ground

20

• The tank has tendency to increase in diameter

due to hydrostatic pressure

• This increase in diameter all along the height

of the tank depends on the nature of joint at

the junction of slab and wall

22

• When the joints at base are flexible,

hydrostatic pressure induces maximum

increase in diameter at base and no increase

in diameter at top

• When the joint at base is rigid, the base does

not move

23

Design of Circular Tanks resting on ground

with flexible base

25

• When the thickness ≤ 225 mm, the steel placed at centre.

• When the thickness > 225mm, at each face A

st

/2 of steel as

hoop reinforcement is provided

• The stress in concrete is computed as

If oc s o

cat

, where o

cat

=0.27\fck , then no crack appears in

concrete

st st c

c

A ) 1 m ( t 1000

2 / HD

A ) 1 m ( A

T

÷ +

¸

=

÷ +

= o

26

• While designing, the thickness of concrete wall can be

estimated as t=30H+50 mm, where H is in meters

• Distribution steel in the form of vertical bars are

provided such that minimum steel area requirement is

satisfied

• As base slab is resting on ground and no bending stresses

are induced hence minimum steel distributed at bottom

and the top are provided

27

• While designing, the thickness of concrete wall can be

estimated as t=30H+50 mm, where H is in meters

• Distribution steel in the form of vertical bars are

provided such that minimum steel area requirement is

satisfied

• As base slab is resting on ground and no bending stresses

are induced hence minimum steel distributed at bottom

and the top are provided

28

Problem on Circular Tanks resting on

ground with flexible base

29

Prob. No. 1:

Design a circular water tank with flexible connection at base for a capacity of

4,00,000 liters. The tank rests on a firm level ground. The height of tank

including a free board of 200 mm should not exceed 3.5m. The tank is open

at top. Use M 20 concrete and Fe 415 steel. Draw to a suitable scale:

a. Plan at base

b. Cross section through centre of tank.

30

Step 1: Dimension of tank

Depth of water H=3.5 -0.2 = 3.3 m

Volume V = 4,00,000/1000 = 400 m

3

Area of tank A = 400/3.3 = 121.2 m

2

Diameter of tank ~13 m

The thickness is assumed as : t = 30H+50=149~ 160 mm

31

Step 2: Design of Vertical wall

Max hoop tension at bottom Area of steel Minimum steel to be

provided

Ast min=0.24%of area of concrete

= 0.24x 1000x160/100 = 384 mm

2

The steel required is more than the minimum required

Let the diameter of the bar to be used be 16 mm, area of each

bar =201 mm2

Spacing of 16 mm diameter bar=1430x 1000/201= 140.6 mm c/c

Provide #16 @ 140 c/c as hoop tension steel

32

Step 3: Check for tensile stress

Area of steel provided Ast

provided=201x1000/140 = 1436.16 mm2

Modular ratio m=Stress in concrete Permissible

stress ocat=0.27\fck= 1.2 N/mm2

Actual stress is equal to permissible stress, hence

safe.

33

Step 4: Curtailment of hoop steel:

Quantity of steel required at 1m, 2m, and at top

are tabulated. In this table the maximum

spacing is taken an 3 x 160 = 480 mm

34

Step 5: Vertical reinforcement:

For temperature and shrinkage distribution steel

in the form of vertical reinforcement is provided

@ 0.24 % ie., Ast=384 mm

2

.

Spacing of 10 mm diameter bar =

78.54x1000/384=204 mm c/c ~ 200 mm c/c

35

Step 6: Tank floor:

As the slab rests on firm ground, minimum steel

@ 0.3 % is provided. Thickness of slab is

assumed as 150 mm.

8 mm diameter bars at 200 c/c is provided in both

directions at bottom and top of the slab.

36

37

38

Design of Circular Tanks resting on ground

with Rigid base

39

• Due to fixity at base of wall, the upper part of

the wall will have hoop tension and lower part

bend like cantilever.

• For shallow tanks with large diameter, hoop stresses

are very small and the wall act more like cantilever

• For deep tanks of small diameter the cantilever

action due to fixity at the base is small and the hoop

action is predominant

40

• The exact analysis of the tank to determine the

portion of wall in which hoop tension is

predominant and the other portion in which

cantilever action is predominant, is difficult

1. Simplified methods of analysis are

2. Reissner’s method

3. Carpenter’s simplified method

4. Approximate method

5. IS code method

41

IS code method

• Tables 9,10 and 11 of IS 3370 part IV gives

coefficients for computing hoop tension, moment

and shear for various values of H

2

/Dt

• Hoop tension, moment and shear is computed as

T= coefficient ( ¸

w

HD/2)

M= coefficient (¸

w

H

3

)

V= coefficient (¸

w

H

2

)

42

• Thickness of wall required is computed from BM

consideration

where,

Q= ½ o

cbc

jk

j=1-(k/3)

b = 1000mm

Qb

M

d =

st cbc

cbc

m

m

k

o + o

o

=

43

IS code method

• Over all thickness is then computed as

t = d+cover.

• Area of reinforcement in the form of vertical bars on

water face is computed as

• Area of hoop steel in the form of rings is computed

as

jd

M

A

st

st

o

=

st

1 st

T

A

o

=

44

IS code method

• Distribution steel and vertical steel for outer face of

wall is computed from minimum steel consideration

• Tensile stress computed from the following equation

should be less than the permissible stress for safe

design

st

c

A ) 1 m ( t 1000

T

÷ +

= o

the permissible stress is 0.27 \fck

45

IS code method

• Base slab thickness generally varies from

150mm to 250 mm and minimum steel is

distributed to top and bottom of slab.

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