Dr Elham Ahmadnezhad is a researcher at the Department of Disaster and Emergency Management, National institute of health research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. I’m a medical doctor and now I am studying PhD of Epidemiology. My interest is Disaster Epidemiology. My Email: elhamahmadnezhad@gmail.com

Elham Ahmadnezhad. Mixed Methods



Mixed Methods 5/1/2013 3 .       Briefly History Why Mixed Methods? Type of Research designs Criteria for Choosing a Strategies Alternative Strategies and Visual Models Data Collection Procedures Data Analysis and Validation Procedures  Report Presentation Structure Elham Ahmadnezhad.

 1959: Concept of mixing different methods by Campbell & Fiske. Mixed Methods 5/1/2013 4 .D. Elham Ahmadnezhad. Sieber.  1989-2003: Expanded procedures for Mixed methods By Tashakkori & Teddli and then Creswell. 1979: Converging or triangulating different Qualitative & Quantitative data sources by Jick. (Psychologists)   1973: Combined the Qualitative & Quantitative data by S.

reasons. these methods can be complimentary Elham Ahmadnezhad. Mixed Methods 5/1/2013 5 . explanations or examples  Qualitative research provides data about meaning and context regarding the people and environments of study › Findings are often not generalizable because of the small numbers & narrow range of participants  Both methods have strengths and weaknesses › When used together. Quantitative data can reveal generalizable information for a large group of people › These data often fail to provide specific answers.

such as survey •Ethnographies •Grounded theory •Case Studies •Transformative Elham Ahmadnezhad. Mixed Methods 5/1/2013 6 . Qualitative and Mixed Methods Quantitative research Methods • Experimental designs Qualitative research Methods • Narratives Mixed Methods Research Methods • Sequential •Phenomenologies •Concurrent •NonExperimental designs.Quantitative.

Four decisions go into selecting a mixed methods strategy Implement ation No Sequence Concurrent SequentialQualitative first SequentialQualitative first Priority Integration Theoretical Perspective Equal At data collection At data analysis At data interpretation With some combination Explicit Qualitative Quantitative Implicit Elham Ahmadnezhad. Mixed Methods 5/1/2013 7 .

gender. lifestyle.. class) be used in the study? Elham Ahmadnezhad. Mixed Methods 5/1/2013 8 . What is implementation sequence of the quantitative and qualitative data collection in the proposed study?  What priority will be given to the quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis?  At what stage in the research project will the quantitative and qualitative data and finding be integrated?  Will an overall theoretical perspective (e. race/ ethnicity.g.

Mixed Methods 5/1/2013 9 .Sequential Explanatory Design QUAN Data Collection QUAN Data Analysis Qual Data Collection Qual Data Analysis Interpretation of Entre analysis Elham Ahmadnezhad.

Mixed Methods 5/1/2013 10 .Sequential Exploratory Design QUAL Data Collection QUAL Data Analysis Quan Data Collection Quan Data Analysis Interpretation of Entre Analysis Elham Ahmadnezhad.

Sequential Transformative Design QUAL quan Vision. Advocacy. Mixed Methods 5/1/2013 11 . Ideology. Framework QUAN qual Vision. Advocacy. Framwork Elham Ahmadnezhad. Ideology.

Concurrent Triangulation Strategy QUAN QUAN Data Collection QUAL QUAL Data Collection Quan Data Analysis Data Results Compared Qual Data Analysid Elham Ahmadnezhad. Mixed Methods 5/1/2013 12 .

Concurrent Nested Strategy Analysis of Findings Analysis of Findings Elham Ahmadnezhad. Mixed Methods 5/1/2013 13 .

Mixed Methods 5/1/2013 14 .Concurrent Transformative Strategy Elham Ahmadnezhad.

purposeful sampling is used to that individuals are selected because they have experienced the central phenomenon. Research.  Recognize that quantitative data often involve random sampling. In qualitative data collection. Elham Ahmadnezhad. it is also used in qual. Mixed Methods 5/1/2013 15 . so that each individual has no equal probability of being selected and the sample can be generalized to the larger population. Although reduction information to numbers is the approach used in quantitative research. Some forms of data such as interviews and observations can be either quantitative or qualitative. Identify and be specific about the type of data.

the general procedures can be detailed even further. For e.g. A discussion of this approach might include describing the use of survey data collection followed by both descriptive and infertial data analysis in the first phase. Relate the procedures specifically to the visual model. Elham Ahmadnezhad. in a sequential explanatory model. Mixed Methods 5/1/2013 16 . Then qualitative observations and coding and thematic analysis within an ethnographic design might be mentioned for the second phase.

For instance. Elham Ahmadnezhad. This quantification of qualitative data enables a researcher to compare quantitative results with the qualitative data. Some of the more popular approaches:  Data transformation: In the concurrent strategies involve creating codes and themes qualitatively. in a factor analysis of data from a scale on an instrument.It’s related to the type of research strategy chosen for the procedures. the researcher may create factors or themes that then can be compared with themes from the qualitative database. Mixed Methods 5/1/2013 17 . then counting the number of times they occur in the text data.

g. use these statements as specific items and the themes for scales to create a survey instrument that is grounded in the views of the participants. collect qualitative interviews (e. with families) to gather quantitative results about a sample. an analysis of quantitative data in the first phase can yield extreme or outlier cases. validate the instrument with large sample  Examine multiple levels: in a concurrent nested model. conduct a survey at one level (e. At the same time. Explore outliers: In a sequential model. obtain themes and specific statements from participants in an initial qualitative data collection.  Instrument development: In a sequential approach. Mixed Methods 5/1/2013 18 .g. final phase might be to representative of a population. Elham Ahmadnezhad. In the next phase.. Follow-up qualitative interviews with these outlier cases can provide insight about why they diverged from the quantitative sample. A third. with individuals) to explore the phenomenon with specific individuals in families.

Each of methods has the specific ways. the strategies that will be used to check the accuracy of the findings need to be mentioned. Mixed Methods 5/1/2013 19 . It is necessary the validation of both qualitative and quantitative phases of study. Elham Ahmadnezhad. for the qualitative data.

 For a sequential study. in the conclusions or interpretation phase of the study. Elham Ahmadnezhad. Mixed Methods 5/1/2013 20 . the qualitative data collection and analysis could come first followed by the quantitative data collection and analysis. Then. with separate headings of each. mixed method researcher typically organize the report of procedures into quantitative data collection and qualitative data analysis followed by qualitative data and collection and analysis. Alternatively. the researcher comments on how the qualitative findings helped to elaborate on or extend the quantitative results. the writer typically will present the project as two distinct phases. In either structure.

but the analysis and interpretation combines the two forms of data to seek convergence among the results. The structure of this type of mixed methods study does not as clearly make a distinction between the quantitative and qualitative phases. Elham Ahmadnezhad. Mixed Methods 5/1/2013 21 . The quantitative and qualitative data collection may be presented in separate section. In concurrent study.

 In a transformative study. Elham Ahmadnezhad. a separate section may advance an agenda for change or reform that has developed as a result of the research. Mixed Methods 5/1/2013 22 . In the end of the study. the structure typically involves advancing the advocacy issue in the beginning of the study and then using either the sequential or concurrent structure as a means of organizing the content of the study.

Thousand Oaks. Research design. Tashakkori. J. CA: Sage. W. & Tedllie. C. Handbook of mixed methods in the social and behavioral sciences. Mixed Methods 5/1/2013 23 .. (2003). A. Elham Ahmadnezhad. Sage publication. (2003).Creswell.

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