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Content of this Presentation
I. Background Information on Rio+20
Why Rio+20 is important
II. The Concept of Sustainable Development
Definition of SD
Principal Objectives & Pillars of SD Indicators & Measures of SD
III. The Concept of Green Economy
Why does Timor-Leste need to adopt a Green Economy approach? What are the current pressures for Timor-Leste’s sustainable future? Alleviating Poverty through Sustainable Development
IV. Strategies towards SD and Timor-Leste’s Development Pathway What is National Sustainable Development Strategies and its principles? TL’s Development Pathway Conceptual Framework for SD Key Sectors involved in promoting SD Steps taken in TL towards SD TL’s challenges and advantages to achieve SD V. The Way Forward Group Discussion
What today is about ?
Timor-Leste is attending Rio+20 in June 2012 Interviews with stakeholders are completed A Final Stocktaking Report will be developed based on
interviews and this consultation The outcomes of this preliminary workshop will feed into the Final Report The Final Report will be submitted to the Rio+20 conference New opportunities for Timor-Leste to access technical and financial support for SD
Background Information Since 1972. United Nations .Millennium Summit. every 10 years the United Nations facilitates world high level conferences on environment and human development and how to achieve both of them at the same time (without one damaging the other). 172 Heads of State gathered to talk about how to reduce environmental degradation while increasing human wellbeing Island Development States (SIDS) countries “rapidly & in fully” by 2015 require int. 2000 special needs for Small World Summit on SD in 2002. each government of SIDS have to take the lead in the path towards SD in their countries. United Nations – Conference on SD 1992 & Rio+20. highlighted SIDS are special case & . support.
Why Rio+20 is important? While in the last decade. . services…) The Environment has been degraded. 60% of the World Ecosystems are now degraded (put images and find example).g. child mortality. infrastructure. while many improvements in human wellbeing have been made (e. In many countries of the world the environmental degradation is leading to increased poverty.
and the idea of limitations imposed by the state of technology and social organization on the environment's ability to meet present and future needs.Definition of SD The most often-quoted definition of sustainable development is: the development that ‘‘ meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs’’ It contains within it two key concepts: the concept of 'needs'." . in particular the essential needs of the world's poor. to which overriding priority should be given.
..Sustainability is about. Protecting Nature and managing it sustainably Thinking long-term Understanding systems within which we live Recognizing the limits Taking-up creativity Principles .
Pillars of SD Environment Economic Social .
Main Objectives of SD Securing economic development Ensuring social equity and justice Protecting the environment Preserving & managing natural resources in a sustainable way Avoiding unsustainable patterns of consumption & production Alleviating poverty Achieving MDGs 1 & 7 .
psychological.Introducing SD Indicators Few examples of the indexes that integrated environmental sustainability and human wellbeing into account: (1) Gross National Happiness (GNH): ‘Bhutan Example’ Economic Wellness: Environmental Wellness Physical Wellness: Mental Wellness: Workplace Wellness: Social Wellness Political Wellness = Quality of life. material & spiritual wellbeing • • • • Four pillars of GNH The promotion of equitable & sustainable socio-economic development Preservation and promotion of cultural values Conservation of the natural environment Establishment of good governance .
comparative example of few countries) (3) Happy Planet Index (HPI): an index of human wellbeing & environmental impact.) (2) Ecological Footprint (EF): Human consumption of natural resources with earth’s ecological capacity to regenerate them. Measured by Gross Domestic Product & Human Development Index. (explanatory picture.Introducing SD Indicators (cont. (who uses it? And some examples) .
flood protection. water treatment. building materials.What is a ‘Green Economy’ Definition: Public and private investments that: Reduce pollution Energy efficient Resource efficient Protect Biodiversity Enhance Ecosystems services (food. Promote Social equity .
Green Jobs creation .What can governments do to enable a Green Economy? Increase government expenditure on sustainable development “Green procurement” by the government (stimulate demand for green products and services) Use of taxation instruments such as levies on pollution A legal framework that facilitates green economy activity and regulates harmful forms of production and consumption is also necessary.
city management. . and transport planning going back as far as the 1960s. businesses and municipalities. the average green area per person increased from 1 km² to over 50 km². In Brazil. pollution and reduction of public space (that have high economic costs) At the same time.Examples of Green Economy Success Stories (I) Sustainable urban planning in Brazil: Curitiba Rapid growth of urban areas presents both environmental and socioeconomic challenges to residents. the population density in the city has increased three-fold from 1970 to 2008 but through its innovative approaches in urban planning. Curitiba has been able to grow in population without experiencing typical congestion.
Examples of Green Economy Success Stories (II) Solar Energy in Barbados Barbados’ overreliance on imported fossil fuels has become one of the island’s major environmental concerns. The Barbadian government’s National Strategic Plan of Barbados for 2006-25 is designed to rectify this dependency by increasing the country’s renewable energy supply. Solar water heaters are now a widely used renewable energy technology in Barbados. with installations in nearly half of the island’s dwelling units. with a particular focus on raising the number of household solar water heaters by 50 per cent by 2025. .
targeted policies have significantly increased the recycling rate while creating thousands of jobs in an endeavour to build a Resource Recirculation Society.Examples of Green Economy Success Stories (III) Waste Management in Republic of Korea Waste management and recycling in the Republic of Korea’s has not only reduced waste generation. . Over the past years. but has also encouraged reusing waste as an energy resource.
. the Chinese government has committed itself to producing 16 per cent of its primary energy from renewable sources by 2020.Examples of Green Economy Success Stories (IV) Renewable Energy in China China is taking considerable steps to shift to a low-carbon growth strategy based on the development of renewable energy sources. In addition. with an emphasis on renewable energy and energy efficiency. The outline of 11th Fiveyear Plan (2006-2010) allocated a significant share of investments to green sectors. The Plan projects that the per-unit GDP energy consumption by 2010 should have decreased by 20 per cent compared to 2005.
. or modifying or adapting existing policies and plans.National Sustainable Development Strategies NSDS is an instrument to encourage countries to integrate environmental. economic and social objectives into their decision making processes by either elaborating new policies and strategies for sustainable development.
Principles of NSDS NSDS has five principles: (1) Country ownership & commitment (2) Integrated economic. social and environmental policy across sectors. territories and generations (3) Broad & effective participation (4) Development of necessary capacity &enabling environment (5) Focus on outcomes of implementation .
rural development. petroleum. tourism & private sector investment). (b) (c) . water & sanitation. & telecommunication) Economic Development (agriculture. Does TL’s NDS integrate environmental sustainability filter to all sectors? TL’s NDS defines three different aspects of TL’ development prospect(2011 – 2030). health. social inclusion. These three areas are: (a) Social Capital (education. 2005 BUT a National Development Strategy (NDS) in place. roads. environment & culture & heritage) Infrastructure Development (electricity.TL Development Pathway Currently TL does not have NSDS as required by United Nations Development for Economic & Social Affairs (UN-DESA).
Current Pressures High deforestation rates Climate Change Unemployment Rate Poverty Rapid Urbanization Poor Infrastructure High Population Growth Unsustainable farming practices TimorLeste Land Degradation .
Poverty and Sustainable Development Poverty and hunger still remain as big challenges in TL Poor people heavily rely on the environment for their livelihoods Environmental degradation and unsustainable use of resources can negatively affect the poor people’s lives and lead to increased poverty THEREFORE Environmental laws. policies & regulations should consider those who are heavily dependent on the environment! .
forest products . soil conservation. economic pressures and reforms. -Freedom of choice and action Indirect Drivers of Change -Population.Changes in land use.How can we introduce SD into Timor-Leste’s current development strategy? Human Wellbeing& Poverty Reduction -Basic materials -Security. technology. foreign or hybrid seeds) . agricultural practices (into of. water. science and technology. fertilizers. fuel. climate. -Health. sociopolitical. cultural and religious Natural Resources & Ecosystem services -Food.Climate regulation. air. water catchment Direct Drivers of Change .
Major Sectors to take the lead for SD in Timor-Leste Natural Resources (Minerals. oil and gas) Infrastructure & transport Trade & Economy Finance Tourism & Recreation Key Sectors Energy Urban and rural development and management Agriculture Forestry Fisheries & Biodiversity Instrumental Actors The Government Civil Society Private Sector Donors .
Steps taken so far. 2011-2030 Rio Conventions ratified by the GoTL. Kyoto & Montreal Protocol & Vienna Convention National Adaptation Plan of Action &NBSAP Environment Basic Law has been approved . TL ..National Development Strategy..
agriculture and services … Lack of long term vision Attraction towards short term economic gains and underestimating long term economic and human cost. Introducing environmental sustainability into the government priorities: infrastructure.. Lack of stakeholder’s participation in policy making Institutional problems lack of coordination between stakeholders lack of communication between ministries lack of information sharing lack of human resources ineffective chain of command and distribution of roles Lack of commitment and understanding of the importance of SD for human wellbeing and poverty reduction ..Structural Challenges.
Does Timor-Leste have advantages? TL is a biodiversity hotspot and has relatively pristine natural resources Petroleum Fund which could finance the transition A new country and has the chance to integrate SD into its strategic plan Has the opportunity to take lessons learned by other countries Has the chance of adopting existing technologies Can have a leading role encouraging SD among the fragile developing states As a developing county. TL can benefit from the existing aid agencies and can apply for and utilize external funding for implementing SD projects Can act as a model for other countries in the region .
Timor-Leste’s Vision “OUR NATION OUR FUTURE” .
The Way Forward.. Group Discussion Trade and Economy Natural Resources Finance Thematic Groups Infrastructure Transport Energy Rural and Urban Development Tourism Agriculture Forestry Fisheries Biodiversity .
Discussion Themes Successes and Failures How can we upscale good practices that are already working in TL What are the entry points and potential areas to invest and improve SD practices Recommendations .
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