Set Theory
Dr. Mohammed Gulam ahamad
Why Study Set Theory?
Understanding set theory helps people to
…
see things in terms of systems
organize things into groups
begin to understand logic
Dr. Mohammed Gulam ahamad
Dr. Mohammed Gulam ahamad
Key Mathematicians
These mathematicians influenced the
development of set theory and logic:
Georg Cantor
John Venn
George Boole
Augustus DeMorgan
Dr. Mohammed Gulam ahamad
Georg Cantor 1845 1918
developed set
theory
set theory was not
initially accepted
because it was
radically different
set theory today is
widely accepted
and is used in
many areas of
mathematics
Dr. Mohammed Gulam ahamad
…Cantor
the concept of infinity was expanded by
Cantor’s set theory
Cantor proved there are “levels of infinity”
an infinitude of integers initially ending
with e or
an infinitude of real numbers exist
between 1 and 2;
there are more real numbers than there are
integers…
0
×
Dr. Mohammed Gulam ahamad
John Venn 18341923
studied and taught
logic and probability
theory
articulated Boole’s
algebra of logic
devised a simple way
to diagram set
operations (Venn
Diagrams)
Dr. Mohammed Gulam ahamad
George Boole 18151864
selftaught
mathematician with an
interest in logic
developed an algebra of
logic (Boolean Algebra)
featured the operators
– and
– or
– not
– nor (exclusive or)
Dr. Mohammed Gulam ahamad
Augustus De Morgan 18061871
developed two laws of
negation
interested, like other
mathematicians, in
using mathematics to
demonstrate logic
furthered Boole’s work
of incorporating logic
and mathematics
formally stated the laws
of set theory
Dr. Mohammed Gulam ahamad
Basic Set Theory Definitions
A set is a collection of elements
An element is an object contained in a set
If every element of Set A is also contained
in Set B, then Set A is a subset of Set B
– A is a proper subset of B if B has more
elements than A does
The universal set contains all of the
elements relevant to a given discussion
Dr. Mohammed Gulam ahamad
Simple Set Example
the universal set is
a deck of ordinary
playing cards
each card is an
element in the
universal set
some subsets are:
– face cards
– numbered cards
– suits
– poker hands
Dr. Mohammed Gulam ahamad
Set Theory Notation
Symbol Meaning
Upper case designates set name
Lower case designates set elements
{ } enclose elements in set
e or is (or is not) an element of
_ is a subset of (includes equal sets)
c is a proper subset of
. is not a subset of
is a superset of
 or : such that (if a condition is true)
  the cardinality of a set
e
Dr. Mohammed Gulam ahamad
Set Notation: Defining Sets
a set is a collection of objects
sets can be defined two ways:
– by listing each element
– by defining the rules for membership
Examples:
– A = {2,4,6,8,10}
– A = {xx is a positive even integer <12}
Dr. Mohammed Gulam ahamad
Set Notation Elements
an element is a member of a set
notation: e means “is an element of”
e means “is not an element of”
Examples:
– A = {1, 2, 3, 4}
1 e A 6 e A
2 e A z e A
– B = {x  x is an even number s 10}
2 e B 9 e B
4 e B z e B
Dr. Mohammed Gulam ahamad
Subsets
a subset exists when a set’s members are
also contained in another set
notation:
_ means “is a subset of”
c means “is a proper subset of”
. means “is not a subset of”
Dr. Mohammed Gulam ahamad
Subset Relationships
A = {x  x is a positive integer s 8}
set A contains: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
B = {x  x is a positive even integer < 10}
set B contains: 2, 4, 6, 8
C = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10}
set C contains: 2, 4, 6, 8, 10
Subset Relationships
A _ A A . B A . C
B c A B _ B B c C
C . A C . B C _ C
Dr. Mohammed Gulam ahamad
Set Equality
Two sets are equal if and only if they contain
precisely the same elements.
The order in which the elements are listed is
unimportant.
Elements may be repeated in set definitions
without increasing the size of the sets.
Examples:
A = {1, 2, 3, 4} B = {1, 4, 2, 3}
A c B and B c A; therefore, A = B and B = A
A = {1, 2, 2, 3, 4, 1, 2} B = {1, 2, 3, 4}
A c B and B c A; therefore, A = B and B = A
Dr. Mohammed Gulam ahamad
Cardinality of Sets
Cardinality refers to the number of
elements in a set
A finite set has a countable number of
elements
An infinite set has at least as many
elements as the set of natural
numbers
notation: A represents the cardinality of
Set A
Dr. Mohammed Gulam ahamad
Finite Set Cardinality
Set Definition Cardinality
A = {x  x is a lower case letter} A = 26
B = {2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7} B = 6
C = {x  x is an even number < 10} C= 4
D = {x  x is an even number s 10} D = 5
Dr. Mohammed Gulam ahamad
Infinite Set Cardinality
Set Definition Cardinality
A = {1, 2, 3, …} A =
B = {x  x is a point on a line} B =
C = {x x is a point in a plane} C =
0 ×
0 ×
1
×
Dr. Mohammed Gulam ahamad
Universal Sets
The universal set is the set of all things
pertinent to to a given discussion
and is designated by the symbol U
Example:
U = {all students at IUPUI}
Some Subsets:
A = {all Computer Technology students}
B = {freshmen students}
C = {sophomore students}
Dr. Mohammed Gulam ahamad
The Empty Set
Any set that contains no elements is
called the empty set
the empty set is a subset of every set
including itself
notation: { } or 
Examples ~ both A and B are empty
A = {x  x is a Chevrolet Mustang}
B = {x  x is a positive number < 0}
Dr. Mohammed Gulam ahamad
The Power Set ( )
The power set is the set of all subsets
that can be created from a given set
The cardinality of the power set is 2 to
the power of the given set’s cardinality
notation: P (set name)
Example:
A = {a, b, c} where A = 3
P (A) = {{a, b}, {a, c}, {b, c}, {a}, {b}, {c}, A, }
and P (A) = 8
In general, if A = n, then P (A)  = 2
n
Dr. Mohammed Gulam ahamad
Special Sets
Z represents the set of integers
– Z
+
is the set of positive integers and
– Z

is the set of negative integers
N represents the set of natural numbers
ℝ represents the set of real numbers
Q represents the set of rational numbers
Dr. Mohammed Gulam ahamad
Venn Diagrams
Venn diagrams show relationships between
sets and their elements
Universal Set
Sets A & B
Dr. Mohammed Gulam ahamad
Venn Diagram Example 1
Set Definition Elements
A = {x  x c Z
+
and x s 8} 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
B = {x  x c Z
+
; x is even and s 10} 2 4 6 8 10
A . B
B . A
Dr. Mohammed Gulam ahamad
Venn Diagram Example 2
Set Definition Elements
A = {x  x c Z
+
and x s 9} 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
B = {x  x c Z
+
; x is even and s 8} 2 4 6 8
A . B
B c A
A B
Dr. Mohammed Gulam ahamad
Venn Diagram Example 3
Set Definition Elements
A = {x  x c Z
+
; x is even and s 10} 2 4 6 8 10
B = x c Z
+
; x is odd and x s 10 } 1 3 5 7 9
A . B
B . A
Dr. Mohammed Gulam ahamad
Venn Diagram Example 4
Set Definition
U = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8}
A = {1, 2, 6, 7}
B = {2, 3, 4, 7}
C = {4, 5, 6, 7}
A = {1, 2, 6, 7}
Dr. Mohammed Gulam ahamad
Venn Diagram Example 5
Set Definition
U = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8}
A = {1, 2, 6, 7}
B = {2, 3, 4, 7}
C = {4, 5, 6, 7}
B = {2, 3, 4, 7}
Dr. Mohammed Gulam ahamad
Venn Diagram Example 6
Set Definition
U = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8}
A = {1, 2, 6, 7}
B = {2, 3, 4, 7}
C = {4, 5, 6, 7}
C = {4, 5, 6, 7}