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Electric Motors
Classification / types
DC Motors
AC Motors
Stepper Motors
Linear motors
Function
Power conversion - electrical into mechanical
Positional actuation electrical signal to position

2
DC Motors
DC Motors
Fundamental characteristics
Basic function
Types and applications
Series
Shunt
Combination
Torque characteristics
Modelling
3
Fundamental characteristics of DC Motors
N
S
Stator
Coils
N
S
S
N
Rotor
Stator
S
N
S
N
N
S
End view
Time 0
N
S
Stator
Coils
N
S
N
Rotor
Stator
S
N
S
N
N
S
S
End view
Time 0+
Shifting magnetic field in rotor causes rotor to be forced to turn
4
Nature of commutation
Power is applied to armature
windings
From V+
Through the +brush
Through the commutator
contacts
Through the armature (rotor)
winding
Through the brush
To V-
Rotation of the armature
moves the commutator,
switching the armature winding
connections
Stator may be permanent or
electromagnet
Rotor
V-
V+
Brush
Assembly
S
S
N
N
N
Stator
Stator
Comutator
V-
V+
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DC motor wiring topologies
P
e
r
c
e
n
t

o
f

r
a
t
e
d

S
p
e
e
d
Percent of Rated Torque
120
S
e
r
i
e
s
C
o
m
p
o
u
n
d
S
h
u
n
t
100
80
60
40
20
0
400 300 200 100
0
S
h
u
n
t

F
i
e
l
d
Series Field
S
h
u
n
t

F
i
e
l
d
Series Field
Shunt
Series
Compound
6
Series Wound DC motors
Armature and field connected in a series circuit.
Apply for high torque loads that do not require precise speed
regulation. Useful for high breakaway torque loads.
locomotives, hoists, cranes, automobile starters
Starting torque
300% to as high as 800% of full load torque.
Load increase results in both armature and field current increase
Therefore torque increases by the square of a current increase.
Speed regulation
Less precise than in shunt motors
Diminished load reduces current in both armature and field
resulting in a greater increase in speed than in shunt motors.
No load results in a very high speed which may destroy the motor.
Small series motors usually have enough internal friction to prevent
high-speed breakdown, but larger motors require external safety
apparatus.
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Shunt wound DC motors
Field coil in parallel (shunt) with the armature.
Current through field coil is independant of the armature.
Result = excellent speed control.
Apply where starting loads are low
fans, blowers, centrifugal pumps, machine tools
Starting torque
125% to 200% full load torque (300 for short periods).
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Compound wound DC motors
Performance is roughly between series-wound and shunt-wound
Moderately high starting torque
Moderate speed control
Inherently controlled no-load speed
safer than a series motor where load may be disconnected
e.g. cranes
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Permanent magnet DC motors
P
e
r
m
a
n
e
n
t

M
a
g
n
e
t
Permanent
magnet
poles
P
e
r
c
e
n
t

o
f

r
a
t
e
d

S
p
e
e
d
Percent of Rated Torque
40
20
0
200 100 0
120
100
80
60
400 300
Permanent
Magnet
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Permanent Magnet DC Motors
Have permanent magnets rather than field windings but with
conventional armatures. Power only to armature.
Short response time
Linear Torque/Speed characteristics similar to shunt wound
motors. Field magnetic flux is constant
Current varies linearly with torque.
Self-braking upon disconnection of electrical power
Need to short + to supply, May need resistance to dissipate heat.
Magnets lose strength over time and are sensitive to heating.
Lower than rated torque.
Not suitable for continuous duty
May have windings built into field magnets to re-magnetize.
Best applications for high torque at low speed intermittent duty.
Servos, power seats, windows, and windshield wipers.
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Modeling DC motors
A linear speed/torque curve
can be used to model DC
motors. This works well for
PM and compound designs
and can be used for control
models for narrow ranges for
the other configurations
Model will assume!
Linearity
Constant thermal
characteristics
No armature inductance
No friction in motor
P
e
r
c
e
n
t

o
f

r
a
t
e
d

S
p
e
e
d
Percent of Rated Torque
120
I
d
e
a
l

l
i
n
e
a
r

m
o
d
e
l
100
80
60
40
20
0
400 300 200 100 0
e
n
No load speed
Stalled rotor
torque
T
s
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DC Motor modeling
+
V
R
Armature
E (back emf)
I
T,e
] / [ A Nm K
t
=
b
E IR V + =
e
e b
K E =
I K T
t
=
Motor equations
From the circuit
e
e
t
K R
K
T
V + =
R
K K
T
K
V
t e t
= e
Substituting the above:
R
V K
T
e
s
=
t
n
K
V
= e
For stalled rotor torque
And no-load speed
T
K K
R
t e
n
|
|
.
|

\
|
=e e
In terms of no-load speed
torque/speed equation is:
2
T
K K
R
T T P
t e
n
|
|
.
|

\
|
= = e e
Power is:
Max power is:
R
V
P
4
2
max
=
] / [ rad Vs K
e
=
Units:
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Application
Use motor voltage and no-load speed to calculate K
t
K
t
= K
e
in SI units
Use stalled rotor torque, V, and K
e
to find R
Note, R varies with speed and cannot be measured at rest
See web download for explanation of K
t
, K
e
:
http://biosystems.okstate.edu/home/mstone/4353/downloads/
Development of Electromotive Force.pdf
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DC motor control H-bridge
Switches control direction
A switches closed for
clockwise
B switches for counter-
clockwise
PWM for speed control
As duty cycle for clockwise
speed
Bs duty cycle for counter-
clockwise speed
Can be configured to brake
Bottom B and A to brake

M
12V
A
A
B
B
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H-Bridge implementation
Elements in box are
available as single IC
Input
Logic
PWM
Direction
Brake
V
supply
M
Ground
H-Bridge Circuit
DC Motor
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Brushless designs
Commutation is done
electronically
Encoder activated switching
Hall effect activated switching
Back EMF driven switching
PM armature
Wound/switched fields
Application
Few wearing parts (bearings)
Capable of high speed
Fractional HP
Servos
Low EMC

+V
Optical Encoder
Armature
+V
Field
Encoder activated switching
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Stepper Motors
Description
Generally a two phase motor
permanent magnet rotor and wound fields
Rotor normally has many poles
200 poles = 1.8 degrees per step
Used primarily for position or velocity control
Typically no position feedback
Torques are managed so that an intended step is always achieved
Accelerations, decelerations and loads must be managed intelligently
Two general types of windings
Unipolar
Bi-polar

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Winding configurations
Bi-polar design
6 wire








Unipolar design
4 wire
N
S
12V
12V
N
S
H-Bridge
12V
H
-
B
r
i
d
g
e
1
2
V
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AC Motors
AC Motors
Fundamental characteristics
Types
Fractional horsepower (single phase)
Integral
Single phase (Cap start Induction run)
Three phase
NEMA Torque characteristics
Modelling

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Fractional horsepower designs
Shaded Pole (low starting torque, simple, cheap)
uses a short circuited coil embedded in face of field to cause one
side of field to be magnetized before the other
Split phase (low starting torque)
Two windings (2-phase), one with high resistance hence different
RL and phase
Centrifugal switch on starting winding
Capacitor Start Induction Run (medium starting torque)
Two windings (2-phases)
Capacitor used on second winding to create leading phase
Centrifugal switch on starting winding
Universal? (intermittent use, brushes!)
DC motor with inductance managed to allow AC operation
Synchronous (clocks, synchronization)
Permanent magnet rotor always in phase with AC

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AC motor model
See Siemens AC motor
info for modeling info.

Rs Ls Lr
Lm (Magnetizing Inductance) Rr
m
m
L f
E
I
t 2
=
E Iw
f
E
~ u
w
I k T u =
E - Magnetizing voltage
Im - Magnetizing current
f - Frequency
T - Torque
Iw - rotor current
u - Magnetic Flux, rotor
2 2
w m s
I I I + =
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AC Motors
Relationship between number of poles and motor synchronous
speed







Squirrel cage motors must operate with some slip .5 to 8% to allow
the rotor to be magnetized.
Actual speed is synchronous speed reduced by the slip.
P
f
N
s
120
=
Poles Synchronous
Speed
(RPM)
2 3600
4 1800
6 1200
100
) % 100 ( slip
N N
s

=
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Squirrel Cage Rotor
Seimens AG, 2002
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Inducing magnetism in the rotor
Difference between
angular velocity of rotor
and angular velocity of
the field magnetism
causes squirrel cage
bars to cut the field
magnetic field inducing
current into squirrel cage
bars.
This current in turn
magnetizes the rotor
Rotor
N S
Difference in
rotation of field
magnetism and
rotor rotation
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Torque/speed curve
%

o
f

F
u
l
l
-
L
o
a
d

T
o
r
q
u
e
% of Synchronous Speed
Slip (Full load)
100 80 60 40 20 0
250
200
150
100
50
0
Breakdown
Torque
Full-Load Torque
Pull-up Torque
Locked rotor
torque
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Typical starting current
%

o
f

F
u
l
l
-
L
o
a
d

C
u
r
r
e
n
t
Time
500
400
300
200
100
0
Full-Load Current
Locked Rotor
(Starting Current)
700
600
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Motor characteristics
Enclosure / frame
Voltage / frequency

3 or 1 phase
Poles / speed
Service factor
Fraction of rated HP that motor can be operated at
Insulation class/ Temp rise
(operating temperature compatible)
NEMA Design A,B,C,D, etc. (Torque curve type)
See next page
Efficiency






60 Hz 50 Hz
115 380
200 400
230 425
460 220/380
575
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NEMA Torque characteristics summarized

NEMA
DESIGN
STARTING
TORQUE
STARTING
CURRENT
BREAK-
DOWN
TORQUE
FULL
LOAD
SLIP
TYPICAL
APPLICATIONS
A Normal High High Low Mach. Tools, Fans
B Normal Normal Normal Normal Same as Design "A"
C High Normal Low Normal
Loaded compressor
Loaded conveyor
D Very high Low ------- High High Punch Press
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NEMA Motor Characteristics
Design Locked
Rotor
Torque
% FL
Pull-up
Torque
% FL
Breakdown
Torque
% FL
Locked
Rotor
Current
% FL
Slip
%
Efficiency
A 70-275 65-190 175-300 NA 0.5-5 Med-High
B
(most
common)
70-275 65-190 175-300

600-700 0.5-5

Med-High

C 200-285 140-195 190-225 600-700 1-5

Med
D 275 NA 275 600-700 5-8

Low
E 74-190 60-140 160-200 800-1000 0.5-3

High
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PWM Variable Frequency Drives
Variable frequency drives use AC to DC converter then a
DC to AC converter (inverter)
Inverter frequency and voltage output can be varied to allow
motor speed to be varied.
Very efficient and cost effective variable speed for 1 HP and up
L1
L3
L2
C
o
n
t
r
o
l

L
o
g
i
c
M
Rectifier Filter Inverter
480V
650 V