This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
,
and Electrical machines
2
WK TOPICS LECT
9 Polyphase System BB
10 Digital Logic Circuits MBI
11 Applications  Digital System MBI
12 Applications – Power Supply,
Transformer, Electric Machines
BB
13 Measurement and
Instrumentation
BB
14 Circuit Disturbance – Noise,
EMI
MBI
15 Other Related Technologies –
IC, Optics, GPS, Acoustic
BB/MBI
Mohammed gulam
Mohammed gulam 3
Mohammed gulam 4
Contents
1. Power Supply
2. Transformer
3. Electric Machines
Mohammed gulam 5
Introduction
Power supply is a group of circuits that
convert ac energy to dc energy.
Two types:
– linear power supply: provides constant
current path between its input and its
load.
 switching power supply: provides
intermittent current path between its
input and its output.
6
Linear Power Supply
Basic components:
1. Rectifier – diode circuit that converts the ac to what is
called a pulsating dc.
2. Filter – circuit that reduces the variations in the output
of the rectifier.
3. Voltage regulator – maintain a constant power supply
output voltage.
Mohammed gulam
Mohammed gulam 7
Rectifier
2 types:
Halfwave rectifier
Fullwave rectifier
Mohammed gulam 8
Halfwave Rectifier
Mohammed gulam 9
Fullwave Rectifier
Mohammed gulam 10
Fullwave Rectifier
Also known as a fullwave bridge rectifier
Mohammed gulam 11
Fullwave Rectifier  operation
Mohammed gulam 12
Filter
V
r
= ripple voltage
Mohammed gulam 13
Basic Capacitive Filter
RC = t
Time constant
Mohammed gulam 14
Filter output
Note: Ripple is minimized for higher values of R
L
or C
F
Mohammed gulam 15
Surge Current
• Surge current can be resolved by incorporating a series
current limiting resistor, R
surge
.
• Current limiting resistor are usually a low resistance, high
wattage component.
• The disadvantage – reduces the output voltage from the
circuit.
Mohammed gulam 16
Filter Output Voltage
V
pk
: peak rectifier output
voltage
V
dc
: average (or dc) value
V
r
: ripple
Example:
Assuming the line
frequency is 60 Hz, the
time between charging
peak for halfwave rectifier,
t = 1/f = 1/60 = 16.7 ms
For fullwave rectifier, the
frequency is 2x60 = 120
Hz. Therefore,
t = 1/120 = 8.33 ms
Mohammed gulam 17
Ripple Voltage
Given by the equation:
C
t I
V
L
r
=
where I
L
= the dc load current
t = the time between charging peaks
C = the capacitance (in Farads)
Mohammed gulam 18
Ripple Voltage
(a) V
r
= (I
L
t)/C = (20mA)(16.7ms)/500µF) = 668 mV
pp
(halfwave rectifier)
(b) V
r
= (I
L
t)/C = (20mA)(8.33ms)/500µF) = 333 mV
pp
(fullwave rectifier)
For example:
19
The fullwave rectifier has approximately half the ripple output
produced by the halfwave rectifier. This is due to the shortened time
period between capacitor charging pulses. Therefore, fullwave rectifier
are typically used in power supplies.
Mohammed gulam
Mohammed gulam 20
Zener Voltage Regulator
Mohammed gulam 21
Zener Reduction of Ripple Voltage
pp pp pp r
S L Z
L Z
out r
mV V V V
R R Z
R Z
V 129 ) 5 . 1 (
51 8 . 4
8 . 4
) 5 . 1 (
51 120 5
120 5
) (
) (
) (
=
+
=
+
=
+
=
Mohammed gulam 22
Putting It All Together
Mohammed gulam 23
Transformer
• Made up of inductors.
• Not electrically connected.
• An ac voltage applied to the primary induces an ac voltage in the secondary.
24
Types of Transformer
Stepup transformer
 provides a secondary voltage that is
greater than the primary voltage.
Stepdown transformer
 provides a secondary voltage that is
less than the primary voltage.
Isolation transformer
 provides a secondary voltage that is equal
to the primary voltage.
 to isolate the power supply electrically from
the power line, which serves as a
protection.
Mohammed gulam
25
Transformer – secondary voltage
The turns ratio of a transformer is equal to the voltage ratio of the component:
) (
) (
1
2
1
2
t v
t v
N
N
=
or
) ( ) (
1
1
2
2
t v
N
N
t v =
For example:
ac ac
V V t v
N
N
t v 30 ) 120 (
4
1
) ( ) (
1
1
2
2
= = =
Mohammed gulam
26
Transformer – secondary current
Assuming the transformer is 100% efficient, then
or
1 2
P P =
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
1 1 2 2
t i t v t i t v =
) (
) (
) (
) (
1
2
1
2
t i
t v
t v
t i =
) ( ) (
1
2
1
2
t i
N
N
t i =
Mohammed gulam
27
Example
Consider the source, transformer, and load shown in the circuit below. Determine
the rms values of the currents and voltages (a) with the switch open and (b) with
the switch closed.
V rms V 110 ) (
1
=
Solution
Voltage applied to the primary,
V rms V
N
N
rms V 22 ) 110 (
5
1
) ( ) (
1
1
2
2
= = =
(a) With the switch open, the secondary current is zero. Hence, the primary
current is also zero.
(b) With the switch closed,
A
R
rms V
rms I
L
2 . 2
10
22 ) (
) (
2
2
= = =
A rms I
N
N
rms I 44 . 0 ) 2 . 2 (
5
1
) ( ) (
2
1
2
1
= = =
Mohammed gulam
Mohammed gulam 28
Transformer Rating
The rating of a transformer is stated
as Volt Ampere (VA) that it can
transform without overheating.
The transformer rating can be
calculated as either V
1
I
1
or V
2
I
2
where I
2
is the full load secondary
current.
Mohammed gulam 29
Impedance Transformation
L
Z =
2
2
I
V
L
Z
N
N
N
N
=

.

\


.

\

1
1
2
1
2
1
I
V
L L
Z
N
N
Z
2
2
1
1
1
'


.

\

= =
I
V
The phasor current and voltage in the secondary are related to the load
impedance by
Then, The impedance seen by the source,
Mohammed gulam 30
Example
Consider the circuit shown below. Find the phasor currents and voltages. Also, find
the power delivered to the load.
Solution
Impedance at the secondary,
O + = ) 20 10 ( j Z
L
Impedance reflected at the primary, O + = +

.

\

=


.

\

= ) 2000 1000 ( ) 20 10 (
1
10
2
2
2
1
'
j j Z
N
N
Z
L L
Total impedance
O + = + + = + = ) 2000 2000 ( 2000 1000 1000
'
1
j j Z R Z
L S
O ° Z = 45 2828
S
Z
Mohammed gulam 31
Example
Primary current and voltage:
O ° Z = 45 2828
S
Z
A
S
S
° ÷ Z =
° Z
° Z
= = 45 3536 . 0
45 2828
0 1000
1
Z
V
I
) 2000 1000 ( 45 3536 . 0
'
1 1
j
L
+ ° ÷ Z = = Z I V
V ° Z = ° Z ° ÷ Z = 43 . 18 6 . 790 ) 43 . 63 2236 ( 45 3536 . 0
Secondary current and voltage:
A
N
N
° ÷ Z = ° ÷ Z

.

\

= = 45 536 . 3 ) 45 3536 . 0 (
1
10
1
2
1
2
I I
V
N
N
° Z = ° Z

.

\

= = 43 . 18 06 . 79 ) 43 . 18 6 . 790 (
10
1
1
1
2
2
V V
O + = ) 2000 1000 (
'
j Z
L
Power delivered to the load:
W R rms I P
L L
51 . 62 ) 10 (
2
536 . 3
) (
2
2
2
= 
.

\

= =
Electric Machines
Motor and Generator
Mohammed gulam 33
Electric Machines
Machines that convert mechanical
energy to and from electric energy.
 Motor convert electrical energy
into rotational mechanical energy
 Generator convert mechanical
energy into electrical energy
Mohammed gulam 34
Electric Motor – Basic construction
Basic components:
1. Stator – stationary part
2. Rotor – rotating part
3. Shaft – coupled the machine to the mechanical
load.
Mohammed gulam 35
Electric Motor
Rotor is rotating inside the
stator and separated by
means of an air gap.
The rotor and stator each
consists of a magnetic
core, some electrical
insulation and the windings
necessary to establish a
magnetic flux.
The windings carry the
electric currents that
generate the magnetic
fields and flow to the
electrical loads.
Mohammed gulam 36
Motor can be divided into
AC Motors
– powered by AC sources which can
either be single phase or three phase.
 most common type is induction motor
and synchronous motor.
DC Motors
– powered by DC sources.
Electric Motor
Mohammed gulam 37
In most types of motor, a given windings can
be classified as field winding or as armature
winding.
Field winding  to set up the magnetic field
required to produce torque.
Armature windings  carry currents that vary
with mechanical load. When the machine is
used as a generator, the output is taken from
the armature windings.
Electric Motor
Mohammed gulam 38
Electric Motor  Basic classification
39
Losses, Power Ratings, and Efficiency
Mohammed gulam
40
Losses, Power Ratings, and Efficiency
The electrical input power P
in
, in watts, supplied by the threephase source is
given by:
u cos 3
rms rms in
I V P =
where V
rms
is the rms value of linetoline voltage, I
rms
is the rms value of line
current and cosu is the power factor.
The mechanical output power P
out
, in watts, is:
m out out
T P e =
where T
out
is the output torque in newtonmeters, and e
m
is the angular speed of
the load in radians per second.
The rotational speed may be given in revolutions per minute denoted by n
m
or
by radian per second denoted by e
m
. These quantities are related by:
60
2t
e × =
m m
n
Mohammed gulam
41
Losses, Power Ratings, and Efficiency
The mechanical output power for a given electric motor is stated in horsepower
(hp). To convert from watts to horsepower, we have
746
watts
horsepower
P
P =
The power rating of a motor is the output power that the motor can safely
produce on a continuous basis. Most motor can supply output power varying
from zero to several times their rated power, depending on the mechanical load.
The power efficiency of a motor is given by:
% 100 × =
in
out
P
P
q
Mohammed gulam
DC Machines
43
DC Machines  Construction
Mohammed gulam
Mohammed gulam 44
DC Machines  Construction
Mohammed gulam 45
DC Machines  Construction
Mohammed gulam 46
DC Motor
• Can be divided into 2 types:
(a) Wound type
– shunt
– series
– compound
(b) Permanent magnet type
Mohammed gulam 47
Characteristics of DC Electrical Motors
Mohammed gulam 48
DC motor
• Shunt wound motor
 field is connected in parallel with the armature
 has good speed regulation
• Series wound motor
 field winding in series with the armature
 very high starting torque and poor speed regulation.
• Compound wound motor
 field winding has both series and shunt components
 offers better starting torque than the shunt motor but
worse speed regulation
Mohammed gulam 49
DC motor
• Permanent magnet
 field windings are replaced by permanent
magnets
 adequate starting torque
 speed regulation somewhat worse than that of
the compound wound motor
Mohammed gulam 50
Speed Control of DC Motors
Vary the voltage supplied to the
armature circuit while holding the
field constant.
Vary the field current while holding
the armature supply voltage
constant.
Insert resistance in series with the
armature circuit.
AC Machines
Mohammed gulam 52
Characteristics of AC Electrical Motors
Mohammed gulam 53
Induction motor
Widely used because of its relative
simplicity in construction
Does not require external electrical
connection to the rotor, thus slips
rings and brushes are not required
Operates at a lower speed than the
synchronous speed
Mohammed gulam 54
Synchronous Speed
For a Ppole machine, the angular velocity of the
field is given by:
2 / P
s
e
e =
This is also known as synchronous angular velocity
The synchronous speed (in rpm) is given by:
P
f
n
s
120
=
55
SquirrelCage Induction Motor
crosssection
conductors in
rotor
photograph
Views of Smokin’ Buckeye motor: rotor, stator and crosssection of stator
Mohammed gulam
Mohammed gulam 56
Selection of Induction Motors
Some of the most important considerations in
selecting an induction motor are:
1. Efficiency
2. Starting torque
3. Pullout torque
4. Power factor
5. Starting current
Mohammed gulam 57
Synchronous Motor
Generation of electrical energy by utility
companies is done almost exclusively with
synchronous machines.
Assuming a constant frequency source,
the speed of a synchronous motor does
not vary with load.
The stator windings of a synchronous
machine are basically the same as those
of an induction machine
Mohammed gulam 58
Synchronous Motor
The synchronous motor can act as a
source of reactive power
Proper use of synchronous motors
can lower energy costs of an
industrial plant by increasing the
power factor
Mohammed gulam 59
Basic SinglePhase Induction Motor
The pulsating flux
produced by the
main winding can be
resolved into two
counterrotating
components
Mohammed gulam 60
Auxiliary Windings
Two windings that are 90° apart
physically and carrying currents 90°
apart in phase produce a rotating
magnetic field.
Singlephase induction motors
contain an auxiliary winding
displaced by 90 electrical degrees
from the main winding.
Mohammed gulam 61
Auxiliary Windings
Mohammed gulam 62
Stepper Motor
• Are used for accurate, repeatable
positioning applications such as read/write
heads of a computer floppy drive or for
moving the head in an inkjet printer
• By controlling the rate at which pulses are
applied to the windings of the stepper
motor, speed can be varied continuously
from a standing stop to a maximum that
depends on the motor and the load.
Mohammed gulam 63
Stepper Motor
Various types:
1. Variablereluctance stepper motor
2. Permanentmagnet stepper motor
3. Hybrid stepper motor
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.