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Power supply, Transformer,

and Electrical machines


2
WK TOPICS LECT
9 Polyphase System BB
10 Digital Logic Circuits MBI
11 Applications - Digital System MBI
12 Applications Power Supply,
Transformer, Electric Machines
BB
13 Measurement and
Instrumentation
BB
14 Circuit Disturbance Noise,
EMI
MBI
15 Other Related Technologies
IC, Optics, GPS, Acoustic
BB/MBI
Mohammed gulam
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Contents
1. Power Supply
2. Transformer
3. Electric Machines

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Introduction
Power supply is a group of circuits that
convert ac energy to dc energy.
Two types:
linear power supply: provides constant
current path between its input and its
load.
- switching power supply: provides
intermittent current path between its
input and its output.
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Linear Power Supply
Basic components:
1. Rectifier diode circuit that converts the ac to what is
called a pulsating dc.
2. Filter circuit that reduces the variations in the output
of the rectifier.
3. Voltage regulator maintain a constant power supply
output voltage.
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Rectifier
2 types:
Half-wave rectifier
Full-wave rectifier
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Half-wave Rectifier
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Full-wave Rectifier
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Full-wave Rectifier
Also known as a full-wave bridge rectifier
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Full-wave Rectifier - operation
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Filter
V
r
= ripple voltage
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Basic Capacitive Filter
RC = t
Time constant
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Filter output
Note: Ripple is minimized for higher values of R
L
or C
F

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Surge Current
Surge current can be resolved by incorporating a series
current limiting resistor, R
surge
.
Current limiting resistor are usually a low resistance, high
wattage component.
The disadvantage reduces the output voltage from the
circuit.
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Filter Output Voltage
V
pk
: peak rectifier output
voltage
V
dc
: average (or dc) value
V
r
: ripple
Example:
Assuming the line
frequency is 60 Hz, the
time between charging
peak for half-wave rectifier,
t = 1/f = 1/60 = 16.7 ms
For full-wave rectifier, the
frequency is 2x60 = 120
Hz. Therefore,
t = 1/120 = 8.33 ms

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Ripple Voltage
Given by the equation:
C
t I
V
L
r
=
where I
L
= the dc load current
t = the time between charging peaks
C = the capacitance (in Farads)

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Ripple Voltage
(a) V
r
= (I
L
t)/C = (20mA)(16.7ms)/500F) = 668 mV
pp
(half-wave rectifier)

(b) V
r
= (I
L
t)/C = (20mA)(8.33ms)/500F) = 333 mV
pp

(full-wave rectifier)

For example:
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The full-wave rectifier has approximately half the ripple output
produced by the half-wave rectifier. This is due to the shortened time
period between capacitor charging pulses. Therefore, full-wave rectifier
are typically used in power supplies.
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Zener Voltage Regulator
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Zener Reduction of Ripple Voltage
pp pp pp r
S L Z
L Z
out r
mV V V V
R R Z
R Z
V 129 ) 5 . 1 (
51 8 . 4
8 . 4
) 5 . 1 (
51 120 5
120 5
) (
) (
) (
=
+
=
+
=
+
=
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Putting It All Together
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Transformer
Made up of inductors.
Not electrically connected.
An ac voltage applied to the primary induces an ac voltage in the secondary.
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Types of Transformer
Step-up transformer
- provides a secondary voltage that is
greater than the primary voltage.
Step-down transformer
- provides a secondary voltage that is
less than the primary voltage.
Isolation transformer
- provides a secondary voltage that is equal
to the primary voltage.
- to isolate the power supply electrically from
the power line, which serves as a
protection.
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25
Transformer secondary voltage
The turns ratio of a transformer is equal to the voltage ratio of the component:
) (
) (
1
2
1
2
t v
t v
N
N
=
or
) ( ) (
1
1
2
2
t v
N
N
t v =
For example:
ac ac
V V t v
N
N
t v 30 ) 120 (
4
1
) ( ) (
1
1
2
2
= = =
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Transformer secondary current
Assuming the transformer is 100% efficient, then
or
1 2
P P =
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
1 1 2 2
t i t v t i t v =
) (
) (
) (
) (
1
2
1
2
t i
t v
t v
t i =
) ( ) (
1
2
1
2
t i
N
N
t i =
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27
Example
Consider the source, transformer, and load shown in the circuit below. Determine
the rms values of the currents and voltages (a) with the switch open and (b) with
the switch closed.
V rms V 110 ) (
1
=
Solution
Voltage applied to the primary,
V rms V
N
N
rms V 22 ) 110 (
5
1
) ( ) (
1
1
2
2
= = =
(a) With the switch open, the secondary current is zero. Hence, the primary
current is also zero.
(b) With the switch closed,
A
R
rms V
rms I
L
2 . 2
10
22 ) (
) (
2
2
= = =
A rms I
N
N
rms I 44 . 0 ) 2 . 2 (
5
1
) ( ) (
2
1
2
1
= = =
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Transformer Rating
The rating of a transformer is stated
as Volt Ampere (VA) that it can
transform without overheating.
The transformer rating can be
calculated as either V
1
I
1
or V
2
I
2

where I
2
is the full load secondary
current.
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Impedance Transformation
L
Z =
2
2
I
V
L
Z
N
N
N
N
=
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
1
1
2
1
2
1
I
V
L L
Z
N
N
Z
2
2
1
1
1
'
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
I
V
The phasor current and voltage in the secondary are related to the load
impedance by
Then, The impedance seen by the source,
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Example
Consider the circuit shown below. Find the phasor currents and voltages. Also, find
the power delivered to the load.
Solution
Impedance at the secondary,
O + = ) 20 10 ( j Z
L
Impedance reflected at the primary, O + = +
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
= ) 2000 1000 ( ) 20 10 (
1
10
2
2
2
1
'
j j Z
N
N
Z
L L
Total impedance
O + = + + = + = ) 2000 2000 ( 2000 1000 1000
'
1
j j Z R Z
L S
O Z = 45 2828
S
Z
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Example
Primary current and voltage:
O Z = 45 2828
S
Z
A
S
S
Z =
Z
Z
= = 45 3536 . 0
45 2828
0 1000
1
Z
V
I
) 2000 1000 ( 45 3536 . 0
'
1 1
j
L
+ Z = = Z I V
V Z = Z Z = 43 . 18 6 . 790 ) 43 . 63 2236 ( 45 3536 . 0
Secondary current and voltage:
A
N
N
Z = Z
|
.
|

\
|
= = 45 536 . 3 ) 45 3536 . 0 (
1
10
1
2
1
2
I I
V
N
N
Z = Z
|
.
|

\
|
= = 43 . 18 06 . 79 ) 43 . 18 6 . 790 (
10
1
1
1
2
2
V V
O + = ) 2000 1000 (
'
j Z
L
Power delivered to the load:
W R rms I P
L L
51 . 62 ) 10 (
2
536 . 3
) (
2
2
2
= |
.
|

\
|
= =
Electric Machines
Motor and Generator
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Electric Machines
Machines that convert mechanical
energy to and from electric energy.
- Motor convert electrical energy
into rotational mechanical energy
- Generator convert mechanical
energy into electrical energy
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Electric Motor Basic construction
Basic components:
1. Stator stationary part
2. Rotor rotating part
3. Shaft coupled the machine to the mechanical
load.
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Electric Motor
Rotor is rotating inside the
stator and separated by
means of an air gap.
The rotor and stator each
consists of a magnetic
core, some electrical
insulation and the windings
necessary to establish a
magnetic flux.
The windings carry the
electric currents that
generate the magnetic
fields and flow to the
electrical loads.
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Motor can be divided into
AC Motors
powered by AC sources which can
either be single phase or three phase.
- most common type is induction motor
and synchronous motor.
DC Motors
powered by DC sources.
Electric Motor
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In most types of motor, a given windings can
be classified as field winding or as armature
winding.
Field winding - to set up the magnetic field
required to produce torque.
Armature windings - carry currents that vary
with mechanical load. When the machine is
used as a generator, the output is taken from
the armature windings.

Electric Motor
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Electric Motor - Basic classification
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Losses, Power Ratings, and Efficiency
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Losses, Power Ratings, and Efficiency
The electrical input power P
in
, in watts, supplied by the three-phase source is
given by:
u cos 3
rms rms in
I V P =
where V
rms
is the rms value of line-to-line voltage, I
rms
is the rms value of line
current and cosu is the power factor.
The mechanical output power P
out
, in watts, is:
m out out
T P e =
where T
out
is the output torque in newton-meters, and e
m
is the angular speed of
the load in radians per second.
The rotational speed may be given in revolutions per minute denoted by n
m
or
by radian per second denoted by e
m
. These quantities are related by:
60
2t
e =
m m
n
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Losses, Power Ratings, and Efficiency
The mechanical output power for a given electric motor is stated in horsepower
(hp). To convert from watts to horsepower, we have
746
watts
horsepower
P
P =
The power rating of a motor is the output power that the motor can safely
produce on a continuous basis. Most motor can supply output power varying
from zero to several times their rated power, depending on the mechanical load.
The power efficiency of a motor is given by:
% 100 =
in
out
P
P
q
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DC Machines
43
DC Machines - Construction
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DC Machines - Construction
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DC Machines - Construction
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DC Motor
Can be divided into 2 types:
(a) Wound type
shunt
series
compound
(b) Permanent magnet type
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Characteristics of DC Electrical Motors
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DC motor
Shunt wound motor
- field is connected in parallel with the armature
- has good speed regulation
Series wound motor
- field winding in series with the armature
- very high starting torque and poor speed regulation.
Compound wound motor
- field winding has both series and shunt components
- offers better starting torque than the shunt motor but
worse speed regulation

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DC motor
Permanent magnet
- field windings are replaced by permanent
magnets
- adequate starting torque
- speed regulation somewhat worse than that of
the compound wound motor
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Speed Control of DC Motors
Vary the voltage supplied to the
armature circuit while holding the
field constant.
Vary the field current while holding
the armature supply voltage
constant.
Insert resistance in series with the
armature circuit.

AC Machines
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Characteristics of AC Electrical Motors
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Induction motor
Widely used because of its relative
simplicity in construction
Does not require external electrical
connection to the rotor, thus slips
rings and brushes are not required
Operates at a lower speed than the
synchronous speed

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Synchronous Speed
For a P-pole machine, the angular velocity of the
field is given by:
2 / P
s
e
e =
This is also known as synchronous angular velocity
The synchronous speed (in rpm) is given by:
P
f
n
s
120
=
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Squirrel-Cage Induction Motor
cross-section
conductors in
rotor
photograph
Views of Smokin Buckeye motor: rotor, stator and cross-section of stator
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Selection of Induction Motors
Some of the most important considerations in
selecting an induction motor are:

1. Efficiency
2. Starting torque
3. Pull-out torque
4. Power factor
5. Starting current
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Synchronous Motor
Generation of electrical energy by utility
companies is done almost exclusively with
synchronous machines.
Assuming a constant frequency source,
the speed of a synchronous motor does
not vary with load.
The stator windings of a synchronous
machine are basically the same as those
of an induction machine

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Synchronous Motor
The synchronous motor can act as a
source of reactive power
Proper use of synchronous motors
can lower energy costs of an
industrial plant by increasing the
power factor
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Basic Single-Phase Induction Motor
The pulsating flux
produced by the
main winding can be
resolved into two
counter-rotating
components
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Auxiliary Windings
Two windings that are 90 apart
physically and carrying currents 90
apart in phase produce a rotating
magnetic field.
Single-phase induction motors
contain an auxiliary winding
displaced by 90 electrical degrees
from the main winding.
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Auxiliary Windings
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Stepper Motor
Are used for accurate, repeatable
positioning applications such as read/write
heads of a computer floppy drive or for
moving the head in an ink-jet printer
By controlling the rate at which pulses are
applied to the windings of the stepper
motor, speed can be varied continuously
from a standing stop to a maximum that
depends on the motor and the load.
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Stepper Motor
Various types:
1. Variable-reluctance stepper motor
2. Permanent-magnet stepper motor
3. Hybrid stepper motor