By… SHAIKH IMRAN 3KB04EC042 Under the guidance of… Prof. M.Y.Patel

 It is an future satellite

which collects solar power in space and then transport it to earth surface.

 SPS will be an electric power plant.  It consist of mainly three segments…

  

Solar energy collector. DC-to-microwave converter. Large antennas.

 Total SPS system is composed of “space segment”

and “ground power receiving site”.

Birth of concept to implementation…
 In 1968: Dr. Peter Glaser introduced the concept of SPS.  In 1970: DOE and NASA examines the SPS concept

 In 1994: United State Air Force conducted the advanced

photovoltaic experiment using a satellite launched in LEO.

 In 2001: NASA states that “we now have the technology to

convert the SUN’s energy at the rate of 42 to56%” and “we can send it to you like a cell phone call where you want it and when you want it, in real time.” and “Japan has also announced to perform additional research and launching an experimental satellite”.
 In 2009: A new company “Space Energy” plans to provide

 Energy demands :

 One of the primary source of power comes from fossil fuel such as oil, coal and natural gas. However, the fossil fuels have two serious factors that prevent them from being used for as a long-term primary power source. 1.One is their limited amount 2.Other is that they emit carbon dioxide, which causes global warming Hence, the demand of SPS is increasing day by day.

Oil and gas liquids scenario :

Global production of oil. Lighter lines are predictions.

 CO2 emissions from fossil fuel:

 CO2 from fossil fuel burning could raise the infrared opacity of the atmosphere enough to warm the Earth. Hence, demand of SPS is increasing day by day as it produce very less CO2 which is harmful for lives on our planet.

 Launch and Transportation:  The SPS is a gigantic space power station of ten thousand

tons orbiting in Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO). Therefore, transportation vehicle for massive materials are required.  For the launch and construction of SPS, the following two vehicles are to be developed . 1. Reusable Transport Vehicle (to LEO where assembly is done) 2. Orbital Transport Vehicle (Lift SPS from LEO to GEO)

 Launch from Ground to LEO:

Two transport systems are considered in the NASA's reference system… 1. Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV): they can lift heavy materials into Low Earth Orbit (LEO) from ground. 2. Personnel Launch Vehicle (PLV): It is medium and light weight launch vehicle.

Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle….

 Transportation from LEO to GEO:

The SPS is considered to be assembled in LEO and transported to GEO by solar electric propulsion orbital transfer vehicles (EOTV).

 Solar Power Generation System:

 High Efficiency Solar Cells: For collection of solar power we need high efficient solar cells. We use CIGS cells as they are lighter in weight.  Solar collector cells converts “solar energy” into “DC electric energy”.

 Microwave Power Transmission from SPS:

Microwave Power Transmission System converts “DC electric energy” into “microwave beam” and this is transmitted to earth using antennas.

A huge phased array antenna with high efficiency must be used in the SPS MPT system. The phased array antenna is necessary for delivering the power beam to a small rectenna target.


One of the concept of SPS is illustrated above with antennas at the bottom

 Target detection and beam control:  Antenna of SPS detect the target rectenna on the ground

surface.  It is important that all of the transmitted microwave power is collected in the rectenna site on the ground. Absorption by the atmosphere is to be less than 2%. So, Accuracies of target detection and beam forming are very important in increasing the beam collection efficiency.  These focused beam are delivered on rectenna.

 Rectennas and ground network:  The SPS system will require a large receiving area with a

rectenna array and the power network connected to the existing power grids on the ground.  The word “rectenna” is formed from “rectifying circuit” and “antenna.”  The rectenna receives microwave energy and converts it to DC electricity.  It can be Dipole,Yagi Uda or parabolic antenna.

Received power at rectenna will be delivered to existing ground network.



 Most important application of SPS is to provide solar

power to earth in form of electric power in massive.
 SPS will help a lot to our industries and huge power

consumption sites to provide 24×7 power in large amount.
 Scientist has also proposed that SPS can also provide

energy to our vehicles.
 SPS can be focused to a desired rectenna to transmit

energy. Hence it can provide energy wherever required.

 SPS will fulfill our power needs when their will be crisis

of energy US research and Japanese research promises that SPS will be capable to provide power wherever it is needed (Island and undeveloped countries) can have their own power station by constructing rectenna and receiving power from SPS.

 SPS will serve up to 56% of solar power to earth

irrespective to day or night, atmosphere.
 As SPS is situated in space it receives intensive sunlight.  Replaces coal and oil with unlimited solar energy.  Produces only limited quantities of CO2, during assembly

and launch.

 Economically, an SPS deployment project would create

many new jobs and contract opportunities for industry, which may have political implications in the country or region which undertakes the project.
 Solar power is abundant therefore SPS will be an ever

delivering power station.

 Maintenance of SPS is expensive and challenging.  Requires a large reduction in launch and in place costs to

compete effectively with ground-based solar.
 Geosynchronous orbit is already in heavy use; could be

endangered by space debris coming from such a large project.
 The size of construction for the rectennas is massive

 Solar power satellites are a realistic possibility for solving

Earth’s future energy needs in an environmentally clean and safe way, as it produce very less CO2.
 More reliable than ground based solar power, as it deliver

energy 10 times more than ground based solar panel.
 SPS systems will be future power producer and suppliers.



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