ME444: Module 3
Velocities, Jacobians and Static
Forces
1
Differentiation of position vectors
t
t Q t t Q
Q
dt
d
V
B B
t
B
Q
B
A
÷ A +
= =
÷ A
) ( ) (
lim
0
We are calculating the derivative of Q
relative to frame B.
Derivative of a vector:
2
Differentiation of position vectors
( ) Q
dt
d
V
B
A
Q
B
A
=
A velocity vector may be described in
terms of any frame:
( ) .
Q
B A
B Q
B
A
V R V =
We may write it:
V V
CORG
U
C
=
Special case: Velocity of the origin of a frame relative to
some understood universe reference frame
3
Example
A fixed universal frame
30 mph
100 mph
.
ˆ
70 ) (
.
ˆ
100 )
ˆ
100 ( ) (
.
ˆ
30
1
1
X R R V R R V R V
X R X R Rv v V
X v V P
dt
d
U
T
U
C CORG
T U
T
C
U CORG
T C
T CORG
T C
U
C
C
U T
C
U T
C
TORG
U C
C CORG
U
CORG
U
U
÷
÷
=÷ = =
= = = =
= = =
Both vehicles
are heeding in X
direction of U
4
Angular velocity vector:
O
Linear velocity attribute of a point
Angular velocity attribute of a body
Since we always attach a frame
to a body we can consider
angular velocity as describing
rational motion of a frame.
5
Angular velocity vector:
describes the rotation of frame {B}relative to {A}
O
B
A
O
B
A
O
Magnitude of
indicates speed of rotation
B
A
O
C
U
C
O =
e
I n the case which there is an
understood reference frame:
direction of
indicates instantaneous axis
of rotation
6
Linear velocity of a rigid body
.
Q
B A
B BORG
A
Q
A
V R V V + =
We wish to describe motion
of {B}relative to frame {A}
R
A
B
I f rotation
is not changing with time:
7
0 = R
A
B
Rotational velocity of a rigid body
Two frames with coincident origins
The orientation of B with
respect to A is changing
in time.
Lets consider that vector
Q is constant as viewed
from B.
B
A
O
Q
B
{A} {B}
0 =
Q
B
V
8
Is perpendicular
to and
Rotational velocity of a rigid body
Q V
t Q
A
B
A
Q
A
B
A A
Q
× O = ÷÷ ÷
A O =
A
)  )( sin  (
 
u
B
A
O
Magnitude of differential
change is:
Q
A
  Q A
Vector cross product
9
Rotational velocity of a rigid body
. Q R V R V
B A
B B
A
Q
B A
B Q
A
× O + =
In general case: Q V V
A
B
A
Q
B A
Q
A
× O + = ) (
10
. Q R V R V V
B A
B B
A
Q
B A
B BORG
A
Q
A
× O + + =
Simultaneous linear and rotational
velocity
11
Motion of the Links of a Robot
At any instant, each link of a robot in motion has some linear and
angular velocity.
Written in frame i
12
Velocity of a Link
Remember that linear velocity is
associated with a point and angular
velocity is associated with a body. Thus:
The velocity of a link means the linear
velocity of the origin of the link frame
and the rotational velocity of the link
13
Velocity Propagation From Link to Link
We can compute the velocities of each
link in order starting from the base.
The velocity of link i+1 will be that of link
i, plus whatever new velocity component
added by joint i+1.
14
Rotational Velocity
Rotational velocities may be added when
both w vectors are written with respect to
the same frame.
Therefore the angular velocity of link i+1
is the same as that of link i plus a new
component caused by rotational velocity
at joint i+1.
15
Velocity Vectors of Neighboring Links
.
ˆ
1
1
1 1 1 +
+
+ + +
+ =
i
i
i
i
i i
i
i
i
Z Ru e e
16
By premultiplying both sides of previous
equation to:
.
ˆ
.
ˆ
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1 1
1 1
1
1
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+ +
+ +
+
+
+ =
+ =
i
i
i i
i i
i i
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
i i
i i
i i
i i
i
Z R
Z R R R R
u e e
u e e
Velocity Propagation From Link to Link
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
+

+
+
.
+
+

1
1
1
1
1
0
0
i
i
i
i
i
Z
u
u
Note that:
R
i
i
1 +
17
Linear Velocity
The linear velocity of the origin of frame
{i+1} is the same as that of the origin of
frame {i} plus a new component caused
by rotational velocity of link i.
18
). (
). (
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
× + =
× + =
i
i
i
i
i
i i
i i
i
i
i
i
i
i
i i
i i
i i
i
P v R v
P v R v R
e
e
Linear Velocity
. Q R V R V V
B A
B B
A
Q
B A
B BORG
A
Q
A
× O + + =
Simultaneous linear and rotational
velocity:
.
1 1 + +
× + =
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
P v v e
By premultiplying both sides of previous
equation to:
R
i
i
1 +
19
.
ˆ
) (
,
1
1
1 1
1
1
1
1
1
1
+
+
+ +
+
+
+
+
+
+
+ × + =
=
i
i
i i
i
i
i
i
i i
i i
i
i
i i
i i
i
Z d P v R v
R
e
e e
For the case that joint i+1 is prismatic:
Prismatic Joints Link
20
Velocity Propagation From Link to Link
Applying those previous equations
successfully from link to link, we can
compute the rotational and linear
velocities of the last link.
21
Example
A 2link manipulator with rotational joints
Calculate the velocity
of the tip of the arm
as a function of joint
rates?
22
Example
Frame assignments for the two link
manipulator
23
.
1 0 0 0
0 1 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 0 1
,
1 0 0 0
0 1 0 0
0 0
0
,
1 0 0 0
0 1 0 0
0 0
0 0
2
2
3
2 2
1 2 2
1
2
1 1
1 1
0
1
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷
=
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷
=
l
T
c s
l s c
T
c s
s c
T
Example
We compute link transformations:
.
ˆ
1
1
1
1
1
1
+
+
+
+
+
+
+ =
i
i
i i
i i
i i
i
Z R u e e
.
ˆ
) (
1
1
1 1
1
1
1
+
+
+ +
+
+
+
+ × + =
i
i
i i
i
i
i
i
i i
i i
i
Z d P v R v
e
24
.
0
0
) ( ,
,
0 0
0
1 0 0
0
0
, 0
0
,
0
0
0
, 0
0
2
1
2 2 2 1
2 1
2 1 2 1 2 1
1 2 1
3
3
2
2
3
3
1 2 1
1 2 1
1 1 2 2
2 2
2
2
2 1
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
(
¸
(
¸
(
¸
(
¸
+
=
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
+ + = =
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷ =
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
+
=
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
u
u
u u u
u
e e
u
u
u
u u
e
u
e
l l c l
s l
l c l
s l
v
c l
s l
l c s
s c
v
v
Example
Link to link transformation
25
.
0
) (
) (
.
1 0 0
0
0
2
1
12 2 12 2 1 1
12 2 12 2 1 1
2 1 12 2 1 1 1
2 1 12 2 1 1 1
3
3 0
3 3
0
12 12
12 12
2
3
1
2
0
1
0
3
(
¸
(
¸
(
¸
(
¸
+
÷ ÷ ÷
=
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
+ +
+ ÷ ÷
= =
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷
= =
u
u
u u u
u u u
c l c l c l
s l s l s l
c l c l
s l s l
v R v
c s
s c
R R R R
Example
Velocities with respect to non
moving base
26
Derivative of a Vector Function
If we have a vector function r which
represents a particle’s position as a
function of time t:
 
(
¸
(
¸
=
=
dt
dr
dt
dr
dt
dr
dt
d
r r r
z
y
x
z y x
r
r
27
Vector Derivatives
We’ve seen how to take a derivative of
a vector vs. A scalar
What about the derivative of a vector
vs. A vector?
28
Jacobian
A Jacobian is a vector derivative with respect
to another vector
If we have f(x), the Jacobian is a matrix of
partial derivatives one partial derivative for
each combination of components of the
vectors
The Jacobian is usually written as j(f,x), but
you can really just think of it as df/dx
29
Jacobian
( )
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
=
N
M M
N
x
f
x
f
x
f
x
f
x
f
x
f
x
f
J
... ...
... ... ... ...
... ...
...
,
1
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
x f
30
Partial Derivatives
The use of the ∂ symbol instead of d for
partial derivatives just implies that it is
a single component in a vector
derivative.
31
Jacobian
. ,
,
,
). ( ), , , , , , (
), , , , , , (
), , , , , , (
6
6
6
2
2
6
1
1
6
6
6
6
2
2
2
2
1
1
2
2
6
6
1
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
6 5 4 3 2 1 6 6
6 5 4 3 2 1 2 2
6 5 4 3 2 1 1 1
X
X
F
Y x
x
f
x
x
f
x
x
f
y
x
x
f
x
x
f
x
x
f
y
x
x
f
x
x
f
x
x
f
y
X F Y x x x x x x f y
x x x x x x f y
x x x x x x f y
o o o o o o
o o o o
o o o o
c
c
=
c
c
+ +
c
c
+
c
c
=
c
c
+ +
c
c
+
c
c
=
c
c
+ +
c
c
+
c
c
=
= =
=
=
J (X)
Chain rule
32
. ) (
. ) (
0
0
0
0
O O =
(
¸
(
¸
=
=
J
v
X X J Y
e
V
In the field of robotics, we generally speak of
Jacobians which relate joint velocities to
Cartesian velocities of the tip of the arm.
Jacobian
33
Jacobian
For a 6 joint robot the Jacobian is 6x6, u
.
is a 6x1 and v is 6x1.
The number of rows in Jacobian is equal
to number of degrees of freedom in
Cartesian space and the number of
columns is equal to the number of joints.
O O =
) (
0 0
J V
34
Jacobian
.
0
) (
) (
2
1
12 2 12 2 1 1
12 2 12 2 1 1
2 1 12 2 1 1 1
2 1 12 2 1 1 1
3
3 0
3 3
0
(
¸
(
¸
(
¸
(
¸
+
÷ ÷ ÷
=
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
+ +
+ ÷ ÷
= =
u
u
u u u
u u u
c l c l c l
s l s l s l
c l c l
s l s l
v R v
In the earlier example we had:
(
¸
(
¸
+
÷ ÷ ÷
= O
12 2 12 2 1 1
12 2 12 2 1 1
0
) (
c l c l c l
s l s l s l
J
Thus:
(
¸
(
¸
+
= O
2 2 2 1
2 1
3
0
) (
l l c l
s l
J
And also:
35
Jacobian
Jacobian might be found by directly
differentiating the kinematic equations of
the mechanism for linear velocity,
however there is no 3x1 orientation vector
whose derivative is rotational velocity.
Thus we get Jacobian using successive
application of:
1
1
1
1
1
1
ˆ
+
+
+
+
+
+
+ =
i
i
i i
i i
i i
i
Z R u e e
) (
1
1
1
1
+
+
+
+
× + =
i
i
i
i
i
i i
i i
i
P v R v e
36
Given a transformation relating joint velocity to
Cartesian velocity then
Is this matrix invertible? ( Is it non singular)
Singularities
gularity non J
ingularity J
sin : 0 ] det[
s : 0 ] det[
÷ =
=
v
J
) (
1
u u
÷

=
O O =
) (
0 0
J V
37
Singularities
Singularities are categorized into two class:
Workspace boundary singularities:
Occur when the manipulator is fully starched or
folded back on itself.
Workspace interior singularities:
Are away from workspace boundary and are
caused by two or more joint axes lining up.
All manipulators have singularity at boundaries of their
workspace. In a singular configuration one or more degree of
freedom is lost. ( movement is impossible )
38
Example
÷ =
= =
+
= O = O
180 , 0
. 0
0
 ) (  )] ( [
2
2 2 1
2 2 2 1
2 1
u
s l l
l l c l
s l
J J DET
Workspace boundary singularities
(
¸
(
¸
+
= O
2 2 2 1
2 1
3
0
) (
l l c l
s l
J
In the earlier example we had:
39
Example
.
,
.
1
) (
2 1
12
2 2
1
2
2 1
12
1
12 2 1 1 12 2 1 1
12 2 12 2
2 2 1
1 0
s l
c
s l
c
s l
c
s l s l c l c l
s l c l
s l l
J
÷ ÷ =
=
(
¸
(
¸
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= O
÷
u
u
As the arm stretches out toward u
2
=0 both
joint rates go to infinity
40
Static Forces in Manipulators
=
=
i
i
n
f
force exerted on link i by link i1
torque exerted on link i by link i1
Force and moments propagation
To solve for joint
torques in static
equilibrium
41
Solve for the joint torques which must be acting
to keep the system in static equilibrium.
Static Forces in Manipulators
0
1 1 1
= × ÷ ÷
+ + + i
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
f P n n
0
1
= ÷
+ i
i
i
i
f f
Summing the force and
setting them equal to zero
Summing the torques about
the origin of frame i
42
.
,
.
,
1 1
1
1
1
1
1
1 1 1
1
i
i
i
i
i
i i
i i
i
i
i i
i i
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
f P n R n
f R f
f P n n
f f
× + =
=
× + =
=
+ +
+
+
+
+
+
+ + +
+
Working down from last link to the base we
formulate the force moment expressions
Static force propagation
from link to link:
Static Forces in Manipulators
I mportant question: What torques
are needed at the joint to balance
reaction forces and moments acting
on the links?
.
ˆ
.
ˆ
i
i T
i
i
i
i
i T
i
i
i
Z f
Z n
=
=
t
t
43
Jacobians in the Force Domain
O · = · o t oX F
Work is the dot product of a vector force or torque and a
vector displacement
O = o o j X
I t can be written as:
.
.
.
0 0
F
F
F F
T
T
T T T T
J
J
J J
=
=
= ÷ O = O
t
t
t o t o
O = o t o
T T
X F
The definition of jacobian is
So we have
44
Cartesian Transformation of
Velocities and Static Forces
(
¸
(
¸
=
ω
v
V
General velocity of a body
General force of a body
6 x 6 transformations map these quantities from one frame
to another.
3 x1 linear velocity
3 x1 angular velocity
(
¸
(
¸
=
N
F
F
3 x1 force vector
3 x1 moment vector
45
Since two frames are rigidly connected
Cartesian Transformation of Velocities
and Static Forces
Where the cross product is
the matrix operator
0
1
=
+

i
u
.
ˆ
1
1
1
1
1
1
+
+
+
+
+
+
+ =
i
i
i i
i i
i i
i
Z R u e e
(5.45)
(
¸
(
¸
(
¸
(
× ÷
¸
=
(
(
¸
(
¸
A
A
A
A
B
A
BORG
A B
A
B
A
B
B
B
B
w
v
R
P R R
w
v
0
¸
(
(
(
¸
(
÷
÷
÷
= ×
0
0
0
x y
x z
y z
p p
p p
p p
P
46
(
¸
(
¸
(
¸
(
¸
× ÷
=
(
¸
(
¸
A
A
A
A
B
A
BORG
A B
A
B
A
B
B
B
B
v
R
P R R v
e e 0
We use the term velocity transformation
Description of velocity in terms of A when given the quantities in B
Cartesian Transformation of Velocities
and Static Forces
A
A
v
A
B B
B
v T v =
(
¸
(
¸
(
¸
(
¸
×
=
(
¸
(
¸
B
B
B
B
A
B
A
B BORG
A A
B
A
A
A
A
v
R
R P R v
e e 0
B
B
v
A
B A
A
v T v =
47
A forcemoment transformation
With similarity to J acobians
Cartesian Transformation of Velocities
and Static Forces
(
¸
(
¸
(
¸
(
¸
×
=
(
(
¸
(
¸
B
B
B
B
A
B
A
B BORG
A
A
B
A
A
A
A
N
F
R
R P
R
N
F 0
B
B
f
A
B A
A
F T F =
T
v
A
B f
A
B
T T =
48