MELTING RATE OF ICE

AT
ROOM TEMPERATURE
NUR SAFIKAH BT MASURI
NOOR SARAH AKMAL BT ABU BAKAR
NADHRAH BT MURAD

OBJECTIVES
1. To find the melting rate of ice at room
temperature
2. To study the physics concept of lever
system

APPARATUS
Retort Stand
Paper Ring Clip
Force Sensor

Weight
Potentiometer
Comint 2013
Beaker, Long And Small Rods, Long Holder, Ice,
Plastic Cup.

THEORY Force sensor • the longer the position of contact. the higher the voltage • The harder the force. the lower the resistance that resulting in increase of output voltage • can detect location of exerted pressure by applying a voltage across the potentiometer .

the more effort needed to move the object .SYSTEM LEVER • system lever is used and attached to the potentiometer • first system lever is applied • the further the distance between the fulcrum and the load.

MELTING POINT OF ICE • melting point of pure ice is 0℃ or 32 ℉ • particle begin to melt as it gain energy from the surrounding • the temperature does not change until the melting process is complete .

An amount of ice cube is put in a filter tunnel straight up above to the plastic cup. 9. The Java programme was then ran. Take starting reading of the empty plastic cup. . The USB Port of COMINT 2013 was connected to the computer. The apparatus were set up as figure below. Step 3 until 11 were then repeated with changing the hole of long holder to its center and another one-end of it. 6. 5. 7. Next step was the actual experiment of melting rate of ice at room temperature. 8. Calibration process just started by putting some weight to compare measurement known value of mass and voltage. The long and small rod was entered into one-end of the hole at long holder. 12. 3. The reading of voltage is taken after each of 5 minutes. 2. 11. The Java programme was started up. The melting of ice were let to flow through by the hole to the plastic cup.PROCEDURES 1. 10. 4.

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275 .232 80 0.DATA COLLECTIONS DATA 1A DISTANCE BETWEEN LOAD AND FULCRUM ( 47.254 120 0.1 ) CM Mass( x ± 1 ) g Voltage( y ± 0.243 100 0.218 60 0.001) V 0 0.190 40 0.5 ± 0.266 140 0.160 20 0.

221 60 0.261 120 0.001) V 0 0.273 140 0.1 ) CM Mass( x ± 1 ) g Voltage( y ± 0.247 100 0.152 40 0.236 80 0. 021 20 0.5 ± 0.286 .DATA 2A DISTANCE BETWEEN LOAD AND FULCRUM ( 43.

179 100 0.091 40 0.DATA 3A DISTANCE BETWEEN LOAD AND FULCRUM ( 39.001) V 0 0.128 60 0.160 80 0.215 140 0.225 .202 120 0.5 ± 0.1 ) CM Mass( x ± 1 ) g Voltage( y ± 0.028 20 0.

059 15 0.175 65 0.DATA COLLECTION FOR MELTING ICE DATA 1B Time ( x ± 1 ) min Voltage( y ± 0.141 50 0.186 70 0.210 .206 80 0.119 40 0.094 30 0.129 45 0.105 35 0.045 10 0.001) V 0 -0.004 5 0.167 60 0.153 55 0.201 75 0.068 20 0.081 25 0.

221 0.046 0.121 0.262 .135 0.177 0.091 0.076 0.236 0.001) V 0.192 0.065 0.157 0.001 0.055 0.253 0.243 0.DATA 2B Time ( x ± 1 ) min 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 Voltage( y ± 0.211 0.

108 45 0.151 55 0.091 40 0.DATA 3B Time ( x ± 1 ) min Voltage( y ± 0.069 35 0.216 80 0.185 65 0.044 30 0.205 75 0.016 15 0.130 50 0.010 10 0.197 70 0.230 .004 5 0.036 25 0.018 20 0.001) V 0 0.167 60 0.

015 40 0.001) V 0 -0.043 60 0.015 20 0.057 80 0.079 120 0.DATA ANALYSIS ( AFTER CALIBRATION ) DATA 1C Mass( x ± 1 ) g Voltage( y ± 0.091 140 0.100 .068 100 0.

083 20 0.157 120 0.182 .048 40 0.DATA 2C Mass( x ± 1 ) g Voltage( y ± 0.117 60 0.132 80 0.169 140 0.143 100 0.001) V 0 -0.

119 100 0.165 .031 40 0.142 120 0.155 140 0.068 60 0.032 20 0.DATA 3C Mass( x ± 1 ) g Voltage( y ± 0.100 80 0.001) V 0 -0.

10 45 17.10 35 14.70 30 13.10 5 5.30 15 8.50 20 10.10 25 11.60 50 19.01 ) g 0 0.60 10 7.MELTING RATE OF ICE ( CALIBRATION ) DATA 1D Time ( x ± 1 ) min Mass( y ± 0.10 .80 40 16.

53 10 36.01 ) g 0 0.87 50 127.53 5 30.DATA 2D Time ( x ± 1 ) min Mass( y ± 0.53 25 60.53 45 117.53 15 43.20 20 50.53 35 89.87 40 104.53 30 80.86 .

59 10 12.92 5 7.69 20 27.00 35 69.00 .15 15 13.85 40 82.54 25 34.DATA 3D Time ( x ± 1 ) min Mass( y ± 0.85 50 116.00 30 53.01 ) g 0 2.92 45 99.

• the change of voltage per mass for graph 1 is the highest and graph 3 is the lowest (follow the theory) .1)cm and the last part is( 39.5±0.5±0.1)cm.DISCUSSION • 3 different parts which is depends on distance fulcrum and load.5±0. • The distance between load and force at the first part is ( 47. second part is ( 43.1)cm.

0001536) V/G Y = (0.01285) V (11.0015 ±0.0002±0.0013 ±0.03073) V (28.0004±0.008 ±7.84E-4%) GRAPH 3 M =( 0.0003673) V/G Y = (0.873% ) (1539%) GRAPH 2 M =( 0.663E-5) V/G Y = (0.0002±0.GRAPH 1 M = ( 0.006412) V (9.82% ) (1.252% ) (7713%) .

6544 PART 2 : 2.GRAPH MASS VERSUS TIME FOR EACH PARTS TO FIND THE MELTING RATE.127 .2596 PART 3 : 1.6036 PART 3 : 4.5384 PART 2 : 2.4316 PART 3 : 2.7704 PART 2 : 2.263 >>WHEN T = (30±1)MIN PART 1 : 0. THE GRADIENT BY USING MATHEMATICIAN METHOD.695 >>WHEN T = (50±1)MIN PART 1 : 0. FROM CALCULATION…… >>WHEN T= (10±1)MIN PART 1 : 0.

THEORY THE GRAPH FOR MELTING RATE SHOULD BE CURVE AS SHOWN BELOW .

GRAPH PART 1 .

GRAPH PART 2 .

GRAPH PART 3 .

PROBLEMS • the designing of the system lever might be imperfect set up. . • the sensitivity of the supplied force sensor is quite low (measure the mass only between 100g-10kg).

PRECAUTION • Use another force sensor that more sensitivity • Designing the experiment more systematic • Take more result to get the best average .

6036 ±0.1270 ±0.0001 ) g/min • When t = (30±1)min Part 1 : ( 0.0001 ) g/min • When t = (50±1)min Part 1 : ( 0.7704 ±0.0001 ) g/min Part 3 : ( 2.0001 ) g/min Part 3 : ( 1.0001 ) g/min .2630 ±0.4316 ±0.0001 ) g/min Part 2 : ( 2.0001 ) g/min Part 2 : ( 2.0001 ) g/min Part 3 : ( 4.CONCLUSION • The melting rate of ice at room temperature(27º) are not constant.5384 ±0.6950 ±0. It is depends on time. • When t = (10±1)min Part 1 : ( 0.0001 ) g/min Part 2 : ( 2.6544 ±0.2596 ±0.

252% ) y = (0.01285) V (7713%) . the more output voltage will the detected by force sensor.008 ±7.0002±0.84e-4%) • Graph 3 m =( 0.0015 ±0.0001536) V/g (11. • Graph 1 m =( 0.0013 ±0.82% ) y = (0.0002±0.006412) V (1539%) • Graph 2 m =( 0.0004±0.• The further the distance between fulcrum and load.663e-5) V/g (9.873% ) y = (0.03073) V (1.0003673) V/g (28.

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